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    • Team Members: Chirag Verma Peeyush Ramrakhyani D Prakash Swapnil Shukla Pooja Agrawal
    •  As per the JMP Estimates 2012 about 67% of India’s population defecate in open.  As per UNICEF there are 61.7% stunted children in India more than anywhere else in the world.  The government estimates that 20% of children under five are too thin for their height and 43% are underweight for their age. UNICEF India said that the link between sanitation and malnutrition has been largely overlooked describing it as a blind spot.  Over 200,000 children under the age of 5 die from diarrhoea every year in India which is caused by dirty water and inadequate sanitation. (UNICEF)  70% of women don’t have access to a toilet. Inadequate sanitation forces women in both rural and urban areas of India to defecate in the open, leaving them vulnerable to sexual violence. Lack of toilets or maintenance of them also creates health hazards.  48% of girls drop out of second level education. (UNICEF) Percentage of Households having NO LATRINE INDIA, 2001-2011 The Data from World Bank showed that lack of adequate sanitation in India resulted in an annual loss of $ 53.8 billion in the year 2006. This was equivalent to 6.4% of GDP in the year 2006. Even today Govt. is spending INR 212 billion per year on treatment of these health hazards. Census of India 2011 - Availability and Type of Latrine Facility: 2001-2011 1
    • 4.6 lakh (28%) 11.9 lakh (72%) No.of habitations with insufficient quantity of portable drinking water No.of habitations with sufficient quantity of portable drinking water DATE Total Rural Habitations Uncovered Partially Quality Affected As On Covered Fluoride Arsenic Iron Nitrate Salinity Total 1.4.2013 16,64,186 0 3,75,871 23,512 5,339 64,213 3,867 24,570 1,21,501  By 2010, 92% of the population had access to an improved source of water, which brought down the proportion of the population without such an access from 31% in 1990 to 8% in 2010. Still Over 96 million people have no access to safe water.  In many parts of India, women have to travel several Kms to get access to drinking water. Many girls dropout from school for this reason. Lack of safe drinking water is responsible for various water borne diseases. 1000 children die everyday from these diseases. For 2011-12, a budgetary allocation of Rs. 9350 Crore was provided in the Budget Estimate for National Rural Development Water Programme. This was revised to Rs. 8500 at the Revised Estimate (RE)Stage. 2
    • Formation of “Durga Samiti” Encouraging the formation of “Prayas” groups with equal participation of women Establishment of Toilets Waste Management Development of MIS system STRATEGY FOR PROPER SANITATION (RURAL) • Nukkad Natak. • Projector Movie based campaign. • Channelising positive traditional beliefs through religion and communication strategy. Awareness Programmes • Health Hazards. • Washing Hands with Soaps • Disposal of child faeces in safe places. Education • Spreading the idea of “Total Sanitation” to facilitate the use of Toilet Complexes by lower caste. Eradicate caste beliefs • Child friendly Toilets for girls and boys with water supply. • Distribution of 2 soaps per month per child for primary and secondary. • Distribution of “Nirmal” booklets( sanitation guide). Schools • Groups involving 4-5 families. • 50% or more Women in the group. • Collection of Rs. 100/- from each family per month by group leader. • Also Easy loan at no rate of interest from Banks. Formation of Groups • Utilisation of excreta as manure from “Ecosan” toilet. • No difficulty of emptying the pit. • Villages with more Prayas Groups to be given priority for better water supply electricity and mobile towers. • Distribution of free SIM cards with talk time of Rs200 to each family as promotional offer. • Appreciation of the group socially in panchayat meetings. Benefits to groups • Training of 5 masons from each village for constructing Ecosan toilets. • Constructing the Toilet at appropriate distance from houses. • Construction of 2 “EcoSan” Toilet among 4 families with Govt. and Group sharing of 70:30. • In the long term focusing on individual toilets for each home. Construction of Toilets • Use of Human and animal Excreta as manure. • “ Kachra” trolleys are to be provided in every village by Gram Panchayat. Solid Waste Management • In villages with sufficient cattle , biogas plants are to be constructed. • Encouraging the villagers to sell cow dung cakes to biogas plant. • Public Toilets connected by sewage network to biogas plants. • Biogas produced can be commercialised as cooking fuel by govt. by selling it. • The waste product from biogas plant can be used as fertiliser through vermin composting which would be given to villagers at no cost. Construction of biogas plants • A centralised MIS system is necessary to monitor the no. of prayas groups and functioning of biogas plants. • In govt. constructed toilet complexes maintenance can be ensured by MIS system. • Training of 2 villagers and providing them the job of data entry operator for MIS system in each block. MIS system 3
