MK-2010
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  • 1. Submitted to: Submitted By:- Shalin Parikh Hitarth Trivedi Aakash Chokshi Dhruv Khambhatta Jainam Shah Ensuring world class civic amenities in urban India Urban India: Problem or opportunity ? 1 Structure: Need / problem in India Current scenario and analysis Proposal Implementation model Resources Impact Monitoring mechanism Challenges and mitigation measures References
  • 2. Population (million) No. Of Cities > 0.1 but < 0.25 295 > 0.25 but < 0.5 91 > 0.5 but < 1 45 >1 45 Total 496 • JnNURM covers only 63 cities with population greater than 1 million. But still large section of population lives in smaller cities. • India will add another 220 million to its urban population between 2010 and 2030. (source: United Nations) So are our metro cities capable to handle migration happening due to huge increase in urban population? Source – Census 2011 2 • Majority of people in rural India after independence and Change in scenario over past 6 decades. Need/Problem in India • Due to liberalisation policy 1991, 31% population lives in Urban area of India and expected increase is 40% by 2030. • Before liberalisation, focus was mainly concentrated on rural areas. • Urban area got attention by introduction of national policy JnNURM.
  • 3. Current trend: Building of new cities • Proposal of 7 new smart cities along Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor. • Need to start from scratch; activities like land acquisition, procurement of highly skilled man power for planning & construction, bringing investments, etc. may lead to problems and induce higher costs. • Planned cities would attract majorly skilled man power and very less unskilled manpower. • Expected migration will not happen. Will building new cities reduce burden of existing cities? • Why can’t we develop 386 small cities with 0.1-0.5 million population with proper infrastructure which would attract investments and generate employment to large section of population. Opportunity to consider it as a fresh clay and mould it according to the need of local economy and citizen’s lifestyle. 3 Need/Problem in India
  • 4. 4 Proposal Clear vision with detailed development plan Preparation of development plan should be made mandatory by state level authorities. Long term vision & planning for socio-economic & infrastructure development for the city. Accountable Governance System Empowerment of Urban local bodies and should be given accountability for planning & building of infrastructure and attract private investments. Local authorities should provide zones for affordable housing, institutional areas, informal markets, etc. Town planning act should be made mandatory for all state to minimize resistance towards land acquisition. Authority should organize annual festival to promote pride & motivate people for community building. Integrated Transport Majority from 386 cities are district headquarters having additional benefit of excellent connectivity through rail and highways. Small cities; majority trips- short and dependency on NMT which can be encouraged and reduce consequences on health and environment. Promotion of Transit oriented congested development with vertical growth along transit corridors.
  • 5. 5 Proposal Lack of basic civic amenities Major problem: Funding and Inadequate revenue Responsibility of providing amenities should be shared by private developers also. E.g. water supply to city is developed on PPP on DBOT model; administrative leakages can be eliminated, wastage of water will be reduced, rain harvesting would increase and thus valuable resources would be used judiciously. Similarly solar power generation, solid waste management, primary health & education should be promoted on PPP model. Thus lucrative schemes for private investment should be made by each city under the act. Skilled manpower to attract industries If proper governance and presence of civic amenities is added by skilled manpower, no one can stop the cash-flow and overall development of the city. Special urban engineering institute should be formed to integrate youth with real problems of cities. Today, we lack any such policy to cover specific cities with population range of 0.1-0.5 million and target to make them self-sufficient with overall development.
