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Walk to Equality
Ensuring Safety and Empowerment of Women
DESIGNING A SAFER WOMAN
DESIGNING A SECURE WOMAN
DESIGNING A FREE WOMAN
1. AYUSH VATSA
2. GAURAV SRIVASTAVA
3. ANKIT CHAUHAN
4. ISHA ARORA
5. SHEFALI GUPTA
A photojournalist was gang-raped in the Indian city of Mumbai,
evoking comparisons with a similar assault in New Delhi in
December that led to nationwide protests and a revision of the
country's rape laws.
The attack on Thursday night triggered protests and an outcry on
social media, with many users shocked that it took place in
Mumbai, widely considered to be India's safest city for women.
All over India and neighboring countries, the outrage is palpable.
Public demonstrations question why the world’s largest democracy
has failed to protect its women.
Today’s modern educated Indian woman living in a metropolis is not unlike
one you would find in New York City. She gets her coffee from Starbucks and
clothes from Zara. She most likely has a Smartphone which she uses to Tweet
and post on Facebook. But the major difference between this woman in India
and one in the U.S. is the shocking statistic she lives with – a woman in India
is raped every 20 minutes, according to the National Crime Records Bureau.
This isn’t sexual violence in villages, but in public places in developed cities,
as this recent incident showed. Most rapes remain unreported for fear of
stigma or family rejection. Of the few that are reported, conviction is unusual.
Unfortunately this case is neither isolated, nor the most brutal the nation has
seen. So why did it cause such a stir? The 23-year-old victim was returning
home after watching “Life of Pi” with a male friend, in an urban area of New
Delhi. She could have been any woman, not unlike you and I. Unexpectedly,
urbanization and education is creating a further divide between the sexes.
The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the
past few millennia.From equal status with men in ancient times through the low
points of the medieval period,to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers,
the history of women in India has been eventful. In modern India, women have
held high offices in India including that of the President, Prime
Minister, Speaker of Lok Sabha and Leader of the Opposition. As of 2011,
the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok
Sabha (Lower House of the parliament) were women. However, women in India
continue to face atrocities such as rape, acid throwing, dowry killings while young
girls are forced into prostitution.According to a global poll conducted
by Thomson Reuters, India is the "fourth most dangerous country" in the world
for women, and the worst country for women among the G20 countries.
From 1995 to 2005, the total rate of sexual violence committed against Indian
female residents age 12 or older declined 64% from a peak of 5.0 per 1,000
females in 1995 to 1.8 per 1,000 females in 2005 .It then remained unchanged
from 2005 to 2010. Sexual violence against females includes completed,
attempted, or threatened rape or sexual assault. In 2010, females nationwide
experienced about 270,000 rape or sexual assault victimizations, compared to
about 556,000 in 1995.
Completed rape or sexual assault accounted for more than 50% of the total rape or
sexual violent victimizations in 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, the rate of
completed rape or sexual assault declined from 3.6 per 1,000 females to 1.1 per
1,000. Over the same period, the rates of attempted rape or sexual assault and
victimizations involving the threat of rape remained relatively stable.
Note: Estimates based on 2-year rolling averages centered on the most recent
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey,
*From 1995 to 2010, the estimated annual rate of female rape or sexual assault victimizations
declined 58%, from 5.0 victimizations per 1,000 females age 12 or older to 2.1 per 1,000.
*In 2005-10, 78% of sexual violence involved an offender who was a family member, intimate
partner, friend, or acquaintance.
*In 2005-10, the offender was armed with a gun, knife, or other weapon in 11% of rape or
sexual assault victimizations.
*The percentage of rape or sexual assault victimizations reported to police increased to a high of
56% in 2003 before declining to 35% in 2010, a level last seen in 1995.
*The percentage of females who were injured during a rape or sexual assault and received some
type of treatment for their injuries increased from 26% in 1994-98 to 35% in 2005-10.
*In 2005-10, about 80% of female rape or sexual assault victims treated for injuries received
care in a hospital, doctor’s office, or emergency room, compared to 65% in 1994-98.
*In 2005-10, about 1 in 4 (23%) rape or sexual assault victims received help or advice from a
victim service agency
Of the 36% of rape or sexual assault victimizations reported to police in
2005-10, about 64% were reported directly by the victims, an increase
from 50% in 1994-98. The percentage of victimizations known to police
because they were reported by another household member declined
from 26% in 1994-98 to 10% in 2005-10, while the percentage reported
by an official other than the police increased from 4% to 14%.
