1. Future Cities:
Ensuring world class civic
amenities in urban India
 Biggest problems facing the Indian economy
 EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN INDI
 Dollar demand pushes rupee to record low
 Bad Choices
 Development of Urbanareas
 Development of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh
 Increasing rate of inflation in India
 Increase the rate of literacy in india
The Challenges of Urbanization in India are unprecedented in scale and significance. The
magnitude of the challenge can be understood from the sheer fact that our urban areas may be
required to accommodate 250-300 million people in addition to the population that they are
already home to at present in about two decades from now. Similarly, the scale of investment
required would be of the order of nearly Rs. 50,00,000 Crore over next two decades if basic
infrastructure is to be provided.
Urbanisation and economic progress are concomitant processes as cities provide large
economies of agglomeration. The urban sector contributes around 62%-63% of GDP which is
likely to increase to 75 % by 2021. Over 70 % of new jobs in future shall be largely created
in Cities. The link between economic performance of cities and the national economy is
increasingly getting stronger. However, in a rapidly changing world, the cities are getting
increasingly interlinked and shall have to compete globally in future for employment
generation and investments.
In order to ensure competitiveness of our cities and ensure basic services to our citizens,
urgent steps are required to harness the opportunity that the scale of urbanization presents and
to avoid urban decay. This is inseparably linked to provision of civic amenities and strong
local governance consistent with the needs of 21st Century India.
Facilitate creation of basic urban infrastructure relating to water supply, sanitation
and urban transport to improve service levels and coverage by 2017.
Creating enabling Policy environment for efficient and inclusive urban Governance .
Facilitate implementation of urban sector reforms under Jawaharlal Nehru national
Urban Renewal Mission.
Capacity building of key stake holders including elected representatives for efficient
4. Biggest problems facing the Indian
India's GDP climbed 4.8 per cent year-over-year in the January-March
quarter. This was the slowest pace of growth in a decade. For the fiscal year ending
March 31, growth was 5 per cent, down from 6.2 per cent the previous year,
according to Business Insider.
Let's take a look at biggest problems facing the Indian economy.
supply of infrastructure:
Indian business community repeatedly cites infrastructure as the single biggest
hindrance to doing business, well ahead of corruption and bureaucracy.
It must be noted, however, that the situation has been slowly improving
Indeed, public trust in politicians has been weakening for the past three years.
Access to financing:
India continues to be penalised for its disappointing performance in the areas
considered to be the basic factors underpinning competitiveness
The country's supply of transport, ICT and energy infrastructure remains largely
insufficient and ill-adapted to the needs of the economy.
Restrictive labour regulations:
Despite these considerable challenges, India does possess a number of strengths in
the more advanced and complex drivers of competitiveness.
Crime and theft:
India is not providing access to some basic services to many of its citizens (only 34
per cent of the population has access to sanitation, for example).
11. EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN INDIA
Employment has featured as an important item in the development agenda in
India. Approaches to the subject have, however, varied in different periods during
the last over 50 years. In the initial years of development planning, unemployment
was not expected to emerge as a major problem; yet care was taken to see that
employment of a reasonable magnitude is generated in the development process to
productively employ the growing labour force. A reasonably high rate of economic
growth combined with an emphasis on labour intensive sectors like the small scale
industry was envisaged to achieve this goal. The rate and structure of growth rather
than technology were seen as the instruments of employment generation. Thus
while granting that in ʹan economy with relative abundance of labour, a bias in
favour of comparatively labourintensive techniques is both natural and desirableʹ, it
was clearly recognised that ʹconsiderations of size and technology should not be set
aside to emphasise employmentʹ (Planning Commission, 1956, pp. 112‐113).
Unemployment was estimated to be relatively low, as was also the growth rate of
labour force, and a targeted economic growth rate of 5 per cent with some emphasis
on labour intensive consumer goods sectors, was expected to generate large enough
employment overthe years to prevent any increase in unemployment.
Poor public health:
The picture is even bleaker in the health and basic education pillar. Despite
improvements across the board over the past few years, poor public health and
education standards remain a prime cause of India's low productivity.
13. Dollar demand pushes rupee to record low
The rollercoaster ride for the rupee and stocks these last few weeks has been
accompanied by severe criticism of the UPA government's policy failures, whether its an
inability to tame the deficit or its slowness in getting projects moving.
The UPA's policies certainly haven't helped the economy but, as has been pointed out by
others, India's markets haven't been alone in being sold off. With the US monetary
authorities signalling the end of cheap money, stocks and currencies across emerging
markets have plummeted
14. Bad Choices
For decades, economists have been aware of a fundamental problem when it comes to
making monetary policy in a world where foreign capital flows in and out of a country. No
country can have a fully open capital account, fix its exchange rate (similar to what India
had before 1991), and have control over its monetary policy. At the most, one can have
two of these three. Assume, for example, the RBI wanted to set a fixed rate of the rupee
against the dollar, but also allowed the rupee to be fully convertible. And suppose we
were in the midst of a recession, thus prompting the RBI to cut interest rates to boost
But a fall in interest rates would lead to a fall in returns on Indian investments, prompting
foreign investors to flee. The rupee would fall sharply (as is happening now), and to
maintain the rate it fixed, the RBI would be forced to sell dollars and suck out rupees,
causing local interest rates to rise. In effect, the central bank has been defeated in its
policy of providing 'easy money' to stimulate investment. If the rupee had been allowed
to float instead, the central bank wouldn't be obligated to 'defend' it quite so strenuously,
allowing it stick to its policy of keeping rates low.
