Requiem

2,736 views
2,622 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,736
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,446
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Requiem

  1. 1. COMPILED BY : Diya Sarkar Tulika Basak Ruchi Kumari Shuvra Shekhar Roy Shuchishloka Chakraborty (SCHOOL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY KIIT UNIVERSITY – BHUBANESWAR)
  2. 2. “Agriculture is the BACKBONE of India”Period Growth in Total GDP Growth in Agriculture & Allied Sector GDP 2007-08 9.3 5.8 2008-09 6.7 0.1 2009-10 8.6 0.8 2010-11 9.3 7.9 2011-12 6.2 3.6 2012-13 5.0 1.8 Growth in Total GDP & that in the GDP of agriculture &allied sectors at 2004-05 prices (in percent) Year GCF GDP GCF as a % of GDP 2005-06 86604 594487 14.6 2006-07 92057 619190 14.9 2007-08 105741 655080 16.1 2008-09 127127 655689 19.4 2009-10 133162 660987 20.1 2010-11 131224 713477 18.4 2011-12 146578 739495 19.8 (Rs. In Crore) India’s Yield < Other countries’ yield India’s paddy yield/hectare is less than Bangladesh , Myanmar and Egypt Total Factor Productivity for Rice INDIA CHINA 2% p.a 6% p.a
  3. 3. Agricultural growth is a concern for policy makers and some 2/3rd of Indians depend on RURAL employment for living Lack of water Drought Flood CROP FAILURES CHALLENGES Traditional and Environmental Issues Economic and Infrastructural instability Jeopardization of environment and economy Poor seed quality Poorly maintained irrigation Lack of good extension services Lack of organised retail and competing buyers 10-20% of the consumer capita is provided to the Indian farmers whereas farmers of developed countries get 64-81% Scientific issues Logistic crunch Increase in cost Price risk Uncertainty OVER REGULATION OF AGRICULTURE
  4. 4. ILLITERACY SOCIO- ECONOMIC BACKWARDNESS SLOW PROGRESS in implementing land reforms inadequate and inefficient FINANCE INCONSISTENCY of Government policy DEBT Average size of land holding is less than 2 hectare Subject to fragmentation Land holdings are overmanned, thus resulting in disguised employment and low productivity Large subsidies are hampering productivity and enhancing investment OVER USE of aquifers Ground water DEPLETION Irrigation infrastructure DETERIORATING INCREASE in subsidized electrical power Farmers depend on MONSOON for irrigation INSUFFICIENT water allocation FARMER SUICIDES
  5. 5. Clamshells Aglime Hydrogel Vesicular – arbuscular mycorrhiza Legumes JEOPARDIZATION OF ENVIRONMENT AND ECONOMY Restoration Techniques Sawdust, Wood chips, composted leaves, Cotton seed meal, peat moss Acidity Hardwood ash, crushed marble, crushed oyster shells, Agricultural lime Alkalinity Household, Livestock, Industrial waste water Collected in Closed Reactors (Anaerobic conditions, pH, Temperature are maintained) Molasses (waste products) from sugarcane industries collected & added(dry molasses MANTHAN –ED into powder form) Specific bacterial cultures( S.oneidiensis) are added , molasses contain sucrose which act as a nutritive medium for bacterial strains (under anaerobic conditions, bacteria will consume molasses using the waste materials as the electron acceptors which will hence get degraded) Downstream processing: Extraction of the treated wastewater after separation of biomass Water channelized to various irrigated lands through canals
  6. 6. Appointment of ag-lawyers, agricultural infrastructure officials & economists by RURAL MANAGEMENT SECTOR Trainer - People from social science background Selection Criteria & Training Methodology Rural Youth Researchers Selection Criteria Minimum 10+2 qualification Language skill to connect with common people, selected from near by agricultural institutes and research panels Training Impart basic English/Hindi language skills, educating them about social ethics, help molding them into compassionate minds to consider the farmer’s problems as their own Developing demonstration and explanatory skills for simplified and efficient understanding Potential Interest Employment generating self- confidence and creating a purposeful motive Execution of feasible research ideas in practical field
  7. 7. Saw dust/Coco Peat + whey enhance the productivity of land • Annual production of 1.2 million tones of chhanna in India • Generates approx. 8 million tones of whey as a by-product • Dumped as waste in water sources causing eutrophication Nutrient lb. per 100 gal of whey Nitrogen(N) 1.22 Phosphorus(P) 0.40 Potassium(K) 1.46 Calcium(C) 0.29 Magnesium(M) 0.05 Sodium(Na) 0.42 Chlorine(Cl) 1.00 NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS of whey proves it beneficiary to use as a carrier material for microorganisms. •Preferable Microorganisms used: Rhizobum, Azotobacter, Azospirillium, Cyanobacterium Whey leaches PO4-3 from rocks PLANTS Good adhesion properties The solution of whey and water should be sprinkled on the ground and not over the foliage WHEY pH = 4.0 - 6.1 •In whey, C:N=20:1 -> allows slow delivery of N2 •Whey : Water = 1:1 should be used, as excess causes environmental degradation and depletion of nutrients CARRIER MATERIALS COCO PEAT – Porous and doesn’t get overwatered easily pH range (5.5-6.5) matches with that of whey Microbes can easily adhere to the carrier material and utilize the nutrients of whey Compressed coco peat is aerated by the addition of liquid whey that makes it moist
