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  3. 3. A photojournalist was gang-raped in the Indian city of Mumbai, evoking comparisons with a similar assault in New Delhi in December that led to nationwide protests and a revision of the country's rape laws. The attack on Thursday night triggered protests and an outcry on social media, with many users shocked that it took place in Mumbai, widely considered to be India's safest city for women. All over India and neighboring countries, the outrage is palpable. Public demonstrations question why the world’s largest democracy has failed to protect its women. Today’s modern educated Indian woman living in a metropolis is not unlike one you would find in New York City. She gets her coffee from Starbucks and clothes from Zara. She most likely has a Smartphone which she uses to Tweet and post on Facebook. But the major difference between this woman in India and one in the U.S. is the shocking statistic she lives with – a woman in India is raped every 20 minutes, according to the National Crime Records Bureau. This isn’t sexual violence in villages, but in public places in developed cities, as this recent incident showed. Most rapes remain unreported for fear of stigma or family rejection. Of the few that are reported, conviction is unusual. Unfortunately this case is neither isolated, nor the most brutal the nation has seen. So why did it cause such a stir? The 23-year-old victim was returning home after watching “Life of Pi” with a male friend, in an urban area of New Delhi. She could have been any woman, not unlike you and I. Unexpectedly, urbanization and education is creating a further divide between the sexes. The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.From equal status with men in ancient times through the low points of the medieval period,to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers, the history of women in India has been eventful. In modern India, women have held high offices in India including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of Lok Sabha and Leader of the Opposition. As of 2011, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha (Lower House of the parliament) were women. However, women in India continue to face atrocities such as rape, acid throwing, dowry killings while young girls are forced into prostitution.According to a global poll conducted by Thomson Reuters, India is the "fourth most dangerous country" in the world for women, and the worst country for women among the G20 countries.
  4. 4. From 1995 to 2005, the total rate of sexual violence committed against Indian female residents age 12 or older declined 64% from a peak of 5.0 per 1,000 females in 1995 to 1.8 per 1,000 females in 2005 .It then remained unchanged from 2005 to 2010. Sexual violence against females includes completed, attempted, or threatened rape or sexual assault. In 2010, females nationwide experienced about 270,000 rape or sexual assault victimizations, compared to about 556,000 in 1995. Completed rape or sexual assault accounted for more than 50% of the total rape or sexual violent victimizations in 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, the rate of completed rape or sexual assault declined from 3.6 per 1,000 females to 1.1 per 1,000. Over the same period, the rates of attempted rape or sexual assault and victimizations involving the threat of rape remained relatively stable. Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent year. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey, 1994–2010 *From 1995 to 2010, the estimated annual rate of female rape or sexual assault victimizations declined 58%, from 5.0 victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older to 2.1 per 1,000. *In 2005-10, 78% of sexual violence involved an offender who was a family member, intimate partner, friend, or acquaintance. *In 2005-10, the offender was armed with a gun, knife, or other weapon in 11% of rape or sexual assault victimizations. *The percentage of rape or sexual assault victimizations reported to police increased to a high of 56% in 2003 before declining to 35% in 2010, a level last seen in 1995. *The percentage of females who were injured during a rape or sexual assault and received some type of treatment for their injuries increased from 26% in 1994-98 to 35% in 2005-10. *In 2005-10, about 80% of female rape or sexual assault victims treated for injuries received care in a hospital, doctor’s office, or emergency room, compared to 65% in 1994-98. *In 2005-10, about 1 in 4 (23%) rape or sexual assault victims received help or advice from a victim service agency Statistics relating women exploitation
