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  1. 1. By: 1) Madan gopal.E 2) Ananya Kondiparthy 3) Sathvika Sharma.V 4) Aditya Vangara 5)priyanka
  2. 2. North east india being blessed with nathural resources . It has been experiencing industrialisation and socio-economic growth but at slower pace.
  3. 3. Agriculture :north east india a has a total geographical area of 18.4 million sq. km and a population of 9.6 million representing 5.6% and 1.3% of the total area and population of the country, produces a very meagre proportion of food grains (1.5%). The NorthEastern region falls under the high rainfall zone and the climate ranges from subtropical to alpine. The regio characterized by difficult terrain, wide variations in slopes and altitudes, land tenure systems and indigenous cultivation practic It has a total cropped area of 5.3 million hectares and a population of around 39 million. The region falls under high rainfallzo and the climate ranges from subtropical to alpine  Being in such a suitable climate for agriculture ,region is lagging in agricultural development contrary the national ethos. Reasons include a lack of appropriate  strategies for the development of natural resources,  inadequate infrastructure facilities  low adoption of improved technology  growth of sunrise states agriculture productivity physical infrastructur social infrastructure trade total:70% of region's population mizoram:51% sikkin :89%  Based on this framework, the report tries to give a lowdown on the development of specific actions and policy improvements towards corrective measures as follows: • To enhance the region’s capacity through appropriate policy framework with an eye on the ASEAN markets • To highlight the need for infrastructure and capacity building measures and focus on policies to create enabling environments for the export market • To identify potential areas for future investment and product development based on regional comparative advantages 
  4. 4.  The agricultural practices in the region are broadly of three distinct types:- (I )settled farming practised (ii) shifting cultivation (iii slash and burn method. The best solutions that could be practised for better productivity of agriculture are:  Pesticide residue management and newer product development.  Improvement of tea, ornamental plants, medicinal plants, forest trees through application of biotechnology.  Post-harvest engineering and technology can help farmers earn more and increase employment.  New genes need to be introduced for increasing total biomass.  To reduce post-harvest losses at production centres low cost eco-friendly on-farm storage structures can play a crucial r  Judicious use of biotechnology tool in crop and livestock improvement  Grassland improvement must be introduced  Alternating crops for escaping pre-monsoon showers  Creating cold storage facilities for perishable commodities  Single window counter for agriculture queries must be opened by government which also helps with toll free numbers Physical infrastructure Physical infrastructure make a vital role in the development of the states.the main features in the physical infrastructure include thefollowing . research of each of these subject would definetly make a change Lets us discuss about the subjects one by one 1)Roads: roads railways telecommunciations power
  5. 5. Road is an important mode of travel in the hilly areas as other mode of travel is either too expensive or difficult. The road infrastructure is relatively deficient in the NER although the region’s road density per capita is significantly higher as compared to the rest of the country. Given the low density of population and the hilly terrain of the region this is an expected outcome. The road length per unit area is higher only in Nagaland, Assam, and Tripura (Length in km) STATE SARDP-NE Phase 'A' Arunachal Pradesh Package of Roads and Highways SARDP-NE Phase 'B' Grand Total NHs SR/GSTotalNH SR/GS/ Strtg TotalNH SR/GS/ Strtg TotalNH SR/GS/ Strtg Total Arunachal Pradesh 52 212 264 1346835 2181 0 931 931 13981978 3376 Assam 1179177 1356 126 12 138 0 285 285 1305474 1779 Manipur 39 166 205 0 0 0 0 202 202 39 368 407 Meghalaya259 526 785 0 0 0 161 201 362 420 727 1147 Mizoram 221 100 321 0 0 0 416 272 688 637 372 1009 Nagaland 81 350 431 0 0 0 622 169 791 703 519 1222 Sikkim 80 505 585 0 0 0 0 68 68 80 573 653 Tripura 130 22 152 0 0 0 86 310 396 216 332 548 Total 20412058 4099 1472847 2319 12852438 3723 47985343 10141 The statistics shown beside is the state wise length distribution under SARDP-NE  The total length of roads in all the seven state combined is 10141. Hypothesis: 137,712 km is the total india netwok calculation %=137712/10141=13%.there is a urgent need for improvement of roads  Manipur has the least number of roads, so more money should be allocated to Manipur  Assam has the highest number of roads , good trade prospective and business management could be proceeded  The government is taking up these projects under 1. National Highway Development Programme (NHDP)-  II proposes to link the east-west corridor beginning at  Porbandar, Gujarat to the NE through a 678 km four-lane  highway connecting Silchar to Srirampur via LumdingDaboka- Nagaon-Guwahati in Assam. This has been  entrusted to the NHAI under the NHDP phase-II.  2. NHDP-III proposes to widen 1,051 km stretches of various  NHs to improve connectivity of state capital towns.
