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  1. 1. FUTURE CITIES: Ensuring world class civic amenities in Urban India Name of the team Members: Arzin Ansari, Bhrigu Sharma, Nandita Hemmady, Rupal Shah, Srishti Rani. Name of the College: Government Law College, Mumbai 1
  2. 2. The 2011 Census of India reveals that: 1. Out of 1210.2 million population of India, 377.1 million is urban and 833.1 million is rural. (as shown in the graph) 2. The Rural Urban Distribution is 68.84% and 31.16% respectively. 3. The level of Urbanisation has gone up from 27.81% in 2001 to 31.16% in 2011. 4. The rural population has declined from 72.19% of the total population to 68.84 % The reasons for such a tremendous rise in the Urban population are Migration, Natural Increase of already existing urban population and Increase and Inclusion of new areas as urban land. Increase in Urban Population means increase in the demand and need for construction of new cities and towns which are self-sustaining and self-reliant, establishment of robust and efficient urban local bodies which look after civic amenities like water supply and sanitation, power and electricity etc. that have a futuristic outlook and a long term horizon. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Total Urban Area Rural area 2001 2011 2
  3. 3. The basic civic amenities include: 1. Town Planning & Infrastructure: Roads, Railways, Buildings, Metros etc. 2. Power & Electricity 3. Health Care & Hospitals: Private, Public, Municipal etc. 4. Education: Primary and Secondary 5. Water Supply and Sanitation 6. Parks and Recreation Centers 3
  4. 4. Facts about Urban India  37.7 crores or 31.16 percent of India lives in urban centres.  53 Indian cities with a population of more than 10 lakhs produce 32 percent of the GDP.  30 people leave rural areas for urban areas every minute. Challenges that need to be dealt with in order achieve the required urbanization.  70 percent of new jobs would be generated in cities by 2030.  49.7 crores to be added to the urban population by 2050.  500 new cities would have to be developed and created in the next two decades.  700mn to 900 mn sq mts of residential and commercial space would be required to be constructed every year.  350 to 400 kms of metros, railways and subways would be required to be added every year.  19000 to 25000 kms of roads will have to be built yearly.  Also Urbanization is seen as anti-rural and detrimental to Indian Culture by some factions of Policy makers. 4
  5. 5. Existing Cities Problems and challenges: 1. Lack of proper town planning policies with regard to roads, buildings and construction which leads to birth and growth of slums. 2. Use of sub-standard and poor quality materials and absence of strict supervision in building of roads by Municipal bodies in construction of roads leads to further destruction of basic infrastructure. Solution and Implementation: 1. Town planning must be carried out meticulously keeping in mind the influx of people and a future horizon of a minimum of 50 years. No piece of land must be left unaccounted for because no empty land means no spurting of slums. 2. If road and other public infrastructure construction is outsourced to independent contractors then strict supervisory policies must be put in place to ensure that no sub- standard or poor quality material is used. 3. The common man can be involved in the supervision and execution of town planning policies. Public-spirited persons can take part in the supervision. New and Future Cities 1. Incorporate best building and architectural practices, including flexible design which enables spaces to be easily modified in the future. 2. Buildings and other structures must be constructed keeping in mind geographical and geological elements of the area in which the city is coming up 3. Maximum utilization of FSI must be achieved. 4. Every inch of land must be accounted for and properly planned in order to prevent slums and unhygienic conditions from propping up. 5
  6. 6. Health care: 1. The number of already existing Government and municipal hospitals are not enough to cater to the urban poor and lower middle class. An increase is urgently needed in all parts of the country with updated technology. Hospital personnel and staff employed in such institutions must be well qualified and be given proper and adequate training. 2. Bio-medical wastes if not disposed in a safe manner can lead to further spread of diseases. Therefore adequate measure must be taken to comply with the laws with regard to disposal of bio-medical wastes. 3. Illegal hospitals and unqualified persons pretending to be doctors should be raided and closed down. Such persons must be punished and heavy fines must be imposed. Orphanages and Old Age homes: 1. Care centers like orphanages and old age homes must be maintained and be secure. 2. Children in such care centers should be educated and receive all opportunities. 3. The persons kept in old age homes must be treated well. 6
  7. 7. 1. Education is one of our basic and urgent needs. 2. Most national and international literacy and education programmes so far have focused on reducing the urban/rural gap in education, overlooking the divide between rich and poor prevailing in urban areas. 3. If school enrollment and achievement are to be improved in poor urban areas, a combination of incentives that stimulates both demand and supply is required. 4. Also the number of educational boards need to reduced. Uniform education atleast at the primary and a certain level of the secondary schooling is the need of the hour. The medium of instruction must also be regularised. 5. Municipal schools must be kept under check and evaluated at frequent intervals. Students in such schools must be encouraged to study and aim for higher goals through workshops and mitovational seminars. Teachers in such schools must be adequately paid so that they take initiative and help the students. 7
  8. 8. Problems and Challenges:  Under the garb of Urbanization one often forgets about nature. With a rapid increase in urban and modern settlements, there is no place left for parks, green areas and forests.  Urban life comes with its own share of stress and various pressures, and therefore, the need recreation centres more acute now than ever before. Solution and Implementation:  In existing cities, afforestation drives must be undertaken. While expansion of an existing city is sought out, adequate care must be taken to ensure that a park or a green area is reserved and maintained in proportion with the density of population. An IBM study states that a green park must be built at every 2-3 acres.  In order to ensure adequate green space in a new city, when the town planning scheme is executed, sufficient areas must be allocated and designated as green spaces in accordance with the expected density of population. Roof top gardens must be encouraged. All roads must be lined with trees on either side. While executing a town planning scheme, the existing green life must be caused the least amount of destruction. Preservation must be the motto! 8
  9. 9. TRANSPORT WATER & SANITATION 1. Roads must be well constructed and durable in all weathers. All main and arterial roads of the city must have atleast 4 lanes on each side. More ring roads need to constructed to ensure smooth movement of traffic. 2. Railways must be flexible enough and must use mininal space. In order achieve this the railway lines can be constructed 3. An innovative way of tackling space crunch in cities in terms of transport is by building bridges that accommodate two modes of transport. For example in Barauni, a bridge has been constructed which has two levels- one for railways and the other for roads. 4. Green airport must must be consturcted wherever possible in order to conserve space. 5. Public transport must be of various kinds serving the population density. They must have regular and frequent PUC check ups and be maintained properly. Safety should come first. 1. A proper network of pipelines and irrigation should be laid down while town planning is undertaken. Maintenance activities should be carried on at regular intervals. 2. Borewells and underground wells can be installed in every house and residential building. Rain water harvesting should be made mandatory. 1. Sewerage networks must be efficiently planned and maintained. Broad diameter pipelines should be used as blockages can be detected and cleared faster and easier. Access chambers can be built instead of manholes. Sewage must be bifurcated into bio- degradable and non-bio-degradable and disposed off accordingly. Land for dumping grounds and landfills must be allocated a considerable distance away from the city limits. 2. Public sanitation is an increasing menace. It needs immediate attention. Public latrines and urinals must be constructed at more convenient and constant intervals in order to dissuade unhygienic habits. 9
  10. 10.  Urban_2011.pdf   a  rise-in-next-40-years/article3286896.ece  Dynamics.pdf  a  htm 10