  5. 5. Of the 36% of rape or sexual assault victimizations reported to police in 2005-10, about 64% were reported directly by the victims, an increase from 50% in 1994-98. The percentage of victimizations known to police because they were reported by another household member declined from 26% in 1994-98 to 10% in 2005-10, while the percentage reported by an official other than the police increased from 4% to 14%. Of the rape or sexual assault victimizations that were reported to police in 2005-10, 28% were reported in an attempt to protect the victim from future victimizations, and 25% were reported to try to stop or prevent escalation of the victimization as it was occurring. Among rape or sexual assault victimizations that went unreported, the most common reason victims gave for not reporting the crime during 2005-10 was fear of reprisal (20%). The percentage of victimizations that went unreported because the victim considered the incident a personal matter declined from 23% in 1994-98 to 13% in 2005-10. JUSTICE UNDELIVERED NEGLIGENCE OF POLICE AND AUTHORITIES LEADING TO RAPE AND SEXUAL ASSAULT CAUSING GENDER INEQUALITY
  6. 6. THE SOLUTION 1. When dropping a girl to a cab or rickshaw, note down the license plate number. Insist the cab or rickshaw driver shows you his ID badge and take down the ID number. 2. Avoid sending a girl home alone at odd hours especially to far off places. 3. If a girl is travelling alone, make sure you stay on the phone with her or ensure you're in constant contact with her till she reaches her destination. 4. Make sure you are aware of the emergency numbers and do not hesitate to call them if a situation is sketchy or you and your friends are in a secluded area. 5. Remember to drop the girl right till her door, or at least till the lobby of the building. A lot can happen from the gate till the lobby. 6. Apps like Circle of 6 and On Watch help you relay your information immediately to friends and family by sending out an SMS or SOS of your location. With use of smartphones today, this is one of the best ways to ensure safety. 7. Always make sure you drop your female coworkers right to their car or to a cab. If you're taking the office drop ensure that the lady is not the last one to be dropped. 8. And lastly and most importantly, don't only look out for women you know. If you do see something happening do not hesitate to intervene
  7. 7. Educating children Gender sensitivity should be a part of school curriculum. Children should be taught to question gender stereotyping wherever they find it, whether in families or in the advertising and marketing of products. Zero tolerance to public drinking It is a familiar sight outside "wine" shops which serve hard liquor across India. Men consume cheap and industrial-strength alcohol and then start harassing women passing by. Arrest or fine those who consume liquor in public places such as parks. Public Transport Safety For a working woman, the daily commute to office should be a routine affair, not an adventure. A government plan to make photo IDs of bus and auto rickshaw drivers displayed prominently in the vehicle is a good first step towards making her feel safe. However, what would really go a long way is creating more public transportation operated by women — women drivers and auxiliary bus staff. Tougher laws In India, rape has been defined so narrowly that it excludes forced oral sex, or sodomy, or penetration by foreign objects. The government will have to include such crimes under the definition of rape. And there should be harsher punishment for rapists. What Men Should Do Let's admit it: most men — Indian men, especially — are sexists. And rape, or any sexual assault, is a symptom of this malaise. This attitude has to be purged. And re-learning has to start individually. Change the patriarchal mindset. Start doing what you disparage as "womanly" chores. Small steps, but start NOW. Sex Offender Registry Create a national database of those who are convicted of sexual offence. Their names, photographs, addresses, crimes and the court's perception of risk levels have to be registered. And, more importantly, the public should be able to access the registry. Just frown The next time you hear somebody make a sexist joke, frown. Frown hard at the person who says it and his friends who are laughing with him. Frown when somebody uses a cuss word that begins with "mother" or "sister". Frown when somebody refers to women disparagingly in public or private. Download that app Find yourself in a dangerous situation or being stalked down a dark alley? At the tap of a button on your smartphone, you can alert a chosen list of friends and relatives about your predicament. Apps like Circleof6 and On Watch send an SMS SOS and relay your location to kith and kin. Can somebody now design an app that sends an alert to the local police authorities too? Women traffic cops All states should have a women-only traffic police department. The men from this department should be transferred to handle regular law and order responsibilities. With women cops on the roads, men will eventually come to terms with female authority and women should feel safer. More cops, smarter cops Hire more cops. Hire more women in the police force. Also, ensure they are ever vigilant, that they are tech-equipped to communicate better with each other even about a hint of lawlessness as well as to track and capture criminals. 24x7 Cities Imagine what would happen if shopping malls, cinema halls and restaurants stayed open through the night instead of shuttering down by midnight. The streets would be lit and alive all night and would truly never be empty. Safer streets, right? More toilets please In Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar, lack of toilets in homes exposes women to humiliation and sexual violence. Public sanitation and government support for building toilets would go a long way in addressing this problem. SAFETY MEASURES
