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  1. 1. Team: Paanchvi Pass IIT Kharagpur September, 2013 Keshav Ratan Arpan Ahuja Vinayak Anand Abhishek Garg Anurag Ningwal Stepping Stone Enhancing the quality of primary education पाांचवी पास
  2. 2. Stepping stone: Changing the landscape of primary education in India To understand the problems ailing the education sector of the country, we decided to get a first hand experience by visiting some villages in West Bengal. Our travels and research present the following snapshot of the state of primary education in India 2 small classrooms Students sitting on verandah Damaged building Poor attendance Dearth of quality  Over 99% of the 7.95 lakh teachers who appeared for the latest central teacher eligibility test (CTET) failed to clear the exam.  40% of standard five students in rural India cannot solve simple two-digit subtractions.  A survey suggests that 95.2% of schools do not meet the RTE infrastructure  Teacher absence rate in India is about 25% in 2010 Alarming Facts We realized that to cure the primary education of it’s quality ailments we need a holistic approach. In the following pages we have proposed solution to the issues. The framework proposes changes in existing practices and introduces concepts which can revolutionize the primary education in India. We need complete harmony in administration (body), education ideology (mind) and quality of education for children (soul) as it was rightly said; “ Nothing turn out right so long as there is no harmony between body, mind & soul” – Mahatma Gandhi 0 10 20 30 40 Illitrate Below Primary* Primary* % illiteracy Rural Urban Total 28% 72% Girl dropout rate in India, Source( SSA report)*On the basis of age group (Source: SSA report) % dropout % retention
  3. 3. Approach of our solution: a conceptual framework Human, Technology, Infrastructure o Involving Gram panchayat in school management o Making SMC more powerful and responsible o Integrating efforts form top to ground level o Teacher training framework with support of NGOs o Innovative teaching techniques o Curriculum redesigning o Awareness campaign by integrating mid-day meal scheme with MNREGA o Effective integrated measures for special attention groups Universalizing quality education Quality Net enrollment Quality Enhancement Expanding educational reach Institutional mobilization Govt. Bodies Gram Panchayat SMC* Teachers NGOs Institution Political & Ideological framework Economic structure * School Management Committee  M.V. Foundation, Andhra Pradesh  Pratham Mumbai Education Initiative, Maharashtra  Bodh Siksha Samiti, Rajeshthan  Rishi Valley Rural education Centre, Andhra Pradesh  Eklavya, Madhya Pradesh  Centre for education management & development, New Delhi Major NGOs working in field of Education
  4. 4. Converting burden into support Come to school - repeat with teacher - see them solving a few problems - write homework - pack and carry your bag to home: This is the state of classroom teaching in India, which leads to Promotion of rote learning Disadvantage for children not able to learn at home Impediment for overall child development Class distribution in three groups Group1 Students requiring partial attention Group2 Students requiring constant teacher attention Group3 Students requiring very little attention Encourages • Group activity • Interaction and discussion based learning • Bonding transcending social boundaries Focus • On each child according to his needs • Attention on slow learners and learning disabilities • On easy to implement methods of greater classroom learning Reduces • Burden on teacher • Children left behind due to fast teaching speed • Stress on children Proposed Solution Benefits Challenges and mitigation factors Groups based on factors other than learning ability like caste etc. • In teachers interest to distribute groups based on ability as performance and hence teacher’s benefit suffers otherwise. • Empowering SCM to prevent such activities. No interaction between different groups • Periodical reorganization of groups • During activity based learning exercises which require groups, teacher should constitute mixed groups. Classroom Management
  5. 5. Course Curriculum & Content Current curriculum pattern is estranged from practical learning. The methodology has a net result of children acting only as receptors and losing their creativity. Only effort from their side is of memorization and hence both children & parents fail to figure out the utility of education. • Integrating I-V grade curriculum into module wise package combining all subjects • Instead of textbook learning, focus on activity based learning (ABL) and Innovative teaching techniques. • Health, sanitation, livelihood & moral education should be made an integral part of the course curriculum • Transition from government prescribed Minimum levels of learning (MLL) based only on scholastic achievement to both cognitive and non-cognitive attainment. Content driven Objective driven Process driven Teaching philosophy followed over years Issue: Proposed Solution: Implementation Benefits Challenges & Mitigations oCollaboration with NGOs for teacher training, development and distribution of teaching aids like charts, cards, 3D- models etc. oGuidelines for Curriculum at state level & finalization at district level oInstallation of computers and distribution of digital learning material by Government oBetter understanding and retention of lessons oLearn while playing with models makes school an attractive place oImprovement in living standard due to increased awareness about health and sanitation. oHolistic assessment approach ensures quality learning and personality development oEnsuring timely availability, distribution and maintenance of learning material oSchool Management Committee should be made responsible oTraining teachers with traditional mindset oEmploying young & motivated teachers. Further discussed in Teacher Training