In rural areas, the unemployment rate for both male and female is almost at the same
level, 2%. But, in, urban areas, women are more unemployed than men. The rate is 5% for
women and 2% for men.
These are some findings of the 68th Round Survey by the National Sample Survey Office
( NSSO), ministry of statistics and programme implementation, which was released here
India has witnessed a work force (a ctivity status determined on the basis of reference
period of one year) g rowth of 13.9 million in just two years, between 2010 and 2012.
Literacy Rate in India - To know development in a society, Literacy is another proper
indicator of economic development. For purpose of census, a person in age limit of
seven and above, who can both write and read with understanding in any of the language
is considered as a literate in India.
As per Population Census of India 2011, the Literacy rate of India has shown as
improvement of almost 9 percent. It has gone up to 74.04% in 2011 from 65.38% in 2001,
thus showing an increase of 9 percent in the last 10 years. It consists of male literacy
rate 82.14% and female literacy rate is 65.46%. Kerala with 93.9% literacy rate is the top
state in India. Lakshadweep and Mizoram are at second and third position with 92.3% and
91.06% literacy rate respectively. Bihar with 63.08% literacy rate is the last in terms of
literacy rate in India
 Development of Urbanareas
Urbanisation will be central to India’s strategy of achieving faster and more inclusive growth
because agglomeration and densification of economic activ ities (and habitations) in urban
conglomerations stimulates economic efficiencies and
provides more opportunities for earning livelihoods. Thus urbanisation increases avenues for
eneurship and employment compared to
what is possible in dispersed rural areas. It, thereby,
enables faster inclusion of more people in the process of economic growth.
18. Although the theme of a ‘rural–urban divide’
still colours some policy discourse in India, there is
a growing recognition that urbanisation is necessary
to realise India’s growth potential, and that rural–
urban linkages must be strengthened. Indeed this
will accelerate growth of the rural sector also.
19. Development of Gujarat and Madhya
When it comes to growth and development in the country, Gujarat and Madhya
Pradesh are brothers-in-arms. While one basks in the limelight it truly deserves;
the other, it would seem, almost shies away from it- letting its achievements do the
talking. Madhya Pradesh has come a long way, ever since BJP came to power in the
State around a decade ago, with Shivraj Singh Chouhan at the helm of affairs.
Under his leadership, Madhya Pradesh has seen unprecedented growth in terms of
infrastructure and overall development. Under the Mukhya Mantri Gram Sadak
Yojana initiated by his Government and the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
(an NDA Government brainchild carried forward by UPA), MP seen 80,000 km of
roads, highways, village roads and arterial roads being constructed. While roads
were built connecting villages, unmetalled and dirt roads constructed under UPA's
MGNREGA scheme were transformed into functioning all-weather tarred roads.
The state's previously sluggish economy accelerated into a fast-rising one, as a
result of various schemes and initiatives taken by Chouhan's Government.
20. Increasing rate of inflation in India
The rate of inflation is going high and high in India . There are various
reasons for increasing rate of inflation in India . One of the biggest reason
of the increasing inflation rate can be increasing inflation in the world and
the effect of rising prices of consumable goods in the world market has
been effecting India.
Increasing rate of inflation in India is not only effecting poor and middle
class people but it is also effecting the rich people .The rate of diesel and
petrol seems to be increasing in India in every 2 or 3 months and it is
effecting the travelling cost of many people. Due to the increasing petrol
and diesel prices the cost of public transport is also increasing .
Due to the increasing transport cost the rate of vegetables and fruits are
increasing day by day . The increasing rate of vegetables and fruits has
made life of many people miserable . People are not even able to buy
vegetables and fruits and this problem may increase in future if their is no
control on inflation .
21. The Consumer Prices Index (CPI) inflation rose to 2.9% last month, from 2.7% in
May, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) said.
It is the highest level since April 2012, although inflation was prevented from
climbing higher by falls in the prices of fruit, vegetables, bread, air fares and
The ONS said: "The largest upward contributions to the change in the rate came
from motor fuels and clothing and footwear.
"The largest downward contribution came from air transport."
The figure was weaker than economists' forecasts of a 3% level, and is expected to
fall later in the year as commodity prices ease.
Meanwhile, the headline rate of Retail Price Index (RPI) inflation rose to 3.3% in
June, up 0.2% from the May figure.
Motorists have complained of rising fuel prices this year
Unlike the US Federal Reserve, which aims to control inflation and also increase
employment, the Bank of England's (BoE's) exclusive mission has been to keep inflation
close to Government-set target of 2%.
22. Increase the rate of literacy in india
Government of India has taken several measures to improve the literacy rate in villages
and towns of India. State Governments has been directed to ensure and improve literacy
rate in districts and villages where people are very poor. There has been a good
improvement in literacy rate of India in last 10 years but there is still a long way to go.
List of Steps taken by Government of India to improve Literacy Rate in India:
 Free education programs to poor people living in villages and towns.
 Setting up of new school and colleges at district and state levels.
 Several committees have been formed to ensure proper utilization of funds
allotted to improve literacy rate.
Ranking of States in India by Literacy Rate
S.No State Literacy Rate
Male Literacy Rate
Female Literacy Rate
1 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 86.3% 90.1% 81.8%
2 Andhra Pradesh 67.7% 75.6% 59.7%
3 Arunachal Pradesh 67.0% 73.7% 59.6%
4 Assam 73.2% 78.8% 67.3%
5 Bihar 63.8% 73.5% 53.3%