IndiaShining
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  • 1. Manthan Topic: Towards Cleaner India: Providing clean drinking water and proper sanitation facility to all. Team Name: India Shining College Name: IIM Rohtak Coordinator (Member1): Sandeep Kumar Shivhare Member2: Sharad Dokania Member3: Sonia Chandra Member4: Anupam Lav Member5: Saurabh Aggarwal
  • 2. Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate, despite longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage. • Why Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene? • Water Supply: 1. As of 2010, despite generally sufficient infrastructure only two Indian cities (Thiruvananthapuram and Kota) have continuous water supply (Chandigarh among the highest with 12 hours water supply)and an estimated 69% of Indians still lack access to improved sanitation facilities. 2. This is due to inadequate management of the distribution system. An example is Delhi. 3. Factors to be focused: 1. Sustainability of water supply 2. Portability 3. Adequacy 4. Convenience 5. Affordability and equity. • Sanitation: 1. In India, 88% of deaths from diarrhoea (largest killer diseases, 13% deaths) occur because of unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. Worldwide over 80% of diarrheal deaths are due to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene. 2. According to a recent UNICEF report, 638 million (54%) people still defecate in the open and only about 50% of Indians regularly wash their hands with soap after contact with excreta. 3. 1.7 million (22% of world total) of the Under-5 children that died in 2010 were Indian 97 54 90 21 92 31 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Access to Improved Sourcs of Water Access to improved sanitation Urban Rural Total Improved Water Access Improved Sanitation No Sanitation Year Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total 1990 88 63 69 51 7 18 28 91 75 1995 90 70 75 53 10 21 25 86 70 2000 93 77 81 55 14 25 22 79 63 2005 95 83 86 56 19 30 18 73 57 2010 97 90 92 58 23 34 14 67 51 Population (in %) of India with access to improved sources of water. Source: WHO/UNICEF (2012a) Population (in percent) of India with access to improved sources of sanitation, and no sanitation. Source: WHO/UNICEF (2012b)
  • 3. According to Indian norms, access to improved water supply exists if at least 40 liters/capita/day of safe drinking water are provided within a distance of 1.6 km or 100 meter of elevation difference, to be relaxed as per field conditions. There should be at least one pump per 250 persons. Snapshot of Solution Proposed • Providing clean water: 1. Roof water harvesting. 2. Cleaning major rivers like Ganges 3. Creating/Maintaining ponds, wells and hand pumps in villages. 4. Reducing misuse of water. 5. Public-private partnership in providing continuous supply of water 6. In coastal areas, using sea-water desalination plants. 7. Renovating the distribution network, installing meters, introducing a well-functioning commercial system. • Sanitation to All: • Community Led Total Sanitation: This must focus on three areas: A. Creating infrastructure necessary to provide personal as well as public sanitation like latrines. B. Preventing open defecation through peer pressure and shame. C. Active participation of media 1. Help and subsidy in creating toilet facility in village: In June 2012 Minister of Rural Development Jairam Ramesh stated India is the worlds largest "open air toilet". 2. Imposing fine if found guilty in making environment dirty. 3. For Slums in urban areas, providing slum sanitation programs. 4. Maintenance of sewerage network, pumping facility. 5. Increasing the capacity of water-waste treatment plant.
  • 4. Implementation and Operation • State Initiatives: Water supply and sanitation is a State responsibility under the Indian Constitution. State-level agency must be in- charge of planning and investment, while the local government (Urban local bodies or Panchayati Raj) is in charge of operation and maintenance. • Reasons of water contamination: Poor planning, poor engineering design and lack of policing of the water distribution system causes possible contamination of drinking water from sewage at multiple sites. Apart from these, sewage disposal to suit individual village needs, point-of-use water disinfection methods could serve the purpose. 1. In Rural areas, State may give responsibility to Panchayati Raj Institutions(PRI). Local public can be involved for this. In urban areas, Municipalities ie Urban Local Bodies (ULB) should be given responsibility for this. 2. MANREGA workers can be used for creating and maintaining facilities. This way, villagers will also get the job in their own, or nearby villages. 3. Public-Private partnership needed for efficiency and speedy outcome. 4. Decision making process should be decentralised upto a certain level. Ie approval for changes in design can be made at lower lever and big changes to be preserved for central/upper level. 5. A vigilance committee should be made to check the money being utilised in the proper cause. If a contractor exceeds his time limit, penalty should be imposed. 6. In the same way, if he finishes his work before time, in a satisfactory manner, he should be given incentives. • Clear Drinking Water: Implementation Details 1. Roof water harvesting: Encouraging people to build a system for roof water harvesting and providing subsidies to build such systems. 2. Cleaning major rivers like Ganges: Millions depend on Ganges for water supply. However, even after continued efforts and millions of rupees, this is not realised due to corruption. 3. Creating/Maintaining ponds, wells and hand pumps in villages: Employing/Involving local people. Using MANREGA workers. 4. Reducing Misuse of Water: Water metering should be a precondition for billing water users on the basis of volume consumed. Reduce flat billing system and increase metering on water supply. 5. Public-private partnership in providing continuous supply of water: As in case of electricity, private involvement should be increased. For certain amount of time say 2 years, contracts should be given to private hands and if output is p0sitive, it can be renewed. 6. In coastal areas, using sea-water desalination plants: This has already started in some parts of India like Chennai. However, this needs to be increased. Big cities in coastal areas can be well served with this. 7. Renovating the distribution network, installing meters, introducing a well-functioning commercial system: Water metering should be a precondition for billing water users on the basis of volume consumed. At present only about 50% of the cities are metered and even these too, meters often don't work. In other cities, flat tariff is charged independent of consumption level. This way, good amount of water can be saved. Also, families who use less water will not have to pay what they don’t use.