  6. 6. Disadvantaged groups like Girl child, socially backward, religious minority and disabled children have high risk of dropping out or not enrolling. Narrow worldview or oppression or just the physical difficulty like in case of disabled children cause high percentage of these groups to fall in “out of school children” category. Encouragement of the girl child to attend school through modification of curriculum, infrastructure, teacher training, pedagogy, classroom activities to take cognizance of the needs and requirements of girl child. Provision of special facilities like transportation and wheelchairs to disabled children and their parents to encourage and incentivize them to attend schools Bringing socially backward and minority classes within the fold of primary education through community involvement and inclusion of relevant activities and topics in curriculum o Use of SMC and village level records to reach out and convince parents by pointing out benefits of education and its impact on betterment of day to day life as well as positive consequences for future o Use of NGOs and programs like Mahila Samakhya – increase status of women in villages and for women empowerment. Change in mindset will automatically lead to increase in attendance of girl child. o By building separate toilets for boys and girls in schools to convince parents to send their daughters school o Vocational courses like stitching for girl child to encourage parents to send girl child to school Implementation and Impact o Providing parents of disabled children with cycles and provision of wheelchairs and tricycles or prosthetic body parts to children as an incentive for parents to send children to school. o Solve the problem of transportation as parents can transport children or children can travel themselves o Change the mindset of parents so that they don’t see their child as a burden by providing the parents with cycles o Forming a committee consisting of religious leaders, community elders for each broad disadvantaged group to encourage parents to send children to school o Marketing campaign featuring film and sports stars of all communities on the lines of polio campaign encouraging parents from backward communities to send their children to school o Removing barriers like bias in classrooms by teacher training and regular inspections of schools along with special measures for different religious communities like dedicated prayer spaces for Muslim children, discussion and celebration of different communities and religions etc. Challenges and mitigation factors •Religious and cultural limitations to education of girl child •Performance of household chores by child disrupted due to education •Prevalence of Madrasa and religious education •Help of community leaders and women leaders to spread awareness for education of girl child •Use of SMC to convey the utility of education to child’s future and present •Bringing religious learning institutes within the ambit of SSA and RTE Special Attention Groups
  7. 7. Out of School Children India has one of the largest population of “out of school children” in the world. These children are either dropouts or have never enrolled due to factors like poverty, lack of access, parental neglect, societal factors etc. It is imperative for the future of the country to bring these children in the fold of primary education. Preference for mid day meal scheme job to parents of our of school children to incentivize the parents to sent their children to school School on wheels for remote areas Tracking and enrolling migrant children in residential or non- residential bridge courses Institutionalizing the work done by NGOs in bridging courses and integrating NGOs to become a partner Flexible school timings in sowing and harvesting seasons Inclusion of topics like farm techniques and animal husbandry to convince the parents about utility of education for day to day activities of the child Stronger enforcement of child labor prevention laws to discourage parents withdrawing their wards from school. Tasking SMC to locate and encourage out of school children within their area to come to school Track Convince Incentivize Make aware Challenges oTracking out of school children especially in case of migration oTime flexibility might not suit teachers and other staff oReaching guardian less and homeless children Mitigation Factors oUse of social mapping and NGOs along with SMC to create record of all migrant children population within a village oProviding residential facilities to teachers for seasons during which flexible timing approach applied. oProviding homeless children with residential bridging courses and residential schools which have to be established in each block 26% 32.50%14.50% 27% Financial problem Working School environment Other Children out of school due to ..