  8. 8. We believe that the status of women in the developing world is key to fighting and ending global poverty. They are the linchpins of their families, and therefore of their communities. They are powerful. With education, skills and basic resources, they can become catalysts for change. Women can help build a better world for all. Why Empowerment?In a society where men control the destiny of women, how is it possible to empower women? Simply encouraging women to resist the wishes of men would not only fail, but would create mistrust of any goodwill attempts from "the outside" to help rural communities. Women will gain power only when both men and women begin to respect and accept the contribution of women. Developing women's capacity for income generation without threatening men is key. Empowerment of women involves many things - economic opportunity, social equality, and personal rights. Women are deprived of these human rights, often as a matter of tradition. In rural areas, women are generally not perceived to have any meaningful income generation capacity, and hence, they are relegated mainly to household duties and cheap labor. Without the power to work and earn a good income, their voices are silenced. Even in matters of sex and child bearing, women often do not have the ability to oppose the wishes of their men. Education plays an important role in bringing about awareness on women's rights. When both boys and girls grow up with mutual respect and understanding of their capabilities and roles in the society, women are more likely to find their rightful place within the family and the community. But, sadly enough, rural education perpetuates the myth that boys are inherently superior to girls. This is further reinforced by the family, where even mothers tend to give more attention and opportunities to their boys.
  9. 9. Indicators for the Dimension ‘Power over Economic Resources’ i) % Female/Male operational land holdings (due to data gaps in assets) ii) % Females/Males with Bank Accounts in Scheduled Commercial Banks (with credit limit above Rs. 2 lakh) iii) Female/Male Estimated Earned Income Share per capita per annum. Data was collected on each of the above to estimate GEM for India and 35 States/UTs for 1996 and 2006. In the provisional Summary Report released on 8th March, 2009, All-India averages were applied (or adjustments were made for data gaps) for an indicator for a State/UT where no data was available. However, since this adjustment led to higher ranks for States/UTs where a political or economic activity was non-existent, such as the case of election to Gram Panchayats, instead of replacing the data gap with the All-India average, the score for that State/ UT for the Dimension(s) was based on the indicators for which data was available. The Dimension score was determined by dividing the total score for the indicators for which data was available, by the number of indicators for which data was available. Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is intended to measure women’s and men’s ability to participate actively in economic and political life and their command over economic resources. It focuses on opportunities and captures gender inequality in three key areas, ‘Political Participation and Decision-making Power’, ‘Economic Participation and Decision-making Power’ and ‘Power over Economic Resources’. The indicators used to estimate each of these dimensions are listed below: Indicators for the Dimension ‘Political Participation and Decision-making Power’ i) % Share of Parliamentary Seats (elected) ii) % Share of Seats in Legislature (elected) iii) % Share of Seats in Zilla Parishads (elected) iv) % Share of Seats in Gram Panchayats (elected) v) % Candidates in Electoral Process in National Parties vi) % Electors exercising the right to vote Indicators for the Dimension ‘Economic Participation and Decision-making Power’ i) % Share of officials in service in Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service ii) % Share of enrolment in medical and engineering colleges GEM
  10. 10. STATISTICS RELATED TO GENDER EMPOWERMENT MEASURE (GEM) Gender Empowerment Measure 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure 1996 . GEM Dimension 3: ‘Power Over Economic Resources’ • The 5 States/UTs with high scores on the ‘Power Over Economic Resources’ Index in 2006 were Meghalaya, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Pondicherry, Goa, and Mizoram. • Other States/UTs with scores above the All-India average of 0.319 were Kerala, NCT Delhi, Daman & Diu, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Lakshadweep, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Haryana. GEM Dimension 1: ‘Political Participation and Decision-making Power’ • The States/UTs with the best performance on Dimension 1, ‘Political Participation and Decision- making Power’ in 2006, were Punjab, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and West Bengal. • In 2006, both Punjab and