Of the rape or sexual assault victimizations that were reported to police
in 2005-10, 28% were reported in an attempt to protect the victim from
future victimizations, and 25% were reported to try to stop or prevent
escalation of the victimization as it was occurring. Among rape or
sexual assault victimizations that went unreported, the most common
reason victims gave for not reporting the crime during 2005-10 was fear
of reprisal (20%). The percentage of victimizations that went unreported
because the victim considered the incident a personal matter declined
from 23% in 1994-98 to 13% in 2005-10.
NEGLIGENCE OF POLICE AND
AUTHORITIES LEADING TO RAPE
AND SEXUAL ASSAULT CAUSING
1. When dropping a girl to a cab or rickshaw, note down
the license plate number. Insist the cab or rickshaw
driver shows you his ID badge and take down the ID
2. Avoid sending a girl home alone at odd hours
especially to far off places.
3. If a girl is travelling alone, make sure you stay on the
phone with her or ensure you're in constant contact with
her till she reaches her destination.
4. Make sure you are aware of the emergency numbers
and do not hesitate to call them if a situation is sketchy
or you and your friends are in a secluded area.
5. Remember to drop the girl right till her door, or at
least till the lobby of the building. A lot can happen from
the gate till the lobby.
6. Apps like Circle of 6 and On Watch help you relay
your information immediately to friends and family by
sending out an SMS or SOS of your location. With use of
smartphones today, this is one of the best ways to ensure
7. Always make sure you drop your female coworkers
right to their car or to a cab. If you're taking the office
drop ensure that the lady is not the last one to be
8. And lastly and most importantly, don't only look out
for women you know. If you do see something happening
do not hesitate to intervene
Gender sensitivity should be a part of school curriculum. Children should be taught to question
gender stereotyping wherever they find it, whether in families or in the advertising and
marketing of products.
Zero tolerance to public drinking
It is a familiar sight outside "wine" shops which serve hard liquor across India. Men consume
cheap and industrial-strength alcohol and then start harassing women passing by. Arrest or fine
those who consume liquor in public places such as parks.
Public Transport Safety
For a working woman, the daily commute to office should be a routine affair, not an adventure.
A government plan to make photo IDs of bus and auto rickshaw drivers displayed prominently
in the vehicle is a good first step towards making her feel safe. However, what would really go a
long way is creating more public transportation operated by women â€” women drivers and
auxiliary bus staff.
In India, rape has been defined so narrowly that it excludes forced oral sex, or sodomy, or
penetration by foreign objects. The government will have to include such crimes under the
definition of rape. And there should be harsher punishment for rapists.
What Men Should Do
Let's admit it: most men â€” Indian men, especially â€” are sexists. And rape, or any sexual
assault, is a symptom of this malaise. This attitude has to be purged. And re-learning has to
start individually. Change the patriarchal mindset. Start doing what you disparage as "womanly"
chores. Small steps, but start NOW.
Sex Offender Registry
Create a national database of those who are convicted of sexual offence. Their names,
photographs, addresses, crimes and the court's perception of risk levels have to be registered.
And, more importantly, the public should be able to access the registry.
The next time you hear somebody make a sexist joke, frown. Frown hard at the person who
says it and his friends who are laughing with him. Frown when somebody uses a cuss word that
begins with "mother" or "sister". Frown when somebody refers to women disparagingly in
public or private.
Download that app
Find yourself in a dangerous situation or being stalked down a dark alley? At the tap of a button
on your smartphone, you can alert a chosen list of friends and relatives about your
predicament. Apps like Circleof6 and On Watch send an SMS SOS and relay your location to kith
and kin. Can somebody now design an app that sends an alert to the local police authorities
Women traffic cops
All states should have a women-only traffic police department. The men from this department
should be transferred to handle regular law and order responsibilities. With women cops on the
roads, men will eventually come to terms with female authority and women should feel safer.
More cops, smarter cops
Hire more cops. Hire more women in the police force. Also, ensure they are ever vigilant, that
they are tech-equipped to communicate better with each other even about a hint of
lawlessness as well as to track and capture criminals.