  8. 8. Solving The Teacher Equation The problems which plague the teaching profession in primary schools are one of the most intractable and complex issues that confront the education sector. Most prominent of them are teacher shortages, large scale absenteeism, lack of proper training and no incentive for good performance among others. • Large scale modern teacher training • Innovative ways to hiring new teachers • Empowering local community to tackle absenteeism • Promoting a sense of pride in Teaching profession through ad campaigns •Lack of motivation •Unavailability of manpower. •Lack of oversight •Opposition over performance pay by unions •Incentives and pride in teaching by ad campaigns •Setting up teacher education institutes. •Empowering SMC for oversight Shortage Absenteeism Incentive Training “TEACH INDIA” Campaign State and District committees for training Block Institution for Teacher Education Cluster Resource Center Structural Hierarchy of Training Good Performance : Better Pay o Empowering SMC o Performance based pay to incentivize teachers o Building infrastructure like separate bathrooms for teachers. o Residential quarters for teachers in remote areas o Hiring local teachers to solve problem of commuting o Training experienced teachers to become teacher trainers. o Activity based training of teachers to encourage them to adopt activity based learning techniques o Learning from teacher’s experience and integrating teacher suggestions into training o Training teachers to remove inherent bias regarding caste, sex etc. o Structured use of NGOs in this area o Training of new teachers at two levels- training by experienced teachers of same school along with regular teacher training o Performance based pay – bonus for genuine improvement in children’s learning o Performance assessment – Child’s scholastic achievements, teacher’s integration of training in teaching activity and recommendations of SMC o Surprise tests, all-round development of child, low teacher absenteeism attested by SMC, integration of new techniques in teaching –comprehensive framework to determine bonus for teacher o Overall bonus less than 5% of salary but still shows huge improvement o Hiring of local unqualified teachers and educating them through correspondence courses. o Provision of government scholarships for students willing to become teachers after graduation o Higher pay grade for teaching in rural and remote areas o Hiring of unemployed educated females as teachers solving problem of requirement of female teachers in primary schools as well as utilization of willfully unemployed female workforce Teacher training
  9. 9. Taking education to the family oEmploying mothers of children studying in school as cooks under MNREGA for mid-day meals oAppointment for a period of 2 years after which a new group should be selected oAppointments are made by SMC, considering proper demographic representation oThe mother should be educated about the benefits of education oIn case of an illiterate woman she can be given basic education oA block level committee should be formed to oversee the implementation of the scheme with support of NGOs oThe mother would campaign about the benefits of quality education, and carry the ideas of Right to Education oExpected to strengthen the enrollment drive & regular attendance of children While understanding the problems of primary education we found that lack of awareness and motivation is a key issue. Almost all solutions rest on the premises of awareness. The best way of spreading awareness and implementing the real target can be through mother of the child studying at primary level. We propose linking cooks in mid-day meal scheme to creating awareness. Benefits • Improvement in quality and nutritional value of cooked food • Word of mouth is very strong in village and thus awareness would increase quickly Challenges • Ensuring that mothers carry out campaign • Proper demographic distribution of cooks for effective coverage Mitigation • Incentivize campaign by extra payment if the enrollment and attendance increases • The appointment should be coordinated by block office and school management committee
  10. 10. Functionality of our model District Headquarter Block Office School management committee Non- Government Organization o Distribution and accounting of funds for primary education. o Co-ordinating with Block offices for regular inspections of schools o Mapping all demographic constituents of the block to assess the need of new schools & identify special attention areas o Identification of NGOs active in the region in education field o Responsible for operating a center for quality enhancement# oConstitutes of Principal, Block level officer, member of Panchayat, teachers, parents*, educated village elders, Members of NGO (if available) oResponsible for functionality of school:  Mid-day meal  Teacher absenteeism  Study materials & special needs of children oIncorporating effective and innovative methodologies of teacher training by NGOs o Preparation of digital study material that is suitable for the region oYoung bodies of NGOs can act as community mobilizers or leaders for creating awareness oProcurement & distribution of study materials & support systems for disabled wherever possible *75% members of the SMC from the parents/ guardians. From them 50% will be women. Weaker sections will be represented in the SMC in proportion to their population in the village. Rest one fourth (25%) will be as; (1/3rd local authorities; 1/3rd school teachers; 1/3rd academicians/ students} as per RTE. # Teacher training, preparation of teaching aids, inspection and record maintenance Community Parents Teachers Student NGOs SMC Government Administration A complex net of stakeholder helping each other
  11. 11. Financial Outlay •The provision of having Mothers as cooks will be covered under the financial ambit of MNREGA •This will channelize the funds of MNREGA for overall betterment of society Mid-day meal •The plan of supplying cycles, wheelchairs, prosthetic body parts to family of differently abled children will be financially covered under MP Local Area Development Scheme and existing financial support for these children under RTE and SSA •Hiring of teachers for teaching craft works to girl child can be funded by Ministry of Women & Child development Special attention groups •Funds given to NGOs and SMC for development has to be covered by Ministry of Human Resource & DevelopmentNGOs & SMC •Our ideas for teacher training require re-channelization of funds currently employed for teacher development and remuneration in a better and more effective way •Additional funds required can be sourced by International donor organizations & NGOs Teacher Training & hiring Massive requirement of funds is envisaged for implementation of provisions of RTE. Our model will require limited reorganization of funds allocated to effectuate RTE. In some provisions are beyond the scope of RTE then the funds can be procured as follows.
  12. 12. Reference  Culture and Classroom Reform in India by Prema Clarke  The role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Primary Education: A study of Six NGOs in India by Shanti Jagannathan  The World Bank  Report of the committee on Implementation of the right of the committee on Implementation of The Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education Act,2009 and the resultant revamp of Sarva Shikhsa Abhiyan. Ministry of Human resource and Development  'NALI-KALI' : Innovations in Primary Education in Karnataka  Girls’ education: towards a better future for all Department of International Development  Out of School Children : A collection of case study of good practices adopted by States for different categories of out-of school under AIE component of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan  Educational inequality in rural and urban India by Tushar Agarwal  OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA)