• Mohit Shukla
• Aditya Jain
• Nitin Kumar Singh
• S. Kranthi Kumar
• Arpit Jangid
College: IIT Kanpur
Stepping Stones: Enhancing the quality of primary education
“The Destiny of India is now being shaped into her classrooms”
SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
Over 99 % of the 7.951 lakh teachers who appeared for the latest Central
Teacher Eligibility Test, a benchmark for teacher eligibility, failed to clear
the exam. This is largely due to the outdated B.Ed. System. According to
an NCERT paper, this program is very short and focuses on "rote
memorizing "rather than "teaching for understanding".
Teacher’s ConditionStudent’s Condition
So far the policies on Primary
Education have been Quantity
Oriented which witnessed a major fall
in Quality of Education resulting in
poor skills of students.
CAUSE OF PROBLEMS
• There is tendency to over report expenditures , particularly at
lower level of administration. Thus actual utilization reported for
given fiscal may be higher.
• Nearly 1/4th of fund 2 remain UNUTILIZED !!!!!
Inadequate Budget Under Utilization of Funds
1) Fund Problems The school should be the last expenditure upon which India should be willing to economize.
“Problems are not stop signs , they are guidelines” – Robert H. Schuller
• References provided at the end
• One measure of judging the adequacy of public
spending on education is its ratio to the country’s GDP.
On this count as seen as in fig. below India lags
behind other developing countries like Brazil and
• A significant portion of SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) funds
are set aside for paying salaries to teachers and for
infrastructure leaving little funds for training , innovation and
Mismatch between Spending and Needs
2)System Problems Infrastructure Teachers’ accountability is a Central Issue
•Good physical infrastructure is a basic pre-requisite of a
•According to the present scenario, primary schools require a
substantial budget to be spent at the infrastructural
development of the schools.
•Basic requirements like drinking water, toilets are not
available at many of the schools.
•About 50.9%4 of the schools requires repair works.
•36.2 % of the schools have crowded (multi grade) class
•44.9% of the schools require toilets.
•34.5 % and 34.7% require furniture and drinking water
•Motivation and effort level of Govt. school teachers in
India is a serious problem.
•High level of Teacher Absence(30%) ranging from 15%
to 42% across various states.
•“Good Salary, No Responsibility” Mentality of young
people aspiring to become teacher needs to be
•Teachers are also not properly trained.
Untrained teachers 5- 15.5%
High school or less qualification-12.3%
Teacher's absent on single day Teacher's not teaching
Source : “Teachers’ Absence in India” Journal of the European Economic Association.
WHY THIS PROBLEM ?
counts the lack of
quality education as
one of the 10 factors
holding India back
LACK OF EDUCATION IS ROOT CAUSE OF MANY PROBLEMS
Poor patient literacy
father of crime
“Education is the
weapon we can use
to change the
SOLUTION We introduce a 4 dimension Learn by FUN – Mission
(solution) to the above problem which aims at improving
both quality and quantity of Primary Education
1. Improving Teachers’ Quality “WE NEED TO IMPROVE HOW WE RECRUIT, SUPPORT, EVALUATE & REWARD TEACHERS TO GET THE BEST TEACHING FOR KIDS”
•Research shows that the students who are taught by really good teachers can make as much as 1.5 x worth of progress in a single year.
•We introduce “HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT” in education to improve teachers’ quality, supply, distribution and evaluation system.
A) GO FOR TALENT
We need to draw more talented people into teaching
i) We have to encourage College grads who majored in other, more rigorous subjects and people who have
pursued another career and then decide to share their experience by becoming teachers.
ii) We propose increment in pay scale of teachers.
Identify what makes a good teacher
i) There has been little focus on qualities predicting success in teaching. Having an advanced degree doesn’t
mean someone will perform better in the classroom. Experience doesn’t either.
ii) Communication skills are important for teachers. People who score well on tests like the verbal sections
consistently make good teachers. But overall, school districts can help figure out the puzzle by collecting a lot of
information about the teachers they hire, and then seeing what qualities consistently show up in those who
become successful teachers.
