FUTURE CITIES: Ensuring world class
civic amenities in Urban India
Name of the team Members: Arzin Ansari, Bhrigu Sharma,
Nandita Hemmady, Rupal Shah, Srishti Rani.
Name of the College: Government Law College, Mumbai
The 2011 Census of India reveals that:
1. Out of 1210.2 million population of India, 377.1
million is urban and 833.1 million is rural. (as
shown in the graph)
2. The Rural Urban Distribution is 68.84% and
3. The level of Urbanisation has gone up from
27.81% in 2001 to 31.16% in 2011.
4. The rural population has declined from 72.19%
of the total population to 68.84 %
The reasons for such a tremendous rise in the Urban
population are Migration, Natural Increase of
already existing urban population and Increase and
Inclusion of new areas as urban land.
Increase in Urban Population means increase in the
demand and need for construction of new cities and
towns which are self-sustaining and self-reliant,
establishment of robust and efficient urban local
bodies which look after civic amenities like water
supply and sanitation, power and electricity etc. that
have a futuristic outlook and a long term horizon.
The basic civic amenities include:
1. Town Planning & Infrastructure: Roads,
Railways, Buildings, Metros etc.
2. Power & Electricity
3. Health Care & Hospitals: Private, Public,
4. Education: Primary and Secondary
5. Water Supply and Sanitation
6. Parks and Recreation Centers
Facts about Urban India
37.7 crores or 31.16 percent of India
lives in urban centres.
53 Indian cities with a population of
more than 10 lakhs produce 32
percent of the GDP.
30 people leave rural areas for urban
areas every minute.
Challenges that need to be dealt
with in order achieve the required
70 percent of new jobs would be generated
in cities by 2030.
49.7 crores to be added to the urban
population by 2050.
500 new cities would have to be developed
and created in the next two decades.
700mn to 900 mn sq mts of residential and
commercial space would be required to be
constructed every year.
350 to 400 kms of metros, railways and
subways would be required to be added
19000 to 25000 kms of roads will have to
be built yearly.
Also Urbanization is seen as anti-rural and
detrimental to Indian Culture by some
factions of Policy makers.
Problems and challenges:
1. Lack of proper town planning policies with
regard to roads, buildings and construction
which leads to birth and growth of slums.
2. Use of sub-standard and poor quality
materials and absence of strict supervision in
building of roads by Municipal bodies in
construction of roads leads to further
destruction of basic infrastructure.
Solution and Implementation:
1. Town planning must be carried out
meticulously keeping in mind the influx of
people and a future horizon of a minimum of
50 years. No piece of land must be left
unaccounted for because no empty land
means no spurting of slums.
2. If road and other public infrastructure
construction is outsourced to independent
contractors then strict supervisory policies
must be put in place to ensure that no sub-
standard or poor quality material is used.
3. The common man can be involved in the
supervision and execution of town planning
policies. Public-spirited persons can take part
in the supervision.
New and Future Cities
1. Incorporate best building and
architectural practices, including flexible
design which enables spaces to be easily
modified in the future.
2. Buildings and other structures must be
constructed keeping in mind geographical
and geological elements of the area in
which the city is coming up
3. Maximum utilization of FSI must be
4. Every inch of land must be accounted for
and properly planned in order to prevent
slums and unhygienic conditions from
1. The number of already existing Government and municipal hospitals are not enough to
cater to the urban poor and lower middle class. An increase is urgently needed in all
parts of the country with updated technology. Hospital personnel and staff employed in
such institutions must be well qualified and be given proper and adequate training.
2. Bio-medical wastes if not disposed in a safe manner can lead to further spread of
diseases. Therefore adequate measure must be taken to comply with the laws with
regard to disposal of bio-medical wastes.
3. Illegal hospitals and unqualified persons pretending to be doctors should be raided and
closed down. Such persons must be punished and heavy fines must be imposed.
Orphanages and Old Age homes:
1. Care centers like orphanages and old age homes must be maintained and be secure.
2. Children in such care centers should be educated and receive all opportunities.
3. The persons kept in old age homes must be treated well.
1. Education is one of our basic and urgent needs.
2. Most national and international literacy and education programmes so far
have focused on reducing the urban/rural gap in education, overlooking the
divide between rich and poor prevailing in urban areas.
3. If school enrollment and achievement are to be improved in poor urban
areas, a combination of incentives that stimulates both demand and supply is
4. Also the number of educational boards need to reduced. Uniform education
atleast at the primary and a certain level of the secondary schooling is the
need of the hour. The medium of instruction must also be regularised.
5. Municipal schools must be kept under check and evaluated at frequent
intervals. Students in such schools must be encouraged to study and aim for
higher goals through workshops and mitovational seminars. Teachers in
such schools must be adequately paid so that they take initiative and help the
Problems and Challenges:
Under the garb of Urbanization one often forgets about nature. With a rapid increase
in urban and modern settlements, there is no place left for parks, green areas and
Urban life comes with its own share of stress and various pressures, and therefore, the
need recreation centres more acute now than ever before.
Solution and Implementation:
In existing cities, afforestation drives must be undertaken. While expansion of an
existing city is sought out, adequate care must be taken to ensure that a park or a
green area is reserved and maintained in proportion with the density of population.
An IBM study states that a green park must be built at every 2-3 acres.
In order to ensure adequate green space in a new city, when the town planning scheme
is executed, sufficient areas must be allocated and designated as green spaces in
accordance with the expected density of population. Roof top gardens must be
encouraged. All roads must be lined with trees on either side. While executing a town
planning scheme, the existing green life must be caused the least amount of
destruction. Preservation must be the motto!
TRANSPORT WATER & SANITATION
1. Roads must be well constructed and
durable in all weathers. All main and
arterial roads of the city must have atleast 4
lanes on each side. More ring roads need to
constructed to ensure smooth movement of
2. Railways must be flexible enough and must
use mininal space. In order achieve this the
railway lines can be constructed
3. An innovative way of tackling space crunch
in cities in terms of transport is by building
bridges that accommodate two modes of
transport. For example in Barauni, a bridge
has been constructed which has two levels-
one for railways and the other for roads.
4. Green airport must must be consturcted
wherever possible in order to conserve
5. Public transport must be of various kinds
serving the population density. They must
have regular and frequent PUC check ups
and be maintained properly. Safety should
1. A proper network of pipelines and irrigation
should be laid down while town planning is
undertaken. Maintenance activities should be
carried on at regular intervals.
2. Borewells and underground wells can be
installed in every house and residential
building. Rain water harvesting should be
1. Sewerage networks must be efficiently
planned and maintained. Broad diameter
pipelines should be used as blockages can be
detected and cleared faster and easier. Access
chambers can be built instead of manholes.
Sewage must be bifurcated into bio-
degradable and non-bio-degradable and
disposed off accordingly. Land for dumping
grounds and landfills must be allocated a
considerable distance away from the city
2. Public sanitation is an increasing menace. It
needs immediate attention. Public latrines
and urinals must be constructed at more
convenient and constant intervals in order to
dissuade unhygienic habits. 9