Imagine what would happen if shopping malls, cinema halls and restaurants stayed open
through the night instead of shuttering down by midnight. The streets would be lit and alive all
night and would truly never be empty. Safer streets, right?
More toilets please
In Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar, lack of toilets in homes exposes women to humiliation
and sexual violence. Public sanitation and government support for building toilets would go a
long way in addressing this problem.
We believe that the status of women in the
developing world is key to fighting and ending
global poverty. They are the linchpins of their
families, and therefore of their communities. They
are powerful. With education, skills and basic
resources, they can become catalysts for change.
Women can help build a better world for all.
Why Empowerment?In a society where men control the destiny of women, how is it
possible to empower women? Simply encouraging women to resist the
wishes of men would not only fail, but would create mistrust of any
goodwill attempts from "the outside" to help rural communities. Women
will gain power only when both men and women begin to respect and
accept the contribution of women. Developing women's capacity for
income generation without threatening men is key.
Empowerment of women involves many things - economic
opportunity, social equality, and personal rights. Women are deprived of
these human rights, often as a matter of tradition. In rural areas, women
are generally not perceived to have any meaningful income generation
capacity, and hence, they are relegated mainly to household duties and
cheap labor. Without the power to work and earn a good income, their
voices are silenced. Even in matters of sex and child bearing, women
often do not have the ability to oppose the wishes of their men.
Education plays an important role in bringing about awareness on
women's rights. When both boys and girls grow up with mutual respect
and understanding of their capabilities and roles in the society, women
are more likely to find their rightful place within the family and the
community. But, sadly enough, rural education perpetuates the myth
that boys are inherently superior to girls. This is further reinforced by
the family, where even mothers tend to give more attention and
opportunities to their boys.
Indicators for the Dimension ‘Power over
i) % Female/Male operational land holdings (due
to data gaps in assets)
ii) % Females/Males with Bank Accounts in Scheduled
Commercial Banks (with credit limit above
Rs. 2 lakh)
iii) Female/Male Estimated Earned Income Share
per capita per annum.
Data was collected on each of the above to estimate
GEM for India and 35 States/UTs for 1996 and
2006. In the provisional Summary Report released
on 8th March, 2009, All-India averages were applied
(or adjustments were made for data gaps) for an indicator
for a State/UT where no data was available.
However, since this adjustment led to higher ranks
for States/UTs where a political or economic activity
was non-existent, such as the case of election to
Gram Panchayats, instead of replacing the data gap
with the All-India average, the score for that State/
UT for the Dimension(s) was based on the indicators
for which data was available. The Dimension
score was determined by dividing the total score for
the indicators for which data was available, by the
number of indicators for which data was available.
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is intended
to measure women’s and men’s ability to participate
actively in economic and political life and their command
over economic resources. It focuses on opportunities
and captures gender inequality in three key
areas, ‘Political Participation and Decision-making
Power’, ‘Economic Participation and Decision-making
Power’ and ‘Power over Economic Resources’.
The indicators used to estimate each of these dimensions
are listed below:
Indicators for the Dimension ‘Political
Participation and Decision-making Power’
i) % Share of Parliamentary Seats (elected)
ii) % Share of Seats in Legislature (elected)
iii) % Share of Seats in Zilla Parishads (elected)
iv) % Share of Seats in Gram Panchayats (elected)
v) % Candidates in Electoral Process in National
vi) % Electors exercising the right to vote
Indicators for the Dimension ‘Economic
Participation and Decision-making Power’
i) % Share of officials in service in Indian Administrative
Service, Indian Police Service and Indian
ii) % Share of enrolment in medical and engineering
STATISTICS RELATED TO GENDER
EMPOWERMENT MEASURE (GEM)
Gender Empowerment Measure 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure 1996
GEM Dimension 3: ‘Power Over Economic
• The 5 States/UTs with high scores on the ‘Power
Over Economic Resources’ Index in 2006 were
Meghalaya, Andaman and Nicobar Islands,
Pondicherry, Goa, and Mizoram.
• Other States/UTs with scores above the All-India
average of 0.319 were Kerala, NCT Delhi, Daman
& Diu, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Lakshadweep,
Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Karnataka,
Maharashtra, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh,
Manipur and Haryana.
GEM Dimension 1: ‘Political Participation
and Decision-making Power’
• The States/UTs with the best performance on
Dimension 1, ‘Political Participation and Decision-
making Power’ in 2006, were Punjab, Andaman
& Nicobar Islands, Himachal Pradesh,
Haryana and West Bengal.
