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  • 1. By Aparna Singh Amitesh Shukla Vardan Rastogi Syed Athar Mehdi Vijyant Singh III CH,MJPRU,BAREILLY,U.P.
  • 2.  Agricultural Productivity  Sources of agricultural productivity  Factors influencing growth in agriculture  Importance of agricultural productivity  Measuring agricultural productivity  Data needs for growth models  Data issues  US Agricultural productivity
  • 3. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY • Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs. • Output is usually measured as the market value of final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used in the meat industry • This output value may be compared to many different types of inputs such as labour and land (yield). These are called partial measures of productivity. • Agricultural productivity may also be measured by what is termed total factor productivity (TFP). • This method of calculating agricultural productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of outputs. • This measure of agricultural productivity was established to remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity , notably that it is often hard to identify the factors cause them to change. • Changes in TFP are usually attributed to technological improvements.
  • 4. Mechanization Fertilizers High yielding varieties Irrigation Liming Pesticides
  • 5. Factors Influencing Growth in Agriculture
  • 6. IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY  Growth and competitiveness on agricultural market  Income distribution and saving  Agricultural growth  Alleviate poverty  More stable food supply  Lower food prices  Increase in wages  Lower opportunity cost  More consumers  Labor migration  More efficient distribution of scarce sources
  • 7. Measuring Agricultural Productivity Index number or growth accounting techniques Economic estimation of production relationship Non parametric approaches
  • 8. Data Needs for Growth Models Land improvements Gross fixed capital formation
  • 9. DATA ISSUES
  • 10. • Between 1950 and 2000, during the so-called "second agricultural revolution of modern times", U.S. agricultural productivity rose fast, especially due to the development of new technologies. • For example, the average amount of milk produced per cow increased from 5,314 pounds to 18,201 pounds per year (+242%), the average yield of corn rose from 39 bushels to 153 bushels per acre (+292%), and each farmer in 2000 produced on average 12 times as much farm output per hour worked as a farmer did in 1950.
  • 11. REFERENCES  Abramovitz, M. 1956. Resource and output trends in the United States since 1870. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 46 May: 5-23.  Ahearn, M., Yee, J., Ball, E. & Nehring, R. 1998. Agricultural productivity in the United States. Resource Economics Division, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Information Bulletin no. 740.  Antholt, C.H. 1994. Getting ready for the twenty-first century: technical change and institutional modernization in agriculture. World Bank Technical Paper #217. February.  Antle, J. 1983. Infrastructure and aggregate agricultural productivity: international evidence. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 31 April: 609-619.  Antle, J. & Capalbo, S. 1988. An introduction to recent developments in production theory and productivity measurement. In S. Capalbo & J. Antle, eds. Agricultural productivity measurement and explanation. Washington, DC, Resources for the Future, pp17-35