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  • 1. Sowing Prosperity-Boosting Agricultural Productivity  Asif Muhammed  Yash Malpani  Abhrajit Roy  Ashish Pandav  Ashima Dhankar Team: MasterMinds
  • 2. 1 Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix 70% workforce only contribute only 13.1% GDP 2007-2012 Economic growth :8.16%pa Agriculture growth: 3.6% pa Average Global Productivity : 4.2 ton/hectare Average Indian Productivity:3.1 ton/hectare Contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP 1990 : 30% 2010:14.5% Agricultural Productivity in India is hard hit Identify key problem areas Analyze the impact of the problems Prioritize the problems based on impact Propose solution for each problem Differentiated Range Communication Decline in GDP Increase in import Issues Effects Roadmap
  • 3. Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependence on monsoons
  • 4. 1 Arable land area : 160 million hectares Number of agricultural holdings: 121 million Number of S&M farmers : 99 million Average size of land holdings: < 2 hectares Gross irrigated crop area : 82.6 million hectares Facts & Figures Disguised unemployment Poor productivity of labor Liberalization & Globalization effects Challenges faced in credit, technology and markets. Facing challenges in value chain integration High vulnerability to external factors like market volatility and climatic challenge Poor infrastructure and cold storage causing world's highest food spoilage rate Challenges Faced Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix 52.6 52.8 53 53.2 53.4 53.6 53.8 54 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09 Percentage of Agricultural Land Agricultural Land (km square) 15650000 15700000 15750000 15800000 15850000 15900000 15950000 16000000 16050000 Jan-03 Jan-04 Jan-05 Jan-06 Jan-07 Jan-08 Jan-09
  • 5. 1 Solutions Better agricultural practices Better Government Policies Technology (India spends only 0.5 % against most developing countries who spent 1% ) i) High yielding crop varieties ii) Contract farming iii) Proper water management iv) Diversification to high value crops and allied activities v) Improved farming techniques like organic farming & horticulture i) Better protection of farmers against imports : tariffs needs to be strengthened ii) Support systems have to extended to high value crops as well iii) Comprehensive social protection programs are required iv) Reforms to improve efficiency of domestic markets and delivery systems. v) Organization of farmers into groups/associations and seek the help of private sector vi) Providing irrigation facilities throughout i) Increasing use of media and IT like e-choupal and all i) Improvements in Dry land technology. ii) Increased use of advanced technologies like zero tillage and all iii) Better use of bio-technology including genomics and bioinformatics etc v) Give more stress on mobile technolgy Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix
  • 6. Agriculture Grid System 1 GAP  Yields are low  Quality is inconsistent  Farmers are poor  Post-harvest losses  Lack of knowledge about markets  Missing link between lab to land  Extension personnel per farm family (1:300 to1:2000) Technology generation Technology dissemination Pre-Sowing Post-Harvers Markets Pre-Harvest Village Knowledge Centre Newspaper Radio TV Program Kissan Call Centre SMS Video Conf. Internet E-Choupal Agrisnet Esagu Web Portals Agriculture information Systems Poor literacy level Limited door delivery information Constraint on power supply Restriction by policies Local Languages Lack of reliable connectivity Geographic Information System Soil Management Precision Farming Remote sensing Internet information systems Decision Support System Satellite Spectrophometer Web based agriculture Constraint on bandwidth User friendly, easy to use systems Changing mind-set of farmer for benefits of IT Current Scenario Information need of farmers Current ICT Programs Way ahead E agriculture Challenges Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix
  • 7. 1 Per hectare consumption of fertilizer in selected countries- 2009 Country Consumption per hectare (N+P+K)(Kg) China 396 Egypt 375 Korea 284 Pakistan 204.9 Bangladesh 188.3 India 156.1 World Bank Data •Educating Farmers • Enhancing the availability & distribution network • Providing financial means (Credit)- although policies are there but the coverage is low Solutions Imbalanced Fertilization As per scientific suggestions the use of N,P,K fertilizers should be in the ratio of 4:2:1. Current NPK Ratio Utilization – All India Year N P K 2009-10 4.3 2 1 2010-11 4.7 2.3 1 2011-12 6.5 2.9 1 Main reasons for low usage of Potassium and Phosphate is Price DifferentiationPrice Ratio Year DAP/Urea MOP/Urea 2009-10 1.9:1 0.9:1 2010-11 2.1:1 1.0:1 2011-12 4:5:1 3:1 Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix
