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Water has always been an important and
life-sustaining drink to humans and is
essential to the survival of all known
It is a crucial component
of metabolic processes and serves as
a solvent for many bodily solutes.
Water covers 71% of the Earth's
surface, and is vital for all known forms
Sanitation is hygienic means of promoting health
through prevention of human contact with hazards of
Formulation and application of measures designed to
protect public health.
Sanitation is not a new concept in India. Since ancient
times, importance was attached to cleanliness and
resultantly, there evolved systems of sanitation and
What if we drink unclean water and
Drinking water can become contaminated at the original water source, during treatment, or
during distribution to the home.
There are people who are dying horrific deaths due to limited or zero access to clean drinking
Water supply and sanitation is a state responsibility under the Indian constitution.
Water quality is affected by both point and non-point sources of pollution.
Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate, despite longstanding
efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage.
Poor sanitation, water and hygiene have many other serious repercussions.
Unprotected water sources can easily become contaminated and unfit for drinking.
Some of the women affected by the limited access to toilet facilities confess, the only solution
available is to ensure that their need to use a toilet is reduced as far as possible.
The lack of sanitation facilities compounds the trauma of displacement and loss.
For instance, in India a fact finding team found that there were only 22 toilets for 10,000 persons.
Present situation in India..
# Recent evidence indicates that India is heading towards a major sanitation crisis in the coming years.
# India cannot achieve real to safe water and sanitation.
# A direct link exists between water development if majority of its people live in unhealthy and unclean
surroundings due to lack of access, sanitation and, health and nutrition and human wellbeing.
The Government of India initiated in the year 1999 the Total Sanitation Campaign, a community-led
comprehensive program to ensure sanitation facilities in rural areas with broader goal to
eradicate the practice of open defecation.
Clearly the budget has been steadily rising over the years, barring 2003-2004 and 2009-2010.
Such regular funding without targets being met can be one reason there is a blame game of sorts
The dream was to achieve 100% sanitation coverage in 2012, but the target is revised to 2017.
Total Sanitation Campaign
Safe excreta disposal must be a top priority for India.
Because open defecation has negative externalities, it is everybody’s problem, and requires
The lack of adequate sanitation and safe water has significant negative health impacts including :
Vomiting or diarrhea
A sick stomach
Cancer (Some kinds of cancer, like leukemia, can happen after drinking bad water for a long
period of time)
Reproductive problems (Some kinds of reproductive problems, like infertility, can happen
after drinking polluted water for a long period of time)
Developmental problems (Some kinds of learning disabilities can happen after drinking dirty
water for a long period of time)
It even causes infections in the bladder.
Steps to follow
Prior to planning water supply and sanitation projects
Adopt Appropriate Technologies and Delivery Systems
Inform and Educate Poor Communities
Empower the Poor to Act within and beyond Their Own Communities
Strengthen Capacity, Autonomy, and Accountability of Service Providers and Provide Incentives
to Serve the Poor
Protect Water Resources
Open defecation should be strictly prohibited.
Construction permissions should be given only to the people who have proper sanitation facility
in their houses.
Strict laws should be made on digging limited bore wells .
Provide for protection of groundwater sources.
Provide for public notification when drinking water standards are violated.
Improvements in the planning and delivery of services are essential to promote more efficient use
of water resources, but must be complemented by an effective framework for overall water
Supporting small –scale enterpreneurs.
In any sanitation program, technologies may be identified as appropriate but if application does
not involve information, training of community members and mobilization, the project will be a
It is possible only when they understand the consequences of the unsanitary conditions they
have that they will be willing to change their habits
It is estimated that by 2020 India will become a water stressed nation, so government should take
proper measures in providing clean drinking water .