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  1. 1. Provide clean drinking water and sanitation solution.
  2. 2.  Population of 9.2 billion where 97 million people lack safe water.  1% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water.  814 million have no sanitation services  Infant mortality rate of 5%  30% live in poverty  In India, diarrhoea alone causes more than 1,600 deaths daily  During the course of the 20th century, global water consumption rose six fold, more than double the rate of population growth. India is expanding by 200 million people every years.  A report by the Indian Urban Development Ministry shows that as many as 4,861 of the 5,161 cities across the country do not have even a partial sewage network.
  3. 3.  While we enter into a 64th year old independent India, Most Indian’s still do not have access to modern sanitation: for example, rural sanitation coverage was estimated to have reached only 21% by 2008 according to the UNICEF/WHO joint monitoring programme. There continue to be a number of innovative efforts to improve sanitation including the community led Total Sanitation Campaign and the monetary rewards under the Nirmal Gram Puraskar. Losses incurred on account of inadequate sanitation were as high as the state incomes ofAndhra Pradesh or Tamil Nadu and were more than Gujarat’s state income in 2006-07.
  4. 4. Domestic:  India’s 1.1 billion people need access to clean drinking water. The demand for drinking water is divided between the urban and rural populations, and comprises about 4-6% of total water demand.  Flush toilets and washing machines, people living in cities tend to lead more water intensive lives.  Population growth is going to accelerate the water crisis in India, especially as more and more people move into the cities and become part of the middle class. Agriculture: •Irrigated agriculture has been fundamental to economic development, but unfortunately caused groundwater depletion. •Due to water pollution in rivers, India draws 80% of its irrigation water from groundwater. •As water scarcity becomes a bigger and bigger problem, rural and farming areas will most likely be hit the hardest. India’s agricultural sector currently uses about 90% of total water resources. Industry •Water is both an important input for many different manufacturing and industrial sectors and used as a coolant for machines, such as textile machines. • Cheap water that can be rapidly pumped from underground aquifers has been a major factor in the success of India’s economic growth Sanitation •Latrine usage is extremely poor in rural areas of the country; only 14% of the rural population has access to a latrine. •Hand washing is also very low, increasing the spread of disease. •Kerala, Manipur, Mizoram and Sikkim are states that are ahead of the rest on rural toilet ownership. States like Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Sikkim and Goa have improved the most in toilet ownership between 2001 and 2011. Also noted is that relatively well-off states like Tamil Nadu and Karnataka actually fall below the national average, with Andhra Pradesh barely doing better.
  5. 5. •In many countries, women are responsible for finding and fetching water for their families. Often the water is contaminated, even deadly. In these instances, they face an impossible choice – certain death without water or possible death from illness. •The sanitation crisis for women can be summed up in one word: ‘dignity.’ •In many countries, it is not acceptable for a woman to relieve herself during the day. They wait hours for nightfall, just to have privacy. This impacts health and puts their safety at risk. About half of all girls worldwide attend schools without toilets. • The lack of privacy causes many girls to drop out when they reach puberty.
  6. 6. •India’s water crisis is predominantly a manmade problem. India’s climate is not particularly dry, nor is it lacking in rivers and groundwater Extremely poor management, unclear laws, government corruption, and industrial and human waste have caused this water supply crunch and rendered what water is available practically useless due to the huge quantity of pollution. MANAGEMENT PROBLEM??? India’s water crisis is predominantly a manmade problem. India’s climate is not particularly dry, nor is it lacking in rivers and groundwater. Extremely poor management, unclear laws, corruption, and industrial and human waste have caused this water supply crunch and rendered what water is available practically useless due to huge quantity of pollution Even Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has warned against over-pumping, but local officials won’t take any action, such as raising electricity tariffs, that would upset the huge farm lobbies.
  7. 7.  The developer shall be required to develop the source for drinking water (excluding ground water) or secure firm commitment from any water supply authority including the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai for meeting the daily minimum water requirement.  Maximum domestic water supply of 90 LPCD of potable water is allowed. Sewage is to be treated to rather high standards and is to be reused for flushing of toilets, gardening and match the shortfall beyond 90 LPCD.  Thus, Mumbai is breaking new ground by becoming the first city in India making sewage water treatment and reuse mandatory for all the HRBs.