  • 8. 1 Nutrient Based Subsidy FY2011-12 FY2012-13 FY2013-14 Nitrogen 27153 24000 20875 Phosphorous 32338 21804 18679 Potash 26756 24000 18333 Sulphur 1677 1677 1677 Current Subsidy System Subsidy on the Nitrogenous fertilizers fluctuates depending on the cost incurred by the fertilizer manufacturing company Government decides the MRP of Nitrogenous fertilizers Subsidy amount of Potash and Phosphorous based fertilizers is fixed Therefore Potash and Phosphorous based fertilizers increases the MRP when more cost is incurred 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 Trend in Potash consumption Solutions •Extending Nutrient Based Subsidy to Nitrogen implementing direct transfer of subsidy •Securing Potash assets abroad so as to ensure supply as well as hedge against price inflation in case of artificial shortage • Promoting investments so as to boost indigenous production • Promoting the use of complex fertilizers such as 10:26:26 & 12:32:16 Imbalanced Fertilization Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix
  • 9. Imbalanced Fertilization Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix Food Subsidies in India in 2012-13 : 75,336 crores Foodgrains lost per year : 50,000 crores Percentage of chidren who are underweight or malnourished : 40 Around 30-40 % of all fruits & vegetables get wasted when they move from grower to consumer More than 30% of grains supplied through the public distribution system are lost because of storage constraints. India's storage facility : 70.5 million tonnes High food inflation : Around 12% India's cold storage capacity Estimated at 29.7 million tonnes Requirement 61.1 million tonnes Facts & Figures Poor infrastructure : Road, Rails, Power Lack of refrigerated transport Harsh weather conditions Corruption Absence of good transport hubs Bad post-harvest management Insufficient storage capacity Uncoordinated logistics Fragmented supply chain stakeholders Middleman is not working for the interest of farmers Inadequate crop planning Reasons of food grain wastage
  • 10. Imbalanced Fertilization Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix Modernize and upgrade the agricultural supply chains Improve the infrastructure Promote food processing industries Remove the export restrictions --> farmers will learn to improve quality and consistency --> will ensure that our farmers are competent and produce good quality products Strong government policies : issues in land acquisition and all causes uncertainty in investments in infrastructure Accountability and transparency at bureaucracy Price volatility has to be checked. Proper education and training of farmers. Proper grain bags for carriage. Small multipurpose low cost storage facilities Better food processing techniques Low cost small scale mobile processing technologies can be achieved through network of distributed franchises Use of ICT's which would help farmers to forecast planting decisions, global supply and demand projections ICT's to help to provide information about daily price information like e-choupal Enablement of larger private sector players Policies to favor Distributed production Steps to universalize Micro financing Simplification and reduction of agricultural transport regulations Solutions
  • 11. Imbalanced Fertilization Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Food Grain Wastage Dependency on monsoons Appendix According to Dr T.N. Balasubramanian, Consultant to Dr M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai- Due to frequent weather aberrations- annual per capita food grain production: 207Kg(1995) declined to 186Kg (2006) per capita food grains availability: 177 to 155 Kg Monsoonal torrents supply over 70% of India’s annual rainfall Crops heavily dependent on rainfall: cotton, rice, oilseeds, and coarse grains. Rain-fed agriculture: 60% of India’s total net sown area SW monsoon is important: 72% of India’s annual rainfall is from the SW Monsoon which supports nearly 75% of the Kharif crop and India gets nearly 53% of its food from the Kharif season (June-October) as compared to the Rabi season (November- February), where the production is around 47%. Facts & Figures Channeling perennial rivers ·Infra structural provision for rain water harvesting Modern farming techniques Developing economical artificial irrigation techniques Better weather forecasting in turn being used to make farmers aware of the possible rainfall. Knowledge about alternatives such as sowing a different variety of crop Solutions
  • 12. Case Overview Key Problem Areas Small Land Holdings Technology Constraints Imbalanced Fertilization Food Grain Wastage Dependence on monsoons Appendix Focus Group Interviews  Mr. M.M. Rathi, National Fertilizers Limited, India  DMO Godown, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh  Mr. Chouksy, Chief Manager, M.P. State Co-operative Marketing Federation Farmers Industry Experts Distributors  M/s Pragati Traders, Pipariya, India  Mr. Pali Bhatia, Itarsi, Madhya Pradesh, India  M/s Kisan Krashi Sewa Kendra, Bareli, India  M/s Agro Deal, Bhopal, India  M/s Maheshwari Fertilizers, Pipariya, India  Mr. Madho Singh Patel, Piariya, Madhya Pradesh  Mr. Rajneesh Kumar, Dabka, Madhya Pradesh  Mr. Alok Rathi, Bareli, Madhya Pradesh  Mr. Sadulmulaji, Haripara, Gujarat  Mr. Suresh Taori, Pandurna, Maharashtra References  http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2000-01/chap813.pdf  http://ies.lbl.gov/iespubs/41846.pdf  http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=57975  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_India  http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx