LPUCIVIL
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LPUCIVIL Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TOWARDS CLEANING INDIA: PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING WATER AND PROPER SANITATION FACILITY TO ALL • TEAM-LPUCIVIL • TEAM COORDINATOR-SITESH KUMAR SINGH • EMAIL ID-SITESHLPU@GMAIL.COM • CONTACT NO.-8437162880
  • 2. SAMUEL TAYLOR SAID ”WATER, WATER EVERYWHERE, NOR ANY DROP TO DRINK” • AS THIS QUOTE IS SAID BY SAMUEL TAYLOR FOR THE SAILORS, BUT SEEING THE PRESENT CONDITION OF WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA OUR COMING GENERATION WILL SAY THIS LINE THINKING OF US. • PROBLEMS: • ILL HEALTH • INCREASED DEATH RATE(ABOUT 5 MILLION • PEOPLE DIE OF WATER BORNE DISEASES • CAUSES: • POLLUTION • URBANIZATION • CLIMATIC CONDITIONS • NO EASY APPROACH • LACK OF AWARENESS • NEED CAPITAL INVESTMENT • NEED LARGE AREA • NO PROPER IMPLEMENTATION AND SERIOUS ACTION
  • 3. PRESENT CONDITION OF WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA • A 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water and a major source for bad sanitation factor in India. • A 1992 World Health Organization study is claimed to have reported that out of India's 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities. • A 1995 report claimed 114 indian cities were dumping untreated sewage and partially cremated bodies directly into the various rivers of India like in Ganges, Yamuna. • According to another 2005 report, sewage discharged from cities and towns is the predominant cause of water pollution in India. • Investment is needed to bridge the gap between 29000 million litre per day of sewage india generates, and a treatment capacity of mere 6000 million litre per day. • The scientific analysis of water samples from 1995 to 2008 indicates that the organic and bacterial contamination are severe in water bodies of india. This is mainly due to discharge of domestic wastewater in untreated form, mostly from the urban centers of india.
  • 4. WHAT GOVERNMENT HAS ACTUALLY DONE TO IMPROVE?? • The central pollution control board, a ministry of environment & forests government of india entity, has established a national water quality monitoring network comprising 1429 monitoring stations in 27 states and 6 in union territories on various rivers and water bodies across the country. • The monitoring network covers 293 rivers, 94 lakes, 9 tanks, 41 ponds, 8 creeks, 23 canals, 18 drains and 411 wells distributed across india. • Water samples are routinely analyzed for 28 parameters including dissolved oxygen, bacteriological and other internationally established parameters for water quality. Additionally 9 trace metals parameters and 28 pesticide residues are analyzed. Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations. • WHAT ACTUALLY HAPPENS IN THOSE PLANTS? • Employees come their, mark their present and roam here and their during their working hours. • WHAT HAS TO HAPPEN THEIR?? • Employees should at their offices and visit near by water sources to see what are the main causes of water pollution for that source and what they can do to reduce the pollution in that source. • They should organize rounds and curb all those companies which are dumping waste water in that source and they should be heavily fined and given punishment.
  • 5. CONDITION OF INDIAN RIVERS • BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND • In 2008, the water quality monitoring found almost all rivers with high levels of BOD. The worst pollution, in decreasing order, were found in river markanda (590 mg O/l), followed by river kali (364), river amlakhadi (353), yamuna canal (247), river yamuna at delhi (70) and river betwa (58). For context, a water sample with a 5 day BOD between 1 and 2 mg O/L indicates a very clean water, 3 to 8 mg O/L indicates a moderately clean water, 8 to 20 indicates borderline water, and greater than 20 mg O/L indicates ecologically- unsafe polluted water. • COLIFORM LEVELS • Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform densities in the rivers of india range between 500 to 100,000 MPN/100 ml. • Rivers yamuna, ganga, gomti, ghaggar, chambal, m ahi, vardha are amongst the other most coliform polluted water bodies in india. For context, coliform must be below 104 MPN/100 ml. • If there is fecal present in the drinking water then we are drinking water which is impure and not safe for us. • Even it should not be present in the water used for irrigation.
  • 6. CONDITION OF INDIAN RIVERS • SOLUTIONS WHICH CAN BE TAKEN TO PROVIDE SAFE DRINKING WATER? 1) CHLORINE 2) ACTIVATED CARBON 3) OZONE(IF POSSIBLE, SERVES BEST) 4) POTASH ALUM 5) SOLAR DISINFECTION, RATHER THE EASIEST ONE JUST TO PUT SOME TRANSPARENT BOTTLES IN • SUNLIGHT YOU CAN PROVIDE SOME REFLECTING SURFACE AS WELL SO THAT MORE UV RAYS PASS THROUGH WATER . • ITS NOT ONLY ABOUT PROVIDING BUT TO GIVE PROPER AMOUNT TO USED FOR A GIVEN QUANTITY OR WE • CAN ALSO BUILD STRUCTURES AND PROVIDE THEM WITH CLEAR WATER. • STRUCTURES LIKE CLOSED TANKS THAT CAN CLEAN WATER FIRST AND THEN PASS IT ON TO OTHER PART FROM WHERE IT CAN BE SUPPLIED. • IN RURAL WESTERN KENYA, AT HOMES IN AFRICA THIS IS PRACTICED TO GET CLEAR & SAFE DRINKING WATER • Buddha nullah or buddha nala is a seasonal water stream, which runs through the malwa region of punjab, india, and after passing through highly populated ludhiana district, punjab, india, it drains into sutlej river, a tributary of the indus river. • The Hindon river, which flows through the city of Ghaziabad, highly polluted and groundwater of this city has colored and poisoned by industrial effluents, hindon vahini is strongly opposing of water pollution activities.
  • 7. • BUT THERE CAN STILL BE AMENDMENTS IN THIS STRUCTURE TO MAKE IT MORE WORK EFFICIENT • FIRST THING THAT CAN BE DONE IS TO PROVIDE A MEMBRANE TO PREFILTER WATER BEFORE IT REACHES • TILL CLAY STRUCTURE THIS WILL HELP INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SYSTEM. • NEXT QUESTION ARISES WHAT SHOULD BE THE MEMBRANE MADE OF???? • WELL ONE THING WOULD BE CELLULOSE ………….. • AND IF CELLULOSE IS NOT POSSIBLE SAND CAN BE USED WHICH AGAIN WILL SERVE THE SAME PURPOSE. TERAFIL WATER FILTERS: IT IS A NEW TECHNIQUE USED EVEN IN SOME PARTS OF INDIA WHERE NOT ONLY COLOUR AND ODOUR CAN BE REMOVED BUT ALSO TASTE IS MADE BETTER. IT IS A WONDERFUL INVENTION BY “THE ART OF LIVING”. IT IS MADE OUT FROM RED CLAY, RIVER SAND, WOOD SAW DUST. IT IS CIRCULAR IN SHAPE AND HELPS ABSORBS ALL THE IMPURITIES PRESENT IN WATER. ITS MAIN ADVANTAGE BEING THAT IT CAN BE ESTABLISHED AT HOME ALSO AND CAN BE MADE AVAILABLE AT LARGE SCALE AS WELL. EASY CLEANING AND COMPACT DESIGN MAKE IT MORE EFFICIENT.
  • 8. • REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS: THIS PROCESS WILL AGAIN DEAL WITH PASSING THE WATER THROUGH MEMBRANE BUT THIS TIME IT WILL BE APPLIED UNDER PRESSURE. PRESSURE WILL HELP THE DISSOLVED IMPURITIES TO COLLECT OVER ONE SIDE AND LET CLEAR SAFE WATER RUN THROUGH. THIS METHOD WILL BE MORE CONVENIENT FOR LARGE SMALL. IT IS A BIT DIFFICULT TO ADOPT IT HOME. • BUT WORKING ON THESE 2 METHODS THEIR CAN BE ONE TO ADOPT ON LARGE SCALE …….WHAT ABOUT COMBINING THEM BOTH!!!!!!!!! • ON COMBINING THESE 2 METHODS BY THE USE OF MEMBRANES AND TERAFILTER UNDER PRESSURE WILL • NOT ONLY GIVE MORE AMOUNT OF EFFICIENCY BUT WILL BE POSSIBLE AT LOWER COST THAN INSTALLING IT ALL SEPARATELY.