Andaman & Nicobar Islands had a score above 0.700 for this Dimension with an Index value of 0.707 and 0.701 respectively. • Other States/UTs with 2006 scores above the All-India value of 0.625 on this Dimension were Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and West Bengal. • While Punjab moved up during the decade from third position to first position on this Dimension, West Bengal moved down from first to fifth position and Rajasthan from second to tenth position GEM Dimension 2: ‘Economic Participation and Decision-making Power’ • The States/UTs that achieved high scores on the ‘Economic Participation and Decision-making Power’ Index in 2006 and also in 1996 were Chandigarh, Goa, NCT Delhi, Punjab and Pondicherry. • Only Chandigarh had a score above 0.700 for this Dimension with an Index value of 0.715 in 2006. • In addition to the 5 States/UTs mentioned above, those scoring above the All-India value of 0.546 on this Dimension in 2006, were Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Sikkim, Maharashtra, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
  11. 11. 1.Increase responsiveness to the protection needs of women and girls; investigate gender-based and sexual violence; and end impunity regarding violations of the human rights of women and girls. 2. Consult with civil society, including local women’s groups and networks, to ensure collection of information from all stakeholders and attention to the specific needs, concerns and experiences of women and girls in the implementation of peacekeeping operations. 4.Ensure necessary financial and human resources for gender mainstreaming, including for capacity-building activities, as well as for targeted projects for women and girls, as part of approved mission budgets. 6.Existing legal and social barriers for women and adolescent girls to employment and educational opportunities do not vanish with the end of the conflict. Targeted legislation and other interventions are needed to overcome these barriers. Legislation is necessary to enable women and adolescent girls to receive credit, to buy, rent or inherit land and property, and to be legally recognized as heads of households, widows, divorcees and parents. 3.Ensure that the principles of gender equality and nondiscrimination are considered during the formulation of constitutions in the post-conflict era; that legal reforms are based on gender analysis of civil and criminal law, in particular in the areas of nationality, property and inheritance, and address criminalization of violence against women and girls, including sexual violence. Our Recommendations for Empowerment Of Women 7.Increase the number of programmes for child soldiers and fully incorporate attention to the specific situation and needs of girl soldiers, and identify means to support child soldiers, including girls, who do not enter DDR programmes. 8.Ensure full access of women and girls to all resources and benefits provided in reintegration programmes, including skills development programmes. 5.Promote sensitization of the judiciary on women’s human rights to raise their awareness of and capacity to address gender issues. 9.Develop clear strategies and action plans (with targets and timetables) on the incorporation of gender perspectives in rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes, including monitoring mechanisms, and the development of targeted activities, with adequate resources, focused on specific constraints facing women and girls in post-conflict situations.
  12. 12. In this contemporary world, women need to gain the same amount of power that men have. Now, it is time to forget that men are the only holders of power. In India, women are still facing different obstacles in male-dominated cultures. The things are related to women’s status and their future. However, I believe that Indian women are slowly getting empowerment in the sectors like education, politics, the work force and even more power within their own households. The worth of civilization can be arbitrated by the place given to women in the society. According to Hindu mythology, the word ‘Ardhanarishvara’ meaning "The Lord whose half is a woman". What is the value of a man without a woman? We shouldn’t forget that there are many temples in our country devoted to the Goddesses and men also use to visit the temples for worshiping them. We need both male and female each other. We must work all together and both needs each other to survive and flourish. 1. It is the duty of law enforcement agencies to prevent crimes against women but they fail to solve this scourge alone. 2. Teamwork by people is the key to eradicating this menace. People must come forward to help in rooting out such social evils. Law enforcing agencies cannot work alone. 3. When the people are dynamic in their drive against crimes, the police cannot remain a mute spectator though they are supposed to be the protectors of citizens. They will be forced to dispense their bounden duties. 4. Youth should be motivated to be socially responsible and protect women. This is the need of the hour. 5. Everyone must think of changing society. If we all abide by the rules, women in our cities will surely be safer.