  • 6. Methodology Objectives Strategies Priorities 6 Analyzing existing City Conditions SWOT Analysis Social Impact Analysis Environmental Impact Analysis Implementation Model Referring Master Plans To plan in line with district/state vision Defining Vision Future expected changes Preparation City Level Investment Plan Parameters Social Demography Infrastructure Economy Base Financial Environment Institutions Sectors •Social •Infrastructure •Basic amenities •Urban renewal •Urban Transport
  • 7. • Building infrastructure will create large scale of employment. Unskilled employments should be filled with urban poor. Also large no. of skilled manpower needs to monitor city development, develop service sector and attract industries. Youth should be engaged in problem finding & solving. Financial Resources Conditions Without empowerment of ULBs (initial stage) After ULBs Empowerment Central Share State Share Implementation Agency Central Share State Share Implementation Agency Population >0.1 but <0.25 million 70% 20% 10% 50% 20% 30% Population >0.25 but <0.5 million 60% 20% 20% 40% 25% 35% Cities with tree cover >35% and pollution under control 75% 25% 0% 55% 20% 20% Human Resources • Funding according to environmental conditions would increase awareness. • E-governance and roof-top solar /wind power plant should encouraged to cut costs. • Scope of PPP projects should be increased. • Other means to increase financial resources should be work out with local conditions. 7 Resources (Technical and Human resources)
  • 8. Scope The policy covers total 386 cities with population in range of 1 to 5 lakhs. Also, other smaller towns of tourism or religious importance can be incorporated. Impact • Cities will work with vision & local authorities would be responsible & accountable for infrastructural development, investment attraction & environment. • Infrastructural facilities would improve. Thus it would create competition among smaller cities to compete for new investments. • Employment would increase, thus increase in per capita income and thus standard of living would increase. • Migration would be reduced. • With developing proper recreational spaces, tourism potential and city livability index can be considerably increased. 8 Impact Sustainability • Initially, 1.5 years for analyzing & preparing City Development Plan and 3.5 years for implementing . • Planning should be done in phases • The plan shall be financially as well as environmentally sustainable
  • 9. Monitoring Mechanism Central Govt. State Govt. City 1 City 2 City 3 Coordinating Body Coordinating Body Advisory Body Entity
  • 10. • Local authorities: release and submit their quarterly performance report to special entity and also to central and state level. • • A special entity under Department of Urban Development of central & state should be formed to approve plans and provide technical & financial helps for projects. • Inspection or Supervision of under going projects and performance should be carried out by higher authorities. • Special firms or NGOs should be roped in to monitor and submit report to special cells. • Work audit at project level, city level, state level and national level should be carried out. • Regular interactive meetings with citizens should be carried out and problems and solutions pertaining should be discussed. Monitoring Mechanism
  • 11. Parameters Challenges Solution Social Increment in taxes Need to pay more no. of private bills Tax Increment & PPP mode projects should be increased in phase manner. Economical High investment with minimal returns Long term & indirect benefits for govt. would be more. Also local govt. should ensure over coming operation & maintenance costs. Political Increasing taxes would increase political pressure, misuse of financial resources Tax increment would be in phases. To minimize misuse of financial resources e- governance should be fully promoted with incentives or other means. Also direct cash transfer would reduce leakages. 11 Challenges & Mitigation Factors
  • 12. Parameters Challenges Solution Legal large scale violation of GDCR norms results in haphazard construction Strict implementation of GDCR norms by implementation agency. Technical Smaller cities lacks technical support They should be equipped with engineering, town planning & construction regulation wing. For further assistance NGOs or special cells should be approached. Environmental In long term industrialization increases environmental challenges Carbon credits trading & additional social and environmental responsibilities should be imposed on industries. 12 Challenges & Mitigation Factors
  • 13. Full forms • JnNURM – Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission • BSUP – Basic Services to Urban Poor • NMT – Non-Motorized Transport • PPP – Public Private Partnership • DBOT – Design Built Operate & Transfer • SWOT – Strength Weakness Opportunities Threat • NGO – Non-Governmental Organization • SWM – Solid Waste Management • GDCR – General Development & Control Regulations References • http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov- results/paper2/data_files/India2/Table_2_PR_Cities_1Lakh_and_Above.pd f • http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov- results/paper2/data_files/india/Rural_Urban_2011.pdf • http://urban.bih.nic.in/Docs/JNNURM-ToolKit.pdf • http://www.newgeography.com/content/002537-urbanizing-india-the-2011- census-shows-slowing-growth • http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/urban_awakening_in_india 13 Miscellaneous
  • 14. 14 Thank You