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  1. 1. Team:    Metamorphosis-­‐5   Theme  :  -­‐  Sowing  prosperity:  boos4ng  agricultural   produc4vity   Arpit  Vyas,  Mrigank  Gupta,  Saahil  Agarwal,   Jigar  Panot,  Md.  Rhazy   Indian  Ins4tute  of  Technology,  Madras  
  2. 2. Current  Scenario   •  Agriculture  plays  a  pivotal  role  in  India’s  economy.   •  It  provides  employment  to  56  per  cent  of  the  Indian  workforce  but  contributes  to   only  1/6  of  the  GDP.   •  Between  1961  and  2004-­‐05,  there  was  a  decline  of  34  %  in  the  share  of  agriculture  in   GDP  while  the  decline  in  share  of  agriculture  in  employment  was  of  only  19.5  %.   Average  size  has  declined  from  2.3  ha.  in  1970-­‐71  to  1.37  ha  in  2011-­‐12.     •  India  is  a  land  of  small  farmers.  The  share  of  marginal  and  small  farmers  accounted   for  around  85%  of  opera4onal  holdings  in  2010-­‐11  as  compared  to  about  62%  in   1960-­‐61.  Similarly,  the  area  operated  by  small  and  marginal  farmers  has  increased   from  about  19%  to  44%  during  the  same  period.   Farm  Size   %  of  total  farmers   (2010-­‐2011)   %  of  total  land   (2010-­‐2011    )   Small  &  marginal  (<2Ha)     84.97   44.31   Semi-­‐medium  and  medium   (2-­‐10ha)   14.3   44.71   Large  (>10ha)     0.73   10.92  
  3. 3. Co-­‐opera?ve  Joint  Farming   Society •  Adjacent  farms  are  merged  to   allow  farmers  reap  the   benefits  of  mechanized   farming,  which  reduces  labour   and  improves  produc4vity.   •  Coopera4ve  socie4es  of   farmers  and  merging  of  farms   is  based  on  land  holdings  so   that  the  farmers  fit   economically,  socially  and   culturally  into  the  group.     •  <  4  Ha   •  4  –  10  Ha   •  >  10  Ha   Public  Private  Partnership •  Research  and  technical   assistance(R&TA)  group:   •  This  division  involves   interac4on  among  various   state/central  agricultural   universi4es,  Na4onal   Remote  Sensing  Center  etc.   •  Service  Providers:     •  Private  organiza4ons  or   local  entrepreneurs  are  the   major  stake  holders  in  this   group.     They  help  facilita4on  and   implementa4on  of   recommenda4ons  by  R&TA   at    grassroots  level.   Packagers,  Processors  and   Corporates •  This  sector  handles  the   penul4mate  value  addi4on   step  in  supply  chain,  ul4mate   being  the  market.  It  is  open   for  all  types  of  working   systems. Proposed  model  
  4. 4. Cooperative farming PPP R&TA Service providers (Govt. institutions involved) (Rural entrepreneurs Involved) Packagers,   Processors   and   Corporates  Provide information about the amount of crop predicted and hence the requirement of various resources and storage facilities
  5. 5. Tier  1:  Coopera4ve  Produc4on  Socie4es   Production Cooperatives Overview •  The  Tier  1  comprises  of  farmers   from  different  strata  who  would   pool  together  their  land  to   boost  the  produc4vity.     •  The  major  hindrance  in   achieving  a  high  efficacy,  which   is  ‘extraordinarily  small  size  of   an  average  field  in  the   country’,  is  thus  addressed.     •  Moreover,  the  Tier  1  u4lizes  the   facili4es,  such  as  –   Mechaniza4on  of  farms  and   large  scale  economies  ,etc.  from   the  Tier  2  (service  sector  as  well   as  R&TA  organiza4on)  socie4es.   Legalities •  The  wages  of  the  working   farmers/labourers  will  be  pre-­‐ decided  and  will  be  paid  on  a   daily  basis.     •  The  profits/loses,  ager   removing  all  the  investments,   wages,  running  cost  etc.,  will  be   shared  in  direc?on  propor?on   to  the  land  size.   •  The  major  decisions  will  be   taken  by  the  coopera4ve  and   not  the  farmer  with  the  largest   share.   •  A  farmer  can  neither  leave  nor   can  be  removed  from  the   coopera4ve  in  the  mid  of  the   crop  season.   Direct Benefits •  R&TA  will  be  able  to  make  a   regionally  focused  approach  on   various  technical  issues.   •  Grievances  can  be   microscopically  addressed  by   the  service  and  R&TA  sector,   which  is  the  key  to  high   produc4vity.  