  6. 6. Major Road Development Programs in North East Region LEGEND :- 1. Arunachal Package 2. SARDP NE, Phase- A 3. SARDP NE, Phase- B 4. East West Corridor 5. NH/Roads (In-Progress under SARDP-NE) 6. Completed stretches) NH Network with PWD with BRO NH yet to be Entrusted Tawang Vijaynagar Panchao Golaghat Chandel Tura Lunglei Seling Champai Palel Peren Kailasahar Seppa Balipara Koloriang Yingkiong Pasighat Anini Hawai Along Ziro Bishing Jido Singa Sarkam Point Jorging Rowta Maram Theriat Tuipang Saiha Ukhrul Mokokchung Migging Bile Tato Taliha Pango AIZAWL Mangan Sivoke Baghmara SIKKIM MIZORAM NAGALAND ARUNACHAL PRADESH CHINA BHUTAN BANGLADESH MYANMAR Mahadevpur NATHULA Srirampur Silchar GUWAHATI IMPHAL GANGTOK ITANAGAR AGARTALA AIZAWL MEGHALAYA Boxirhat Pangsu Pass Jhanji Dimapur Tuensang Moreh Sabroom 150 31C 155 Daboka Paikan 31A 54B 54A Roing Barapani Namchik 61 Nagaon Dhola Makum Bimlapur 52B 52B Dhubri Kokrajhar Barpeta Baska Udalguri Morigaon Diphu Tamenglong Lumla Tashigaon Silghat Longleng Mon Zunheboto Zhamai Goalpara Baihata Charali Dudhnai Dalu Gyalshing Namchi Melli Singtam ` Yupia Road serving Kaladan Project Daporijo Bame Tezpur Numaligarh Merangkong Kanubari Mawthabah Chaigaon ASSAM Demagiri TRIPURA Manu Jowai Bypass Shillong Bypass Silchar Bypass Haflong Nongstoin Dibrugarh Bypass Athibung Khelema 62 51 31 36 37 37 61 39 54 39 40 44 53 39 54 44 44 155 151 150 152 229 52 52 52 37 229 38 153 44E SHILLONG 44A 150 Nechipu Hoj Potin Pahumara Lumding Khonsa Changlang Sadia North Lakhimpur Jonai KOHIMA 154 54 54 37 Kumarghat Wakhaji Pangin Akajan Jorabat Wokha Kukital Phek Williamnagar Rangpo Bagdogra Silliguri NayaBazar Chalsa WEST BENGAL Bogibeel bridge with NHAI Menla Jaldhaka 31 Ranipul CHINA Shankshak Tengnoupal Yaingpokpi MANIPUR 31B 37 62 40 40 36 37A 52A 52A 52 52 52B 150 53 Badarpur Jiribam 36 54 153 Km 95 – 118 of NH 54 Km 10 – 18 of NH 154 Boko Mawshynrut ` 7 The solutions for the reasons delay in progress:  Forest clearance is the main problem as most of the region is under the forest cover. We shouldn’t go for deforestation as it may have may effects like climate imbalance, global warming ,soil erosion, floods ,etc. So we should have sustainable consumer options and the corporate should plan infrastructure with no forest limits.  Law and order-should short term policies which would be not delay the progress  The contractors –well that slide is taking from the government site in which contractors “ran away” :P. the solution is simple- the private companies should be given contracts rather than a individual.  The infrastructure should be given to engineers who could plan the infrastructure in creative, economic and innovative manner.  The government should allot necessary funds in developing the states.  More roads and railways should be build for better connectivity of trade
  7. 7. Railways : Railways are the best mode of mass transportation in the country. However, in the hilly terrains of the NER it is difficult and expensive to setup rail networks. This accounts for the absence or nominal presence of railway lines in hilly states like Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Mizoram. The objectives for railways in north east are: the Rail Budget 2012-13, a survey for railway electrification project has been sanctioned for Assam. It also envisaged bringing the northern banks of the Brahmaputra river under rail connectivity. Tripura is another state in the NER where development of railway infrastructure is picking up well. From 2000 to 2010, the length of railway route in Tripura has increased from 41 km to 152 km. There are three major railway stations located in Dharmanagar, Agartala and Kumarghat. The government has proposed a 14 km metre gauge railway line between Agartala (Tripura) and Akhaura (Bangladesh). In addition, there is a proposed railway-link to be developed between Agartala and Sabroom, covering 110 km and expected to be complete by 2014.In Arunachal, the nearest railway station is location at Harmoti in Assam 33 km from Itanagar. The major functional rail head linking Manipur with the rest of India is at Dimapur (Nagaland), 215 km away from Imphal. However, a railway line from Jiribam (on the Manipur-Assam border) is under construction as a national priority project. It is