Make Results Count
i) Current evaluation of teachers contains little to show who are outstanding teachers & who are poor performers
ii) Evaluations should take into account student progress, thus recognizing teachers who help low-achieving
iii)Schools should create a feedback loop that recognizes progress, identifies problems, offers help, and measures
results. Evaluations should have consequences. The best teachers should be rewarded, and low performers
should be encouraged to seek other work
Help Teachers Improve
i) Introduce strong programs for new teachers. These include mentoring by an experienced teacher,
opportunities to collaborate with colleagues, and extra resources. These ideas make sense; we need more of
them and we should insist that new teachers get manageable assignments until they’re more experienced.
ii) Effective professional development should be tied to the school’s goals and its curriculum. Data on where
students need additional help, or where teachers need better skills, should determine priorities. Teachers should
be encouraged to work and learn together, so that lessons are implemented. Top teachers should choose their
own enrichment courses, but less effective teachers should be directed to activities to improve their skills.
Learn by Fun Mission
1) Teachers are well trained and motivated.
2) Parents and Children are motivated.
New Teacher Selection Method
i) Teachers’ paychecks are calculated based on how long they’ve been teaching and what degrees they have.
They don’t get paid extra for doing a good job or for taking on a really tough assignment and succeeding. And
schools can’t pay more in fields like math and science, where private sector jobs offer higher salaries.
ii) Reworking teachers’ salaries could help improve quality across the board. A sensible salary structure would
make it easier to attract talented people, encourage teachers to take on tough assignments, reward those who
do an outstanding job, hold on to smart young teachers (who now must wait years to reach peak earnings), and
entice people with hard-to-match skills to consider becoming a teacher
2) An entrance test
to get enrolled in
3) Bachelor of
4) B-Ed course
5) A one year training program
at an NGO after B. Ed that
would require a compulsory
6) Teacher entrance
Teacher level 1
• The major problem in the primary education today is the accountability of the teachers, providing them training at NGO will introduce the teachers about the condition of
primary education in the country and will instill in them the feeling to improve primary education.
• At the NGO training the trainee would teach, take part in NGO activity and would promote primary education.
• Stipend would be provided to the trainee while training at the NGO but they would be required to earn a recommendation from the NGO with respect to the teaching
• In case an applicant is not able to receive a recommendation he would have to extend his training for a year to earn the recommendation.
• The B-Ed program must be improved so that they could produce better human resource for teaching.
• The teacher would be appointed at level 1 and would be promoted on the basis of talent and experience.
( , )Quality f Knowledge Effort
MATHEMATICAL EQUATION – TEACHING QUALITY
Parents as well as children should be motivated for school rather than attracted by incentives.2. Smart Learning
Interactive methods of teaching invoke the curiosity and interest
among the students. Providing interactive tools like puzzles, card
board games, pictorial presentation, learning toys. Learning
process can be made more effective through story telling, role
playing, drama, speaking and listening. Currently teaching process
is traditional and orthodox, which doesn’t give teachers enough
freedom to interpret and implement the course structure,
moreover the course content doesn’t spark interest in the teachers
Entire course structure needs to be revamped making it more
interactive and interesting. Current education system doesn’t
focus on conceptual learning and developing the skill to learn. This
results in lack of interest leading to poor performance of students.
Frequent seminars and sessions will be organized in
order to provide the teachers new methodology of
teaching and to motivate them towards their
contribution to society. These workshops and
sessions will be taken by renowned educationists of
India. In India there are many teachers who want to
learn about teaching methods and techniques to
improve their performance but they don’t get any
help. These sessions will give them exposure and it
will motivate other teachers towards their
Interactive Learning Through Projector
One projector will be provided in each school to show the children different educational
videos and animations .
There will be separate period of video lectures in every class once a day. Hence only
one projector will suffice in a school.
This scheme will provide motivation to teachers to teach with more innovation and
students to learn with more eagerness.
The animation and videos will be developed by NCERT as a part of interactive course
material. Different interns under NIQI (as proposed under system modifications ) will
help in designing these videos.
Projectors will be used for entertainment and social awareness purposes apart from
educational purposes. So this will provide a healthy and regular entertainment which
they can’t afford on their own.
NCERT will release modified
course structure every 5 years
+ interactive tools will be
provided every 3 years.
State Government will incorporate
the topics related to regional
conditions surrounding the
students, to the course structure
provided by the NCERT; thereby
providing students more familiar
topics to study
A teaching manual will be
developed for each class
describing interactive games
and activities for learning the
concepts. This manual will
provide a perfect blend of
theoretical aspects and
For Maths puzzles , toys
operations and pictorial
ads will be provided.