• In 2006, both Punjab and Andaman & Nicobar
Islands had a score above 0.700 for this Dimension
with an Index value of 0.707 and 0.701
• Other States/UTs with 2006 scores above the
All-India value of 0.625 on this Dimension
were Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra
Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh
and West Bengal.
• While Punjab moved up during the decade from
third position to first position on this Dimension,
West Bengal moved down from first to fifth position
and Rajasthan from second to tenth position
GEM Dimension 2: ‘Economic Participation
and Decision-making Power’
• The States/UTs that achieved high scores on
the ‘Economic Participation and Decision-making
Power’ Index in 2006 and also in 1996
were Chandigarh, Goa, NCT Delhi, Punjab and
• Only Chandigarh had a score above 0.700 for
this Dimension with an Index value of 0.715
• In addition to the 5 States/UTs mentioned above,
those scoring above the All-India value of 0.546
on this Dimension in 2006, were Karnataka,
Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana,
Sikkim, Maharashtra, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
1.Increase responsiveness to the protection needs of women and
girls; investigate gender-based and sexual violence; and end
impunity regarding violations of the human rights of women
2. Consult with civil society, including local women’s groups
and networks, to ensure collection of information from all
stakeholders and attention to the specific needs, concerns and
experiences of women and girls in the implementation of
4.Ensure necessary financial and human resources for gender
mainstreaming, including for capacity-building activities, as
well as for targeted projects for women and girls, as part of approved
6.Existing legal and social barriers for women and adolescent girls to
employment and educational opportunities do not vanish with the end of
the conflict. Targeted legislation and other interventions are needed to
overcome these barriers. Legislation is necessary to enable women and
adolescent girls to receive credit, to buy, rent or inherit land and
property, and to
be legally recognized as heads of households, widows, divorcees and
3.Ensure that the principles of gender equality and nondiscrimination
are considered during the formulation of
constitutions in the post-conflict era; that legal reforms are
based on gender analysis of civil and criminal law, in
particular in the areas of nationality, property and inheritance,
and address criminalization of violence against women and
girls, including sexual violence.
Our Recommendations for Empowerment Of Women
7.Increase the number of programmes for child soldiers and
fully incorporate attention to the specific situation and needs
of girl soldiers, and identify means to support child soldiers,
including girls, who do not enter DDR programmes.
8.Ensure full access of women and girls to all resources and
benefits provided in reintegration programmes, including
skills development programmes.
5.Promote sensitization of the judiciary on women’s human
rights to raise their awareness of and capacity to address gender
9.Develop clear strategies and action plans (with targets and
timetables) on the incorporation of gender perspectives in
rehabilitation and reconstruction programmes, including
monitoring mechanisms, and the development of targeted
activities, with adequate resources, focused on specific
constraints facing women and girls in post-conflict situations.
In this contemporary world, women need to gain the same amount of
power that men have. Now, it is time to forget that men are the only
holders of power. In India, women are still facing different obstacles in
male-dominated cultures. The things are related to women’s status and
their future. However, I believe that Indian women are slowly getting
empowerment in the sectors like education, politics, the work force and
even more power within their own households. The worth of civilization
can be arbitrated by the place given to women in the society. According
to Hindu mythology, the word ‘Ardhanarishvara’ meaning "The Lord
whose half is a woman". What is the value of a man without a woman?
We shouldn’t forget that there are many temples in our country devoted
to the Goddesses and men also use to visit the temples for worshiping
them. We need both male and female each other. We must work all
together and both needs each other to survive and flourish.
1. It is the duty of law enforcement agencies to prevent
crimes against women but they fail to solve this
2. Teamwork by people is the key to eradicating this
menace. People must come forward to help in rooting
out such social evils. Law enforcing agencies cannot
3. When the people are dynamic in their drive against
crimes, the police cannot remain a mute spectator
though they are supposed to be the protectors of
citizens. They will be forced to dispense their bounden
4. Youth should be motivated to be socially responsible
and protect women. This is the need of the hour.
5. Everyone must think of changing society. If we all
abide by the rules, women in our cities will surely be
1.U.N. REPORTS ON WOMEN, PEACE AND
2.BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS (BJS)
6.IMPHAL FREE PRESS.