  8. 8. The Saqayti standpipe •The Saqayti standpipe is a proposal by Veolia environment in Morocco, billed as a sustainable alternative to open-access fountains, which it says often weigh heavily on the budgets of local authorities •The standpipe works with pre-paid cards that users insert into the metal box. Insert the card, water flows. Remove the card, water stops. •Local authorities can add credit to cards held by poorer households •When this credit runs out, users can top-up their cards at special "social prices". • While the proposal might be a technical one, its consequences are also clearly political: the cards help "create new links between citizens and their local authorities •The standpipe is more than a technology – it can also help engineer new relationships between water users, companies, and local authorities
  9. 9. SINGAPORE NATIONAL WATER AGENCY In just four decades, Singapore has overcome water shortages despite its lack of natural water resources and pollution in its rivers. THE WATER LOOP STRATEGY Four National Taps Provide Water for All Driven by a vision of what it takes to be sustainable in water, Singapore has been investing in research and technology. Today, the nation has built a robust, diversified and sustainable water supply from four different sources known as the Four National Taps (water from local catchment areas, imported water, reclaimed water known as NEWater and desalinated water). -
  10. 10. •As done by TNAU, farmers can cultivate crops which need less water, grow medicinal plants and increase the area under pulses, oilseeds, cotton and vegetables. • This can help them reap maximum benefits Farmers switch to less use of water intensive programme •The main supply line can be made connected to the truck’s tank and hence water can be distributed easily to all households •It is cost efficient and time saver Prevent waiting in long lines to fetch water •A effective and a proper management and execution can only help. 24 hrs supply of fresh water in taps Education •people have begun to dig neighbourhood wells, depleting groundwater even further. •Prior to digging wells, Intensive training and motivation seminars on sanitation and proper cleaning can be conducted through campaigns SOLUTIONS
  11. 11. DESALINATION Two of India's most industrialised states, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat, are the keenest among the lot. Removing salt from seawater to make fresh water TREATING WASTE WATER Desalination, while being a source of fresh water, does nothing to address the challenge of managing those extra million litres of wastewater Recycled water, on the other hand, solves the twin problems in a single shot.
  12. 12. Lack of access to sanitation aggravates and is aggravated by poverty, inequity and poor health •Children miss out opportunities to improve their own lives with dignity and good health •Faecal pollution of drinking-water can lead to a number of diseases, including cholera, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis, shigellosis, Giardiasis, hepatitis and poliomyelitis. •Providing access to sanitation and hygiene interrupts the disease transmission cycle and reduces the incidence of infectious diseases.
  13. 13. HYGIENE EDUCATION •Incoporated in primary schools as a fundamental component of sanitation and water supply programmes •To obtain the full health benefits of sanitation programmes, key issues will need to be •addressed, including: 1.how to change habits and long-held beliefs about hygiene; 2.how to discuss sanitation issues in societies where the topic is unmentionable; and 3.how to achieve the necessary commitment of effort and time. CRITICAL ROLE OF HEALTH &ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONAL: Diagnose and treat Publish and do research: 1.Detect sentinel cases 2.Inspire company based interventions Educate: 1.Patients and families 2.Collegaus and students Advocate Role model
  14. 14. Total sanitation campaign 1. MAJOR PROBLEM :OPEN DEFECAETION. •Makes children sick and stunt their growth •Open defecation is a society’s problem •Govt action is necessary 2.EFFECTS OF TCS •Made children healthier taller and better able to reach their cognitive potential •Reduce infant mortality •Promoted and incentivized latrine use 3. TSC successful because it had its focus in village level incentives 4. Rewards villages where everybody uses latrines. Policy Lesson 1. Improving sanitation – meaning safe excreta disposal – must be a top priority for India. Because open defecation has negative externalities, it is everybody’s problem, and requires government action. Policy Lesson 2. By promoting and incentivizing latrine use, the TSC has had positive initial impacts on children’s health and human capital. Policy Lesson 3. The TSC and clean village prize together are a comparatively very inexpensive way to save babies’ lives. Policy Lesson 4. Villages are a critical level of governance for sanitation intervention. Policy Lesson 5. Incentives to local leaders for outcomes are useful and should be strengthened by both Increasing the monetary incentive and devoting resources to ensure accurate evaluation and adjudication. Policy Lesson 6. The additional benefit of extending effective TSC implementation to remaining Indian children would probably substantially exceed the additional cost. Policy Lesson 7. Achieving total sanitation coverage will require both safeguarding the quality of administrative data – perhaps by providing resources for data sources that bypass bureaucratic interests – and investing in large datasets about health outcomes.