  • 5. Implementation and Operation continued... • Sanitation to All: Implementation Details • Community Led Total Sanitation: This must focus on two areas: A. Creating infrastructure necessary to provide personal as well as public sanitation like latrines. Until appropriate engineering designs for water supply and sewage disposal to suit individual village needs are made available, point-of-use water disinfection methods could serve as an interim solution. 1. Help and subsidy in creating toilet facility in village: Villagers must be encouraged to have their own toilet/latrine facilities. Of the total cost, 50% of the money can be provided to villagers for this. 2. In Cities/Urban areas, more public facilities should be made. Sulabh toilet is one such excellent example. 3. Imposing fine if found guilty in making environment dirty: This can be implemented in two ways. 1. First, start this in big cities. Then after some time, this can be extended to other smaller cities. 2. Residents of that specific area should be convinced and must be encouraged for this. If some person is found guilty in this, other residents must object on this. Guilty person should be made to pay fine. 4. For Slums in urban areas, providing slum sanitation programs. 5. Maintenance of sewerage network, pumping facility. 6. Increasing the capacity of water-waste treatment plant. B. Preventing open defecation through peer pressure and shame. Only constructing toilets will not solve the problem. A behavioural change is necessary to ensure continued cleanliness and maintenance of these toilets. 1. Villagers must be educated to understand the advantages of one’s own toilet, safety of women being the most important. 2. Residents of that specific area should be convinced and must be encouraged for this. If some person is found guilty in this, other residents must object on this. Guilty person should be made to pay fine. 3. Incentives for encouraging others to make toilet facility in home: Villagers can be given incentives for this like Rs. 1000. However, the person who made the reference, he must himself have toilet in his home. C. Active participation of media 1. Keep the discourse around sanitation and hygiene alive in the policy domain, for critical actions to be taken. 2. Influence the general public especially middle classes to advocate for the importance of improved sanitation. 3. Generate mass awareness on key behaviors and practices which need to be adopted for improved sanitation. 4. Report based on qualitative and quantitative evidence from the field. ( UNICEF happy to support field visits and data analysis)
  • 6. Cost of Implementation and Operation Organizational Cost: 1. Panchayati Raj and Municipalities: Already accounted. Just their efficiency and decision making hierarchy needs to be changed. 2. MANREGA workers: Government already incurring cost for these. 3. Public-Private partnership: 100 Carore for various prjects per year. 4. A vigilance committee: Government already have those. Only their task needs to be redefined. Installing and maintaining Facilities: 1. Roof water harvesting: 50% subsidy. Target 10 Lakh families per year. So, 10 Lakh * 5000 = 500 Carore 2. Subsidy in building private toilet: Target 10 Lakh families per year. So, 10 Lakh * 5000 = 500 Carore 3. Cleaning major rivers like Ganges: This is already going on. We need to make this process more efficient and reduce corruption. 4. Creating/Maintaining ponds, wells and hand pumps in villages. Can be done using MANREGA workers. 5. Reducing misuse of water. Installing meters: 1000 per meter * 10 Lakh families targeted every year = 100 Carore 6. In coastal areas, using sea-water desalination plants: 100 Carore 7. Creating/Renovating the distribution network like water waste management, Public Toilets, well, hand-pumps etc : No. of Villages targeted every year (70,000) * cost(10,000 per village) + No. Of Cities (3000) * 100,000 per city= 100 Carore So, Extra Burden on government due to cost: 1,400 Carore
  • 7. Advantages and Challenges compared to already existing system Advantages: Because local people themselves are involved, and private parties as well, some obvious advantages can be: – People need their needs better. So, better output can be achieved. Giving certain decision power will accelarate the work. – Clear objectives & targets motivate staff – Operational planning is focused & easy to deliver due to decentralization – Efficient & effective delivery. No longer procedure to take permission for small issues. – Better ability to monitor restricted output – Better involvement of people. – Cost effective in long run. – Media can be very well utilised. Its a win-win situation of government and media. Media will get regular news and government will get its work done in very cost effective manner. Challenges: – Placement of workers after completion-Challenging – Sustaining Long term public motivation is an issue: Very difficult to convince people.
  • 8. References • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_India • http://indiasanitationportal.org/6169 • http://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/government/rural-water-supply-and-sanitation-problems-incredible-india • WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, (JMP): Media Round Table 27-3-12 • Study of water supply & sanitation practices in India using geographic information systems: Some design & other considerations in a village setting: Indian J Med Res 129, March 2009, pp 233-241 (Srila Gopal, Rajiv Sarkar, Kalyan Banda, Jeyanthi Govindarajan, B.B. Harijan, M.B. Jeyakumar, Philip Mitta M.E. Sadanala, Tryphena Selwyn, C.R. Suresh, V.A. Thomas, Pethuru Devadason, Ranjit KumarDavid Selvapandian, Gagandeep Kang* & Vinohar Balraj)