TOWARDS CLEANING INDIA:
PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING WATER AND PROPER
SANITATION FACILITY TO ALL
• TEAM COORDINATOR-SITESH KUMAR SINGH
• EMAIL ID-SITESHLPU@GMAIL.COM
• CONTACT NO.-8437162880
SAMUEL TAYLOR SAID
”WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE, NOR ANY DROP TO DRINK”
• AS THIS QUOTE IS SAID BY SAMUEL TAYLOR
FOR THE SAILORS, BUT SEEING THE PRESENT
CONDITION OF WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA
OUR COMING GENERATION WILL SAY THIS
LINE THINKING OF US.
• ILL HEALTH
• INCREASED DEATH RATE(ABOUT 5 MILLION
• PEOPLE DIE OF WATER BORNE DISEASES
• CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
• NO EASY APPROACH
• LACK OF AWARENESS
• NEED CAPITAL INVESTMENT
• NEED LARGE AREA
• NO PROPER IMPLEMENTATION AND SERIOUS
PRESENT CONDITION OF WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA
• A 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated
sewage is single most important cause for pollution
of surface and ground water and a major source
for bad sanitation factor in India.
• A 1992 World Health Organization study is
claimed to have reported that out of India's 3,119
towns and cities, just 209 have partial sewage
treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater
• A 1995 report claimed 114 indian cities were
dumping untreated sewage and partially cremated
bodies directly into the various rivers of India like in
• According to another 2005 report, sewage
discharged from cities and towns is the
predominant cause of water pollution in India.
• Investment is needed to bridge the gap
between 29000 million litre per day of
sewage india generates, and a treatment
capacity of mere 6000 million litre per day.
• The scientific analysis of water samples from
1995 to 2008 indicates that the organic and
bacterial contamination are severe in water
bodies of india. This is mainly due to
discharge of domestic wastewater in untreated
form, mostly from the urban centers of india.
WHAT GOVERNMENT HAS ACTUALLY DONE TO IMPROVE??
• The central pollution control board, a ministry of
environment & forests government of india entity,
has established a national water quality
monitoring network comprising 1429 monitoring
stations in 27 states and 6 in union territories on
various rivers and water bodies across the
• The monitoring network covers 293 rivers, 94
lakes, 9 tanks, 41 ponds, 8 creeks, 23 canals, 18
drains and 411 wells distributed across india.
• Water samples are routinely analyzed for 28
parameters including dissolved oxygen,
bacteriological and other internationally
established parameters for water quality.
Additionally 9 trace metals parameters and 28
pesticide residues are analyzed. Biomonitoring is
also carried out on specific locations.
• WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS IN THOSE PLANTS?
• Employees come their, mark their present and roam
here and their during their working hours.
• WHAT HAS TO HAPPEN THEIR??
• Employees should at their offices and visit near by
water sources to see what are the main causes of
water pollution for that source and what they can
do to reduce the pollution in that source.
• They should organize rounds and curb all those
companies which are dumping waste water in that
source and they should be heavily fined and given
CONDITION OF INDIAN RIVERS
• BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
• In 2008, the water quality monitoring found almost
all rivers with high levels of BOD. The worst
pollution, in decreasing order, were found in river
markanda (590 mg O/l), followed by river kali
(364), river amlakhadi (353), yamuna canal (247),
river yamuna at delhi (70) and river betwa (58).
For context, a water sample with a 5 day BOD
between 1 and 2 mg O/L indicates a very clean
water, 3 to 8 mg O/L indicates a moderately clean
water, 8 to 20 indicates borderline water, and
greater than 20 mg O/L indicates ecologically-
unsafe polluted water.
• COLIFORM LEVELS
• Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform densities in the
rivers of india range between 500 to 100,000
• Rivers yamuna, ganga, gomti, ghaggar, chambal, m
ahi, vardha are amongst the other most coliform
polluted water bodies in india. For context, coliform
must be below 104 MPN/100 ml.