  6. 6. Functionality (Tier 2) Research  and  technical   assistance(  R&TA)  group   •  Knowledge  Acquisi?on   •  Region  wise  mapping  of  land   and  soil  fer4lity  using  remote   sensing  and  other  such   technologies.   •  Assessment  of  the   informa4on  acquired  to   determine  the  crops  to  be   grown  in  the  region,  kinds  of   seeds  to  be  used,  the  dosage   of  fer4lizers  etc.   •  Knowledge  dissemina?on   •  Educa4ng  farmers  and   informing  them  about  the   outcomes  of  the  study   through  KVKs.   •  Training  farmers  on  the  waste   lands  leased  by  the   government  to  demonstrate   the  efficiency  improvement   prac4ces.   Service  Providers   •  Supply  Providers   •  Seeds,  Fer4lizers,  Fuel,  Farm   machineries  and  other  goods   will  be  rented,  preferably  as   per  the  recommenda4ons  of   the  R&TA  group.   •  Marke4ng  Socie4es   •  Transporta4on,  Packaging,   Distribu4on,  Marke4ng  of   farm  products.   End  Users   •  Can  be  any  organiza4on  ranging   from  corporates  to  public  sector   units  which  intend  on     •  Processing   •  Packaging  or   •  Buying  the  produce  
  7. 7. Research  and  Technical  Assistance(  R&TA)  group   Knowledge  Acquisi?on   • A  team  of  Remote  sensing   and  GIS  experts/graduates   to  do  the  village  wise   mapping  of  land  and  soil   fer4lity.   • A  team  of  agronomists  to   assess  the  informa4on   acquired  to  determine  the   crops  to  be  grown  in  the   region,  kinds  of  seeds  to  be   used,  the  dosage  of   fer4lisers  etc.   • Such  studies  and  research   will  also  be  supported  by   the  agricultural  universi4es   in  collabora4on.   Knowledge  dissemina?on   • Educa4ng  farmers  and   informing  them  about  the     outcomes  of  the  study  like   dosage  of  the  fer4lizers,   awareness  regarding  pests   etc.    through  KVKs  and   agricultural  universi4es.   • Training  farmers  to  use  the   new  machineries  and   methods    in  their  larger   fields  using  the  waste  lands   leased  by  the  government   to  demonstrate  the   improved  prac4ces.   Impacts   • Overall  ensuring  a  transi4on   towards  precision   agriculture  thus  improving   the  produc4vi4es  without   compromising  on  the   sustainability  of  the  land   cul4vability  
  8. 8. Top: Estimation of tobacco crop yield by remote sensing in districts of Andhra Pradesh. Right: Plotting crop fertility levels in an area and deciding the right amount of fertilizers required thus mitigating environment risk and reducing the cost to farmers and improving productivity over long term
  9. 9. Service  Providers   Functions • A  commercial  organiza4on  which  provides   Seeds,  Fer4lizers,  Fuel,  Farm  machineries   and  other  goods  on  rent  to  the  needy   individual  or  coopera4ve  group  of  farmers   i.e.  to  Tier  1. • The  R&TA  group  will  seek  the  help  of  the   Service  Providers  for  the  training  of  farmers   and  demonstra4ons  of  newer  techniques. Benefits • The  take  away  for  the  suppliers  in  this  non-­‐ profit  help  will  be  the  need  assessment  they   will  be  able  to  get  through  first  hand   experience  with  farmers,  which,  in  turn   would  help  them  get  a  closer  view  at  needs   and  problems  in  a  variety  of  areas. • The  recommenda4ons  of  R&TA  group  are   more  of  guidelines  than  compulsion  for   these  service  providers.  
  10. 10. R&TA Cooperatives Agri-Graduates Free-advice Private Entrepreneurs NGO’s Service Providers Tier-3 Structure  and  func4ons  of  R&TA  
  11. 11. Farmers(Tier-1) •  Ownership and democratic control •  Increased farm income through higher productivities •  Assured source of supplies •  Improved farm management •  Security against market exploitation •  Expanded Markets •  Education to farmers and development of certain skill sets. BENEFITS IMPACT •  More than 85% of the total farmers in the nation falling in marginal, small and semi medium categories. •  X% of the agricultural graduates will have jobs generated for them. PPP(Tier-2) •  Assured market •  Entrepreneurship for regional people •  Job opportunities for villagers •  Decreased losses in PDS •  Money circulation within the village community Challenges •  Limited control over land and improvements •  Cannot recover lease cost as equity on land •  Cannot benefit from appreciation in land value. •  May lose investment in infrastructure if lease is terminated • Tax advantage • Less risk • Flexibility • Benefits of economics of masses Farmers • Stronger communities • Added community income Rural communities • Quality products • Varied Services • New Products • Crop sizes info available at village/ taluk level. Consumers
  12. 12. References   " hVp://   " hVp://   " hVp://www.syngentafounda?   " hVp:// APCAS23/documents_OCT10/APCAS-­‐10-­‐28_-­‐Small_farmers.pdf   " hVp://   " hVp://   " hVp://  
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