expected to connect Imphal with the rest of India by 2016. New railway lines on Azra-Byrnihat, Dudnoi-Mehendipather and ByrnihatShillong routes in Meghalaya are under construction. The construction of the extension of a vital broad gauge rail link between Bairabi rail terminus on the Mizoram-Assam border and Sairang, a village 20 km west of Aizawl, is in progress. Year Length of BG Route Length of MG Route Length of NG Route Total 1990 772.47 2986.56 87.48 3846.51 2010 2775.72 1389.80 87.48 4253.00 2020 5806.14 50* 87.48* 5943.62 The table shown beside is the total length of railway line in the year 1990,2010 and the expected number of railway lines in the year 2020.
  8. 8. • The railway investment in NE region : Outlay -13 – Rs. 2333 crores for NE Region out of Total Budget Outlay of Rs 9875 cr. for entire Indian Railways for NL, GC & Doubling Projects i.e. 23.62% of Railways Investment Budget. • • The ongoing railway projects in north east india Funding for railway projects  “Non-lapsable Rail Development Fund for National Projects of NE Region” has been approved by Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure. Contribution to this Fund is 25% through Railway’s gross budgetary support and 75% as additionality by Ministry of Finance  As per the policy of the government, 10% of net budgetary support is to be spent in the region 597.01 840.85 978.95 1398.09 1870 2196.9 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Rs. Cr. Rs. Cr. Rs. cr. Years
  9. 9. 3) power : The region is endowed with perennial rivers and water bodies, therefore, it has a huge hydroelectricity potential. This potential, if tapped well, can be used to export power to other regions of the country. The spill-over benefits will be the development of infrastructure such as roads, communications, and electricity supply to remote hilly areas, resulting in better quality of life. States such as Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Meghalaya have huge potential in hydropower generation. (All figures in MW) The table shows the installed thermal power capacity in the north eastern region. Many policies such as the ‘50,000MW hydro initiative’, the Hydro Policy 2008 have been formulated by the central government to promote investment in hydropower in the region. Under the Mega Power Policy, the qualifying threshold capacity for setting up hydropower plants in the region and for availing the special benefits thereof is 350 MW, whereas for the rest of the country, it is 500 MW.Under the Hydro Policy 2008 the project developers in the central and state sector can explore the possibility of foreign assistance to finance their projects. This assistance is already being utilised by NEEPCO for Pare Hydro Electric Project and MeSEB for Renovation and Modernisation • According to an official document of NEEPCO, the hydro-power of the north eastern region is estimated at about 58,971 MW. • 19 power projects, including twelve 3,918 MW capacity hydel power projects and four thermal power projects with installed capacity of 5,595 MW, are under progress • The power plants either being set up or would be set up are in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Sikkim, Mizoram and Tripura STATE THERMAL Assam 635.19 Arunachal Pradesh 15.88 Meghalaya 2.05 Tripura 237.35 Manipur 81.41 Nagaland 2 Mizoram 51.86 Total (NER) 1025.74 Sikkim 5 TOTAL (NER+SIKKIM) 1030.74
  10. 10. Weaknesses  Lack of Physical infrastructure  Inclement weather and difficult terrain  Non-availability of accurate hydrological data  Problems in Land acquisition and clearance  Opportunities  Encouraging response of private sector players  Huge hydro potential of the order of 63000MW  Huge Demand deficit in india provides export  Threats  Border issues disputes, riparian rights (intra state as well as international)  Insurgency and Law and and orders issues Recommendations: • Government should take up the development of Assam and Meghalaya • The issue of gas availability and pricing may be appropriately addressed for exploiting the substantial gas reserves in the Region for power generation attention should be given to inland water routes as a method of connectivity • In planning road networks under SARDP particular attention should be given to roads, bridges and underpasses with adequate design capacity considering transportation of heavy ODCs to power projects Waterways:
