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    Manthan iitm team Manthan iitm team Presentation Transcript

    • Manthan 2013 Malnutrition FEEDING INDIA: A NEW COST-EFFECTIVE AND IMPLEMENTABLE MODEL TO COUNTER MALNUTRITION.
    • a) Rates of malnutrition among India’s children are almost five times more than in China, and twice those in Sub- Saharan Africa. b) Too often, new mothers are adolescents.75% of them are anemic and most put on less weight during pregnancy than they should - 5 kilograms on average compared to the worldwide average of close to 10kgs. c) In 1998/99 (i.e. the latest date for which nationally representative data are available), 47% of children under three in India were underweight and 18% were severely underweight. d) A further 26% were mildly underweight so that, in total, underweight afflicted almost three-quarters of Indian children. Malnutrition in India: Facts and figures e) The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among children and women of reproductive age in India is also consistently among the highest in the world. For example, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among preschool children is over 75%. 52% of all ever-married women aged 15 to 49 years have some degree of anemia, with the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women even higher (up to 87%). f) Up to 60% of preschool children have subclinical VADc; and, about one in four school children have goiter, a sign of severe iodine deficiency.
    • Components of a Solution 1. Short term policy improvements to PDS and ICDS 2. Long term policy innovation that takes into account the following socio-economic factors (statistically proven to affect malnutrition): a) Education and employment opportunities b) Information to mothers during pregnancy and initial stages of child growth about appropriate practices of child-rearing c) Improvement in sanitary conditions d) Improvement of social status of women e) Improvement of agricultural productivity
    • Solution Snapshot Anganwadi centers: 1. Retraining workshops for AWC workers will be held in a phased manner at the state level. 2. Ensure and incentivise community participation in AWC's by: a) Every AWC area should have a women's self-help group attached to it who assist the AWC worker in their duties. b) The self-help group women and women whose families have school-going children should be given extra nutritional supplements. A roster that is regularly updated of families with pregnant women and/ or children below the age of two should be made and regular health check-ups should be made in these families every two months. ICDS improvements: Now, ICDS programme design should be modified in this manner: 1. The nutritional supplements should focus on providing iron as anaemia is the most common problem amongst child-bearing women in India. 2. The dissemination of information to pregnant women about breastfeeding practices, should also be done through house visits outlined above. Along with that, information about financial independence, such as opening their own bank accounts, etc. should also be disseminated.
    • Solution Snapshot Crop biofortification: 1. Now, there is a pilot project worth Rs. 200 crores, in collaboration with the company HarvestPlus. This project should be expanded. 2. The company, Nirmal Seeds, that sells the biofortified seeds, should be contacted and a contract taken out to buy some seeds from them to dispense from AWC centres to women farmers in the community through the self-help group. 3. Also, the produce of the biofortified crop should be supplied to fair price shops and AWC's and through the midday meal scheme so that the food provided is cheap but nutritious. 4. Further, on the biofortified crop projects, women should be employed as farmers.
    • Solution Snapshot PDS improvements: 1. The PDS scheme should be rectified by making a state-run transport system that delivers the goods straight to the shops itself to prevent leakages. 2. Further, the Fair Price Shops must be run by NGOs or Women Self-Help Groups, rather than by private parties. 3. Improvements on the lines of the Gujarat PDS system can be applied at the national level. They are as follows: • Families are provided a bar-coded ration card, paired with their biometric data. • The ration card is issued based on the provision of multiple identity proofs including address proof and photo id. • This card is swiped and exchanged with bar-coded coupons at e-Gram centers that serve a large area. • The coupons are then exchanged at Fair Price Shops. • The FPS owner avails compensation on submission of the coupons. The above measure solves the problem of the leakages that currently plague the system, and ensure that the right families receive the right food efficiently.
    • Implementation Challenges The scheme requires significant political commitment and proactiveness. While most measures proposed are low-cost and high-impact, a few of them (such as the new ration card scheme) are cost- intensive and require appropriation of funds and infrastructure. The interconnected nature of the scheme is an advantage in that it increases the reach and impact of the programme and ties in various socio-economic benefits to the programme as well. However, it also entails the challenge that a proper network of transport and infrastructure to facilitate this interconnectivity must be established
    • Rationale behind this model ● The current ICDS programme has an excessive focus on providing nutritional supplements. The target group of pregnant mothers and children below the age of two is also largely neglected by the AWC workers. This solution, by enhancing community participation and reducing the workload on the AWC workers, ensures that attention is paid to this group. ● The PDS programme is plagued by corruption and leakages. Ghost cards, unintended beneficiaries and illegal resale of items on the open market cause great financial burden to the system. This model addresses those issues by applying innovative methods that have been statistically proven successful in the states of Gujarat and Chhattisgarh. ● Social status of women has been linked with a very high correlation coefficient to child health and malnutrition. This model aims to provide employment and dignity to women in malnutritioned areas while at the same time growing produce that could provide essential minerals to the Indian populace at cheap prices (Biofortified crops.)
    • References - 1 1. Child malnutrition in India: Putting the smallest first-The Economist 2. Govt to kick off Nutri-Farms in select dists to fight malnutrition-The Indian Express 3. A leadership Agenda for Action 4. Bringing science and development. 5. Accelerating Progress toward Reducing 6. Child Malnutrition in India-IFPRI 7. Helping India Combat Persistently High Rates of Malnutrition- The world Bank
    • References - 2 8. Public Distribution System in India by Arnab Saha 9. The Chhattisgarh Model of Public Distribution System and its Food Security Bill 10. ORGANISATION AND WORKING OF PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN INDIA: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS : Dr. Brij Pal, Assistant Professor, SA Jain College, Ambala, Haryana, India. 11. India: National Food Security Bill: Singh and Associates 12. Child malnutrition in India: Why does it persist? Report by Sam Mendelson with input from Dr. Samir Chaudhuri 13. All you wanted to know about the food security bill-rediff.com