• If there is fecal present in the drinking water then
we are drinking water which is impure and not safe
• Even it should not be present in the water used for
• SOLUTIONS WHICH CAN BE TAKEN TO PROVIDE SAFE DRINKING WATER?
2) ACTIVATED CARBON
3) OZONE(IF POSSIBLE, SERVES BEST)
4) POTASH ALUM
5) SOLAR DISINFECTION, RATHER THE EASIEST ONE JUST TO PUT SOME
TRANSPARENT BOTTLES IN
• SUNLIGHT YOU CAN PROVIDE SOME REFLECTING SURFACE AS WELL SO
THAT MORE UV RAYS PASS THROUGH WATER .
• ITS NOT ONLY ABOUT PROVIDING BUT TO GIVE PROPER AMOUNT TO
USED FOR A GIVEN QUANTITY OR WE
• CAN ALSO BUILD STRUCTURES AND PROVIDE THEM WITH CLEAR WATER.
• STRUCTURES LIKE CLOSED TANKS THAT CAN CLEAN WATER FIRST AND
THEN PASS IT ON TO OTHER PART FROM WHERE IT CAN BE SUPPLIED.
• IN RURAL WESTERN KENYA, AT HOMES IN AFRICA THIS IS PRACTICED TO
GET CLEAR & SAFE DRINKING WATER
• Buddha nullah or buddha nala is a
seasonal water stream, which runs through
the malwa region of punjab, india, and
after passing through highly
populated ludhiana district, punjab, india, it
drains into sutlej river, a tributary of
the indus river.
• The Hindon river, which flows through the city
of Ghaziabad, highly polluted and
groundwater of this city has colored and
poisoned by industrial
effluents, hindon vahini is strongly opposing of
water pollution activities.
• BUT THERE CAN STILL BE AMENDMENTS IN THIS
STRUCTURE TO MAKE IT MORE WORK EFFICIENT
• FIRST THING THAT CAN BE DONE IS TO PROVIDE A
MEMBRANE TO PREFILTER WATER BEFORE IT REACHES
• TILL CLAY STRUCTURE THIS WILL HELP INCREASE THE
EFFICIENCY OF THE SYSTEM.
• NEXT QUESTION ARISES WHAT SHOULD BE THE
MEMBRANE MADE OF????
• WELL ONE THING WOULD BE CELLULOSE …………..
• AND IF CELLULOSE IS NOT POSSIBLE SAND CAN BE
USED WHICH AGAIN WILL SERVE THE SAME PURPOSE.
TERAFIL WATER FILTERS:
IT IS A NEW TECHNIQUE USED
EVEN IN SOME PARTS OF INDIA WHERE NOT
COLOUR AND ODOUR CAN BE REMOVED BUT
ALSO TASTE IS MADE BETTER.
IT IS A WONDERFUL INVENTION BY “THE ART
IT IS MADE OUT FROM RED CLAY, RIVER SAND,
WOOD SAW DUST.
IT IS CIRCULAR IN SHAPE AND HELPS ABSORBS
ALL THE IMPURITIES PRESENT IN WATER.
ITS MAIN ADVANTAGE BEING THAT IT CAN BE
ESTABLISHED AT HOME ALSO AND CAN BE
MADE AVAILABLE AT LARGE SCALE AS WELL.
EASY CLEANING AND COMPACT DESIGN MAKE
IT MORE EFFICIENT.
• REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS: THIS PROCESS WILL AGAIN
DEAL WITH PASSING THE WATER THROUGH MEMBRANE BUT
THIS TIME IT WILL BE APPLIED UNDER PRESSURE. PRESSURE
WILL HELP THE DISSOLVED IMPURITIES TO COLLECT OVER
ONE SIDE AND LET CLEAR SAFE WATER RUN THROUGH. THIS
METHOD WILL BE MORE CONVENIENT FOR LARGE SMALL. IT
IS A BIT DIFFICULT TO ADOPT IT HOME.