  • 9. SANITATION • DO WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT SANITATION IN METROPOLITAN CITIES???? • DO WE NEED TO TALK ABOUT SANITATION IN WELL DEVELOPED HOUSES???? OF COURSE ……………..NO. • THEN WHERE DOES IT LACK????? • RIGHT….. RURAL AREAS & SLUM AREAS. • THERE IS A TERRIBLE CONDITION IN RURAL AREAS….. • 1.NO PROPER DRAINAGE, IDEALLY LINKED TO A KITCHEN OR COMMUNITY GARDEN. • 2.NO PROPER COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF REFUSE, BEST UTILIZED AS COMPOST. • 3.NO CLEAN SURROUNDINGS. • 4. FROM BATHING, WASHING, TO DRINKING SOURCE IS SAME FOR CATTLE AND HUMAN BEINGS. • 5. DISPOSING OF ALL KIND OF WASTE IN OPEN WHICH LEADS TO A NUMBER OF DANGEROUS DISEASES.
  • 10. PROPER PLANNING OF RURAL AREAS: THIS HAVE QUITE A FEW NUMBER OF THINGS TO BE DONE • A.) PROVIDING THEM A PLAN THAT IS EASY TO EXECUTE AND CONSTRUCT AND OF COURSE IT COSTS LESS. • B.) BUILT THEM WATER FILTER THAT ARE EASILY APPROACHABLE. • C.) LET THEM KNOW THE BENEFITS OF PRACTICING IT SO THAT THEY ACTUALLY FOLLOW. • D.) AWAKING THEM ABOUT THE HEALTH HAZARDS THAT ARE BEING CAUSED. • E.) PROVIDING EASY WAYS LIKE SPIRAL ROOMS OR WASHROOM THAT CAN BE HELPFUL. • F.) MAKING ROOFS OUT OF RICE HUSK OR CLAY INSTEAD OF KEEPING THEM OPEN. • G.) GROWING MORE TREES BY THERE SIDES. • THESE CAN BE FEW METHODS TO PROVIDE SANITATION IN RURAL AREAS AND KEEP • ENVIRONMENT CLEAN AND HEALTHY. ………………………BUT…………………….. • QUESTION ARISES WHO IS GOING TO INVEST FOR THE SAME????????
  • 11. • MONEY IS A POINT OF CONCERN IN ALL THESE MATTER BUT NOT THAT WE DON’T HAVE A SOLUTION. • SOLUTION PREVAILS WITH A COMBINED EFFORT OF BOTH PUBLIC AND GOVERNMENT. • ORGANIZATIONS LIKE : • 1)WHO(WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION) • 2) BPD (BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN WATER AND SANITATION) • 3)CARE • 4)GLOBAL WATER • 5) WASH (WATER, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE) • ………………………..AND MANY MORE. • SOME CAPITAL INVESTMENT CAN ALSO BE USEFUL. • COLLECTING MONEY OUT FROM PEOPLE CAN EVEN WORK. • WHEN ALL THIS ISSUES HAVE A SOLUTION THEN THE THING THAT IS LAGGING BEHIND IS ONLY THE INITIATIVE STEPS TO BE TAKEN FOR ITS FULFILLMENT. • THIS INITIATIVE NEEDS TO TAKEN FAST BEFORE THE PROBLEM GOES OUT OF CONTROL AND • PEOPLE ARE LEFT OUT WITH JUST FINDING THE SOLUTION TO DIFFERENT THREATS!!!!!!!