  11. 11. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER WAYS 1. Fairway with least available depth of 2.5 metre being maintained between Dhubri and Neamati (630 km) 2. Aids for 24 hrs navigation 3. Terminals with cargo handling equipment and Road- Rail link 4. 24 hrs navigation aids in 440 km (Dhubri- Silghat), which can be extended to entire waterway depending on necessity 5. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) station that provide safe navigation for Inland vessels using electronic navigational charts set up at Jogighopa. Works nearing completion at Silghat and Dibrugarh. Another station proposed at Dhubri. 6. IWT Port at Pandu, Guwahati has been developed by IWAI as a hub for multimodal connectivity in the North-East region by investing Rs. 100 Cr. 7. Floating terminals at Dhubri, Jogighopa, Tejpur, Silghat, Neamati, Bogibil (north & south banks), Dibrugarh, Panbari & Orium ghat being maintained with pontoon and gangway 8. Critical deficiency - Absence of vessel Repair Facility. Assam Govt’s partially completed slipway at Pandu, Guwahati is being proposed to be completed as joint project of IWAI, Assam Government & Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd (PSU under M/o Defenc Other Potential Feeder Waterways in NER Assam 7 river stretches 405 km Arunachal Pradesh 4 river stretches 311 km Mizoram 3 river stretches 370 km Meghalaya 3 river stretches 90km Tripura 2 river stretches 126 km Nagaland 3 river stretches 204 km Manipur 1 stretch 60 km Total 23 stretches 1566 km Telecommunication As on Assam North East All India March 2006 5.67% 6.78% 12.74% March 2007 9.74% 12.44% 18.22% March 2008 14.74% 19.32% 26.22% March 2009 20.65% 28.59% 36.98% March 2010 29.99% 43.22% 52.74% March 2011 38.98% 56.50% 70.89% January 2012 46.07% 63.81% 77.57%
  12. 12. Shared Mobile Infrastructure Scheme 1. Purpose - Setting up and managing infrastructure sites for provision of mobile services in rural and remote areas without existing fixed wireless/ mobile coverage 2. Habitations of more than 2000 covered Status as on 31.03.2012 – 527/574 towers have been set up in NE Region conclusion Institutional change supporting economic enhancement and growth at a social level requires economic incentives, supported by political will. With India moving into a new era of economic liberation, the region should not be left out. The framework for development of the region can be broadly based upon four vital components. The first component of this development plan should be social empowerment. It needs to empower rural communities, create sustainable institutions so that they manage common activities around microfinance, livelihoods and natural resource management. The second component needs to be economic empowerment. The objective of this component should ideally be to develop the capacity of rural communities to plan and manage funds for various economic initiatives and common activities for the public. The third component will be partnership development. The objective of this component should be to partner with various service providers, resource institutions and public and private sector organisations to bring resources such as finance, technology, and marketing into the project so that the community groups are able to improve their livelihoods. The fourth and final component will be project management. This will facilitate various governance, implementation, co- ordination, learning and quality enhancement efforts in the project.Thus, with some of the changes tha tthis paper attempts to deliberate upon, a process could be set in motion that could support the north east in its endeavor to contribute to the economic resurgence of the home region as well as to the development of the rest of the country. It is vital that this process includes mechanisms for equitably sharing the benefits to be derived from development and focusses not only on the big-ticket items that support broad- based, long-term growth, but also on those complementary activities that have immediate impact on poverty reduction References:By: 1)Indiancag-resources 2)ministry of development of northeast region 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)