    • STRATEGY FOR PROPER SANITATION (URBAN) Providing Sanitation • Spreading Awareness about sanitation in slum areas through pamphlets, Hoarding advertisements and Loudspeaker Audios. • Construction of Toilet and Bath Complexes near slum areas with Govt. and NGO sharing • Construction of pay and use toilets in public places with proper maintenance by private authorities. • Regular cleaning of drainage lines of all wards and maintain the data through MIS system. Proper Disposal of Solid and Liquid waste • Waste collector Rickshaws of private organisations to collect the waste products visiting every alternate day. • Encouraging the people to separate the perishable and non perishable goods by providing them appropriate amount for recyclable and reusable goods. • Perishable goods to be collected in excavated area and then selling it as manure. • Non biodegradable wastes like plastics can be used in construction of polyblend roads, land fillings etc. which will be sold by private organisation to industries. • Waste water treatment by using plants like Arcata Marsh for waste water treatment. Other Effective Measures • Imposing fine for defecation and urination in open space to be collected by private organisation. • Promoting use of sucker tanks for emptying the septic tanks. • Construction of Waste segregation units outside the city. • Establishing Consumer Complaint Centres. 4
    • Water Supply in Rural areas with contaminated water • Establishment of Pump Houses and use of Ultrafiltration technique-”Purioin” in villages with infected water . It costs around 5 paise per litre. ( Developed by National Chemical Laboratory) • Special treatment for arsenic, fluoride, iron etc. if found in excess. • Providing Water Pipelines through that Pump House in different parts of the village, special care to low caste groups. • Providing Pipeline Connection near the “Prayas” Group Families. • “Durga Samiti” for raising awareness, monitoring the construction and operation of water supply and collection of some fund from village. • Encouraging the use of drinking water through pipes by promoting it as “ Amrit Water”. Supply of water only for 2 hrs in a day. • Maintaining data of water quality and filtration technique through MIS. Useful Implementations • A separate small pond construction for cleaning of animals. • Construction of Bathrooms and concrete washing floors for washing of clothes near local ponds and rivers.( where available) • Providing a drainage network for discharging the waste from above into a pit at a safe distance from the water body so that water would be gradually filtered and absorbed in the soil. • Making it mandatory for the people not to pollute the surface water source by any means. Bathing and other activities should not be allowed at hand pumps. • The one found guilty should not be allowed in any social activity of village. • “Durga Samiti” will monitor these activities. • Conservation of surface water is our prime motto. For Urban Areas • Suggestions for Govt.- • Rain Water Harvesting should be made compulsory in every state by government. • Providing public taps in slum areas with regular monitoring. • Using Pressure Gauges in supply lines to detect the leakage of water. • Construction of sewage network in existing cities wherever possible. • Regular monitoring of discharge from industries. 5
    • Design For Above Strategy RECRUITMENT MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION RURAL •Survey to understand the requirements of rural population. •Recruitment of Volunteers for “ Durga Samiti “ of 6-10 members comprising atleast 50% women. •Recruitment preference to be given to educated persons and those having thorough knowledge about their village. •Recruitment of 5 persons on daily wage basis for collection of solid waste, cleaning and maintenance. Training of 4-5 masons for construction of Ecosan Toilets. •Recruitment of 1 data entry operator per block and 1 pump operator per village. •A jeep will collect the wastes from villages to urban waste segregation plant twice a month. ( arranged by private firm) •“Durga Samiti” will monitor the working of workers and provide its report to our proposed organisation. TRAINING •Training of members of Durga Samiti by a team visiting every village to spread awareness among the people about sanitation and drinking water. •They will also be trained to monitor the working of workers in villages and about MIS operator in blocks who will visit the village per month to collect necessary data. Awareness Programmes •Raising Awareness for Durga Samiti and Prayas groups through newspapers, radio , SMS , social media and also through Panchayat meetings. Distribution of “Nimral” Booklets in rural schools. •Posters/ banners to be put up in villages about SIM card scheme and suggesting the need for sanitation and drinking water. URBAN •Giving the tender to a private organisation to collect wastes from houses and also for waste water treatment. •They will also arrange for 1 jeep per block for collection of waste. •The working record will be maintained by our MIS team Govt. /Corporate/NGO support • Cell phone Companies will be benefitted by distribution of SIM cards. So their contribution is expected. • Soap Manufacturing companies are also expected to provide their share for distribution of soaps in schools. • NGO and Govt. support is expected for construction of public toilet complexes and public taps in slum areas. • Govt. will have to provide fund along with private sector for construction of waste segregation plants and waste water treatment plants. • Govt. fund is required for construction of bathrooms and cattle wash pond. Also for establishing pump houses. 6