For Language role playing,
drama, group works,
speaking & listening, card
Modernization of course
structure will largely affect the
learning process of students.
They will learn faster and with
Teachers will teach with more
motivation and interest.
Interactive methods will ensure
decrease in drop-out rate.
Learning by doing will provoke
interest in subjects. It will
stimulate creativity and turn
knowledge into skills.
Proper primary education will boost
children’s interest in education
thereby producing more educated
and skilled human resource.
Likewise an educated person will
have more opportunities than a
primary school drop-out.
Socio-economic gaps will be
Educated society will be aware of
their responsibilities and their
rights and hence they will make an
efficient system by actively
participating in the democracy.
3)Urgent Need of NGO’s in the Education Sector
“Government no doubt takes up several welfare programs but most of them do not succeed as they do not reach the targeted group. Due to lack of personal interest
these programs get wasted. However, this is not the case with NGO. These are service oriented people and strive towards the well being of the community at large. Both
government and India NGO need to work in collaboration towards achieving a common vision. NGOs are definitely competent in shaping policies appropriate for primary
The goal of ‘education for all’ cannot
be realized without eliminating girl
child illiteracy. IIMPACT, promoted by
the alumni of IIM Ahmadabad, reaches
out to a large number of girls in rural
and remote areas, complementing the
government’s efforts and working with
village communities to set up learning
centers that are close to home and
provide bridge education that prepares
students for admission in mainstream
schools in Class 6.
Tahmina (photo bove) lives in
Mewat (Haryana). Thanks to
her education, she was able to
help her proud father read and
interpret a legal notice.
PROBLEMS FACED BY NGO’s
Though NGO’s like Teach for India, Avanti Fellow’s etc. are working very fine for upliftment and bringing new
reforms for improving Primary education in India. However there are several factors where there is need to
Focus like :
1) Infrastructure needs.
2) Man power needs.
3) Need for organizational support.
4) Financial constraints.
“If NGOs are to play a policy role in education, two areas that have been neglected will need to be addressed
1) NGO capacity building
2) Organizational development.”
Changes / Solution
• Under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act 2009, one of the
rules for recognition of schools require that the school buildings or other structures or the
grounds are used only for the purposes of education and skill development; However,
NGOs active in rural areas, regions with difficult terrain or in slum clusters do not have the
wherewithal to erect concrete structures to specifically serve as school buildings.
Therefore, a suitable amendment is recommended to rules for recognition of schools with
classes I to VIII, especially those in rural areas, regions with difficult terrain or in slum
clusters. In addition, it is recommended that the Government invite corporate and NRIs to
channelize private investment for infrastructure development for special bridging schools
run by NGOs. This could be in the form of incremental tax incentives offered for Adopt-A-
School programs or similar project funding
A) Amend RTE Act to allow recognition of
special schools run by NGOs
•Most NGOs we surveyed do not avail SSA funding because of the strict eligibility conditions, extensive
red tape and corruption at the grassroots level. A few that do, rely mostly on help in the form of
teaching aids and books. It is recommended that the mode of SSA intervention be changed to place
funds directly in the hands of school authorities. This can be achieved by sanctioning cash- equivalent
credit points to every recognized school in targeted backward districts across the country every year
for a period of five years. The revamped SSA program could be named after a prominent historical
figure to enable a new identity and positive brand recall. To encourage support by the state
administrations/Governments, performance evaluations can be linked to the utilization of SSA credit
notes and there can be state-level awards for highest performing districts.
B) Modify Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
•It is recommended that donors, especially corporate who understand the complexity of running an
organization, appreciate the need for allowing up to 15% of project costs as outlay for overheads and staff
salaries. Also, funding should ideally be long-term, renewable and for a period of not less than three years
Thirdly, although the idea of matching employee contribution is gaining popularity with corporate, it would be
very helpful if, in such modes of donation, a minimum amount is guaranteed each year irrespective of
employee contributions. Fourth, corporate and donor institutions need to look beyond cash and equipment
and examine the possibility of placing on time bound deputations, a few of their employees with partner
NGOs who otherwise lack the ability to offer satisfying careers to marketers, fund-raisers and strategists. And
last but not the least, corporate should avoid dumping old IT hardware, laptops, computers and peripherals
C) Refresh Corporate Funding; no
•NGOs need to evolve in maturity and incorporate practices that strengthen their sustainability and longevity.
