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  • 1. Quality of primary education TEAM DETAILS: BHANUTEJA.S MUKESH.K SRINIVAS.B NITHESH.G LEELAGOPI.P
  • 2. Historical Overview “Free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14” (Constitution, article 45)
  • 3. Education according to tasks to be performed in society; Brahmins: philosophy and religion Kshatriya: warfare Vaishya: trade Shudras were usually deprived of educational advantages
  • 4. Western education system was introduced:  At independence, fewer than 15% of population was literate After independence; expansion of provision of primary education  By 1991, the literacy rate had increased to 52%  Even though enrollment is high, 40% of students drop out before the age of 14 and learning achievement is considered low.
  • 5. •sex •area of residence •wealth quintile Data source: India Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06. Children out of school by:
  • 6. Data source: India DHS 2005-06 Primary school attendance by state and territory
  • 7. Education viewed as an effective tool for bringing social change  The rural education programs continued throughout the 1950’s with support from private institutions  The Rural Development Foundation • A non-governmental organization • Principal goal : promote rural development mainly through education • Principal philosophy : the emphasis on high-quality affordable education for rural children  The calculation of gross enrollment rates difficult and variable in their interpretation  Principal challenge  Providing rapidly its rural population with opportunities to become literate, and develop basic leadership and problem- solving skills
  • 8. Rural School Negative aspects •Resources minimal or non-existent •Lack of adequate room facilities •Short-term economic schools Positive aspects •Openness to new ideas, creativity •“Hunger” and desire to learn and teach •Even small injections of money, volunteers teachers can produce major improvements
  • 9. Urban School Negative aspects •Discourage questioning creativity •An education system focused on exams and marks •Teacher training and education institution standards have declined Some recommendations •Teachers would benefit greatly from training in basic behavioral skills in order to deal with the different types of challenges •Instilling the right type of skills in teachers and implementing an efficient process
  • 10. Successful approaches to educating girls generally involve four kinds of efforts, often in a package: •Make education more affordable •Make education a practical option •Make schools more girl-friendly •Improve education quality What works
  • 11. Private education can be more efficient and cost- effective than publicly education without diluting the quality of education Social class inequalities in access to private education are undesirable and can be addressed through government financing of privately delivered education Increased public funding of private education will not have a deleterious effect on public education
  • 12.  The school facilities, teacher absenteeism, and English medium results suggest that parents send their children to private schools for a good reason  Private school students perform somewhat better than public school students
  • 13. Referencies •“Women in India. How free? How equal?” by Kalyani Menon-Sen, AK Shiva Kumar •“Gender Mainstreaming: Does It Happen in Education in South Asia?” by Chandra Gunawardena and Swarna Jayaweera •“Educating Girls in South Asia: Promising Approaches” by Barbara Herz •“The move to programme-based approaches: an effective partnership for girls’ education?” by Ted Freeman and Goss Gilroy •“Analysis of international education data” by Friedrich Huebler •“Private schooling in India: A New Educational Landscape” •“India Human Development Survey 2005” •http://doc-aea.aide-et-action.org/data/admin/le_contexte_educatif_indien.pdf •http://www.etab.ac-caen.fr/cdgaulle/vielycee/clubhuma/educat.htm •http://www.aujourdhuilinde.com/rechercher.asp?MotsClesTheme=Education