    • We will form a Committee for the application of above Strategy District Head Survey Team (4 Members) Recruitment Team (4 Members) Training Team (2X5 Members) Financial Team (4 Members) IT Team (2 Members) Collection of sanitation and drinking water data of every village. Recruitment of volunteers of “ Durga Samiti” Training of Members of “ Durga Samiti” Managing the Funds Maintaining Data of MIS system. Director Central MIS Team ( 5 Members) Vigilance Team ( 5 Members) Central Financial Team ( 5 Members) Development and Maintenance of MIS system. To monitor the whole process and working of Private org. in cities. To manage the funds from govt. ,NGO, and corporate sector. Issue of tenders for private org. for collecting waste from cities and waste water treatment plant. Central Team at State Level Team at District Level 7
    • FUNDINGREQUIRED Organisation Cost Logistics Cost Technology Cost Director 1X8 lpa Central Team (5 X 15 lpa ) District Team (24X 3 lpa) Transportation Cost Establishment Cost IT hardware Cost IT Software Cost Communication Cost INR 1.55 Crore p.a. INR 50 lakhs p.a. INR 2 Crore p.a. 8 We require amount of Rs 10 per month per child for distribution of soaps. We expect Rs 100/- for distribution of SIM cards. Total amount depends on the Population of each area. In Urban areas contribution is expected from govt. for construction of waste segregation and treatment plants. In each caseTotal amount is to be shared 50:50 among Private Institutions and Govt.
    • SANITATION People will start using public toilets as their maintenance is ensured by MIS system. Solid Waste collection by rickshaws and segregation of solid waste will ensure hygiene in cities as well as villages. In villages, People will get manure from excreta by using Ecosan toilets. Open defecation will reduce and will finally end. Beneficial in areas with water scarcity. No problem of emptying the pit. By formation of Prayas groups and providing promotional offer of SIM cards and water supply line weightage , they will adopt this scheme. Safety and privacy of women will be ensured. Girls will not dropout from schools. Distribution of soaps in primary and secondary school will generate a habit among the children for washing hands with soaps. It will also motivate their parents to adopt the same. Proper sanitation will reduce the expenditure on health sector. It will also reduce the Infant Mortality rate . DRINKING WATER Use of Ultrafiltration Membrane will ensure supply of safe drinking water to rural areas. Due to defecation in open, the surface runoff entering the water bodies contain faecal coliform bacteria largely responsible for water borne diseases. It will be prevented. Construction of cattle wash ponds and Bathrooms and cloth washing areas will prevent the pollution of natural water resource. Rain water harvesting has not been made compulsory in every state. So there is excess pressure on the water supply lines Providing water supply lines in the vicinity of community will save the time for women and girls who have to walk distances for collecting water Use of pressure gauges in city water supply lines will prevent leakage and stealing of water. Waste water treatment plant will reduce pressure on ground water sources. 9
    • CHALLENGES AND MITIGATION FACTOR Challenges: Mitigation: Social • People may not understand the need of water fit for drinking. • Some people may refuse to accept good sanitation habits. Economical • Difficult to make people agree for financial contribution • Initial cost is high. • Private Companies may not agree to contribute. Technical •Pumping of water may be costly in some areas. •Maintenance of data in MIS system Social •Relating these problems to their social respect and status. •Creating awareness among people by conducting social gatherings and awareness programs. Economical • Convincing the people that they will be getting manure from Ecosan Toilets. • In the long term it will contribute to a cleaner and healthier society • Convincing the companies that their share will help to advertise their product. Technical •In such cases we would filter the water from hand pump using purioin and give it for drinking purpose •Training of operators by skilled professionals. 10
    • • http://infochangeindia.org/water-resources/stories-of-change/putting- technology-to-work-for-indias-poor.html • Ecosan toilets for 2,000 people in Tamil Nadu - Wherever the Need India: http://www.wherevertheneed.org.in/2011/ecosan-toilets-for-2000-people-in- tamil-nadu/ • Water. (n.d.). India. Retrieved from http://water.org/country/india/ • UNICEF. (n.d.). Water, Environment and Sanitation. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/india/wes.html • Documents & Reports: http://www.mdws.gov.in/documentreports/term/50 , • http://www.mdws.gov.in/documentreportall/term/42 • Home - Indian Biogas Association :http://www.biogas-india.com/ • Water Supply Engineering- by S.K. Garg • Data and case studies from MDWS.