  15. 15. EXISTING PROGRAMMES • JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL URBAN RENEWAL MISSION 1.Aims at encouraging reforms and fast track planned development programmes of identified cities. 2.Focus is on efficiency in urban infrastructure and delivery mechanisms and community participation •NATIONAL RURAL DRINKING WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND SURVELLIENANCE PROGRAMME 1. Launched in February 2005 2. All drinking water sources must be tested at least twice a year for bacteriological contamination and once a year for chemical contamination
  16. 16. LESSONS LEARNT Development by no supply driven approach: Leads to insufficient cost recovery leading to insufficient and proper use of facilities. Decentralization of services: Ineffective financial performance, rigid bureaucacy,low budget hampers centralized services Proper operation and maintenance of sanitation system: Should be viewed as a pure technical issue since they have connections with many institutional and management issues. Incorporate Hygiene behaviour: Hygiene behaviour is a crucial link between sanitation ,water supply and health Neglected school sanitation is a typical indicator that hygiene education is not a priority in schools, especially in poor urban agglomerations and in rural areas. Thus a Need to implement a full prevention package including the hygiene promotion and the use of improved sources of drinking water and sanitation facilities.
  17. 17. CHALLENGES The current system of financing sanitation and clean drinking water is fragmented between the national and state governments which poses several delivery challenges •The increasing demand for water by the rising population has placed a burden on the existing water resources •Socio-economic factors like poverty and caste discrimination among the poor and SCs/STs have led to lower reach of sanitation and clean drinking water among them. •A substantial amount of water is wasted during transportation •Climate changes such as higher temperatures, increase in precipitation, a greater amount of evaporation and a late freezing cycle will also have a negative effect on freshwater sources •Factors such as agricultural and industrial waste, invading exotic species and the creation of dams and water diversions are the primary causes for the disruption of fresh water ecosystems. A lack of political will and budgetary priority: governments have little interest in dealing with sanitation issues. • Poor policy on sanitation at country level. • Fragmented institutional framework: responsibilities for sanitation are fragmented and poorly coordinated among country agencies.
  18. 18. •There is general lack of awareness, especially in the rural areas, about the importance of proper sanitation Inadequate and poorly used resources: scarce financial resources are frequently used inefficiently, such as for improving existing services. Low prestige and recognition: promoting low-cost sanitation and hygiene education has never been popular with politicians and technical staff because such projects carry little prestige. • Inappropriate approaches: frequently, the approach used to provide sanitation services is not in line with local culture, technical limitations or affordability criteria. • Weak demand on sanitation services: ineffective promotion and low public awareness: often both the potential users of sanitation services and those responsible for policy and decision-making are not aware or convinced of the importance of good sanitation for health. • Inequity in service provision: (i) low importance given to women and children and other marginalized groups; (ii) methods/technology ill-suited to context. The low importance given to women and children: women are potential agents of change in hygiene education, and children are the most vulnerable to poor sanitation. • Low involvement of users: sanitation programmes should consider user preferences for affordability, cultural aspects, etc. CHALLENGES CONTINUED......
  19. 19. HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER AND SANITATION In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly recognized access to safe drinking-water and sanitation as a human right The resolution includes various characteristics against which the enjoyment of the right can be assessed: • availability, safety, acceptability, accessibility, affordability, participation, non- discrimination and accountability
  20. 20. APPENDIX 1. http://www.healthissuesindia.co1m/poor- sanitation/ 2. http://www.water.org 3. http://www.indiancag.org/manthan 4. http:// www.unwater.org/documents.html
  21. 21. GROUP INFORMATION: Alisha Siyal Avisha Barange Mudit Tayal Rushali Srivasatava Varsha Dudhoria