The empanelment requirements instituted by donor agencies like Give India and Credibility Alliance are a
starting point in this direction. The Deloitte Center for Leadership & Community has also evolved a maturity
model index to evaluate the capability and impact of NGOs. Increasingly, private and corporate donors are
using various objective parameters as terms of reference before committing funds to various causes. It is
recommended that the Government too, apply a revised set of transparent and objective criteria to approve
NGOs whose donors receive income tax exemptions under section 80G. This would spark off a series of
reforms in the nonprofit sector and allow it to prepare for the massive influx of funds when the Companies
Law is modified to mandate investment of 2 per cent of corporate profits into social responsibility efforts.
D) Incentivize Maturity and Governance
4. System Modifications
A) Attendance of Teachers using finger print machine
•In order to check the fraud attendance management of teachers we will introduce fingerprint technique for
•Attendance would be taken on twice a day and the results would instantly be send to some authority.
•It would ensure the regular presence of teachers at school
•Teachers and students will be evaluated by random checkings as well as predefined annual checking.
•Random checking would evaluate the student’s knowledge and hence the checking authority will grade the school on
a scale of 10.
• Annual checking would involve an OMR based test of the students which would contain questions on all the subjects.
• OMR based test would help collect data from all the schools and hence would maintain a check on the performance
of the school.
B) Evaluation of Teachers and Students
C) Vidyarthi Protshana Yojana
•A scheme to provide monetary prizes /medals/certificates to class toppers (I-III)would motivate the students towards
D) National Internship for Quality Improvement (NIQI)
•Potential and Interested students from different colleges (IIT’s/NIT’s) must be encouraged to support primary
• Students would gain Certificates and Stipend benefit provided by the Govt. , whereas the primary schools would
obtain Human Resource for the development of Education.
•Feedback from such students can be helpful in introducing measures to improve quality and course material of
E) Improving the Teacher Student Ratio
The teacher student ratio in primary schools needs to be increased especially for states like U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand and
West Bengal who have teacher student ratio of 1/45,1/57,1/44,1/39. The required teacher student ratio is at least 1/30.
Therefore the government must select potential students to increase the teacher student ratio. If the government does
not have sufficient funds then it must select adhoc teachers or volunteers for the primary education.
F) Option of Fail.
Present System of passing each &every student has serious flaws. Students do not have fear of failing which has
seriously degraded quality of education. Passing every child is not education. We have to understand that getting
degree is not education but learning and understanding. In short if in extreme case , student is not performing up to
the mark, then he/she must be failed as there is no point in sending him/her to higher class.
Total no of device/
- 1 device/school
- Rs 2000 per
- Rs 900 per class
- Upto class 5 (6
Projector -553350 school
- 1 projector/
- 50 students
- 15000 p.m.
Rs 50*15000 7.5 lakhs
One Time :
BUDGET REQUIRED FOR PROPOSED SOLUTION
One Time Investment Yearly Requirement
•Corruption and carelessness will pose a major
challenge in implementation. It is very difficult to
keep a check on each and every level.
•Developing an entirely new course structure to be
adoptable for different regions of India is quite
•Maintenance of different interactive course
material will be difficult.
•In teacher selection process, credibility of NGO
certificates will be an issue.
•Involvement and promotion of NGOs at such a
large scale may be an obstacle for our proposed
•Attracting quality teachers who are motivated
towards teaching will remain a major problem in
spite of all the efforts.
•The proposed budget may also pose a challenge.
CHALLENGES TO PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
References / Annexures
• 1 Source : ASER Website : www.asercentre.org
• 2 Source : “Release of funds and expenditure - 2011-12”.
http : ssa.nic.in
• 3 Source : Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan Report 2012-13.
• 4 Source : Sarva Siksha Abhiyaan Report 2012-13.
• 5 Source: “Teacher’s Absence in India” – Journal of European Economic
• Others :
*The Right of children to free and compulsory education act- 2009 – MHRD.
* Summary Report – Department of School Education and Literacy.
THANK YOU !