• BUT WORKING ON THESE 2 METHODS THEIR CAN BE ONE
TO ADOPT ON LARGE SCALE
…….WHAT ABOUT COMBINING THEM BOTH!!!!!!!!!
• ON COMBINING THESE 2 METHODS BY THE USE
OF MEMBRANES AND TERAFILTER UNDER
• NOT ONLY GIVE MORE AMOUNT OF EFFICIENCY
BUT WILL BE POSSIBLE AT LOWER COST THAN
INSTALLING IT ALL SEPARATELY.
• DO WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT SANITATION
IN METROPOLITAN CITIES????
• DO WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT SANITATION
IN WELL DEVELOPED HOUSES????
OF COURSE ……………..NO.
• THEN WHERE DOES IT LACK?????
• RIGHT….. RURAL AREAS & SLUM AREAS.
• THERE IS A TERRIBLE CONDITION IN RURAL
• 1.NO PROPER DRAINAGE, IDEALLY LINKED TO
A KITCHEN OR COMMUNITY GARDEN.
• 2.NO PROPER COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL
OF REFUSE, BEST UTILIZED AS COMPOST.
• 3.NO CLEAN SURROUNDINGS.
• 4. FROM BATHING, WASHING, TO DRINKING
SOURCE IS SAME FOR CATTLE AND HUMAN
• 5. DISPOSING OF ALL KIND OF WASTE IN
OPEN WHICH LEADS TO A NUMBER OF
PROPER PLANNING OF RURAL AREAS:
THIS HAVE QUITE A FEW NUMBER OF THINGS TO BE DONE
• A.) PROVIDING THEM A PLAN THAT IS EASY TO
EXECUTE AND CONSTRUCT AND OF COURSE IT
• B.) BUILT THEM WATER FILTER THAT ARE EASILY
• C.) LET THEM KNOW THE BENEFITS OF
PRACTICING IT SO THAT THEY ACTUALLY
• D.) AWAKING THEM ABOUT THE HEALTH
HAZARDS THAT ARE BEING CAUSED.
• E.) PROVIDING EASY WAYS LIKE SPIRAL ROOMS
OR WASHROOM THAT CAN BE HELPFUL.
• F.) MAKING ROOFS OUT OF RICE HUSK OR
CLAY INSTEAD OF KEEPING THEM OPEN.
• G.) GROWING MORE TREES BY THERE SIDES.
• THESE CAN BE FEW METHODS TO PROVIDE
SANITATION IN RURAL AREAS AND KEEP
• ENVIRONMENT CLEAN AND HEALTHY.
• QUESTION ARISES WHO IS GOING TO
INVEST FOR THE SAME????????
• MONEY IS A POINT OF CONCERN IN ALL THESE MATTER
BUT NOT THAT WE DON’T HAVE A SOLUTION.
• SOLUTION PREVAILS WITH A COMBINED EFFORT OF
BOTH PUBLIC AND GOVERNMENT.
• ORGANIZATIONS LIKE :
• 1)WHO(WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION)
• 2) BPD (BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN
WATER AND SANITATION)
• 4)GLOBAL WATER
• 5) WASH (WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE)
• ………………………..AND MANY MORE.
• SOME CAPITAL INVESTMENT CAN ALSO BE USEFUL.
• COLLECTING MONEY OUT FROM PEOPLE CAN EVEN
• WHEN ALL THIS ISSUES HAVE A SOLUTION
THEN THE THING THAT IS LAGGING BEHIND
IS ONLY THE INITIATIVE STEPS TO BE TAKEN
FOR ITS FULFILLMENT.
• THIS INITIATIVE NEEDS TO TAKEN FAST
BEFORE THE PROBLEM GOES OUT OF
• PEOPLE ARE LEFT OUT WITH JUST FINDING
THE SOLUTION TO DIFFERENT THREATS!!!!!!!