  8. 8. Azospirillum Rs 40/kg Phosphobacteria Rs 40/kg Rhizobium Rs 40/kg Azotobacter Rs 40/kg VAM Rs 30/kg EXPENDITURE Capital Investment Operational cost Total estimate for starting a biofertilizer production unit with the capacity of 150 metric tonnes/annum Building including cost of Site Equipment & Apparatus Administrative expenses Miscellaneous expenses Interest on loan and depreciation Travelling expenses Working capital Staff salary Labor Electricity (in lakhs) 12.00 41.00 10.00 2.04 2.50 0.700.50 0.50 0.50 0.26 Total (Variable cost) – Actual Initial Investment – Total Investment – 17.00 70.00 50.00 Cost of Biofertilizers
  9. 9. RURAL MANAGE- MENT SECTOR PANCHAYAT AGRICULTURAL INFRASTUCTURE OFFICIALS AG LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS ECONOMISTS WILLING FARMERS RESEARCHERS AT AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTES RURAL YOUTH POPULATION Forming backbone of the framework and educating the farmers Sowing seeds of advanced methods to reap a lucrative production and yield Farmers giving way to new techniques for better harvest Planning the budget and finance of introducing the technical and scientific reforms Exercising laws to safeguard the economic and social gains of farmers and for proper land acquisition For proper allotment of irrigation, machinery, seeds, fertilizers, storage and transport facilities Bridging the gap between local farmers and people aimed at extending facilities and generating a proper know how of agriculture among them Responsible for allocation of resources and appointment of people at various levels STRUCTURE
  10. 10. Working of the model organization towards a common problem faced by most of the farmers: HYV Seeds & use of GM Crops: Problems faced: Solutions: New technologies lock farmers into buying costly seeds while encouraging resistant weeds and insects and not delivering the promised yields, thereby, increasing the use of weed killers. • Government schemes for first time seed users supplemented with other supplies, wise implementation enabled by Rural Youth Population(RYP) helped by the researchers •Rural credits are required for the purchase of inputs which lands the small farmers into debts and loss of farm land, thereby, increasing the economic rift between poor and rich farmers. •Formation of cooperatives to combine small land-holdings for effective application of new techniques under the supervision of infrastructural officials, equal distribution of profit and resolution any land dispute as under the ag lawyers •Use of HYV seeds by rich farmers results in augmented yield and dropping market prices which risks the survival of small farmers. •Solution 1 is applicable here to prevent farmers from the vagaries of market instability •Change-resistant farmers have high risk of failure and lack dexterity to apply new techniques, believe in traditional practices •generating encouragement and awareness by the RYP and WILLING FARMERS, gaining confidence from the practical demonstration of new techniques •Traditional farmers view GM crops as unnatural and do not believe in manipulating nature. •Nullifying any adverse impacts intended at nature by explanations given by knowledgeable RYPs
  11. 11. Poses the risk of making the land anaerobic if application rates exceed 10,000gal/acre. Cannot be applied where the risk of groundwater or surface water contamination is high. Delay in planting for one week or more after application. CHALLENGES TO PROPOSED SOLUTIONS: Possible difficulties in functioning of the organization: Conceptual risks of using whey as a biofertilizer component: Difficulties in proper funding from government due to the pre-existing but yet non-functional solutions Curbing black market and middlemen activities at infrastructure distribution stage to abide by the egalitarian concept of the organization. Farmers face problems in forming a cooperative that involves the partnership of different castes. The major question that crops up is that who will be the principal beneficiaries and what obligations they have to compensate the losers.
  12. 12. APPENDIX REFERENCE  ORGANIC FARMING :: Biofertilizers Technology - www.agritech.tnau.ac.in  Black Strap Molasses Fertilizer | Agriculture Solutions - www.agriculturesolutions.ca  NATIONAL RURAL LIVLIHOOD MISSION – A CASE STUDY.pptx  Government of India, Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture agricoop.nic.ina

×