Walk to Equality:
Ensuring Safety &
“You can tell the state of a nation by looking at
the condition of the women there.”
• According to Indian
constitution, Women are legal
citizens of the country and
have equal rights with
men.(e.g right to equality, no
discrimination by the states,
equality of opportunity, equal
pay for equal work etc.)
• But because of lack of
acceptance from the male
dominating society, Indian
women suffer immensely.
• Women are responsible for
baring children, yet they are
malnourished and in poor
• In India, rape, sexual
harassment and abuse of
women are common
occurrences that go unspoken
due to social stigma or fear of
• Crime clock:
on case in
g in every
nt case in
“There is no tool for development more
effective than the empowerment of women.”
• What is Women
• Why it is needed
To establish high level corporate leadership
for gender equality.
To treat all women & men fairly at work.
Respect and support human rights and
To promote education, training and
professional development for women.
To ensure the health, safety and well being
of all women & men workers.
To implement enterprise development,
supply chain and marketing practices that
To promote equality through community
initiatives and advocacy.
To measure and publically report on
progress to achieve gender equality.
The couple of word Women-
Empowerment may be defined as a
multidimensional social process that
helps women in gaining control over
their own lives.
It fosters capacity in them, for use in
their own lives, their communities, and
in their society by acting on issues that
they define as important.
It comprises of 5 components:
of self worth.
Their rights to
have & to
Their rights to
have power to
Their ability to
Their rights to
have access to
Advantages over existing
system• Proposed solutions to ensure
safety and empowerment of
These actions are particularly
important for three subpopulations of
gaps in earnings
against girls and
of seats in local
women’s & girls’
& girl’s time
• The wellbeing &
survival of poor
households depend on
the productive and
females so focus on
them is therefore
central to reduce
• Investments to help
girls complete good
their transition from
education to work,
• Situations of conflict
impacts on women &
periods present a
window of opportunity
to create a gender-
Operational framework of Gender Equality with three
It refers to basic human
abilities as measured by
education, health and
individual well being
and are the means
individuals access other
forms of well being. TheaccesstoResources&
It refers primarily to
equality in the
opportunity to use or
apply basic capabilities
through access to
as land or housing) and
income & employment)
as well as political
It is defined to mean
reduced vulnerability to
violence and conflict
that result in physical
and psychological harm
and lessen the ability of
and communities to
fulfill their potential.
specifically at women &
girls often aims at
keeping them at their
place ‘through fear’.
The attainment of capabilities increases the likelihood that women can access opportunities for
employment or participate in political and legislative bodies.
• Access to opportunities decreases the likelihood that women will experience violence.(although in
certain circumstances, it may temporarily increase that likelihood).
Progress in any one domain to the exclusion of the others will be insufficient to meet the goal of Gender
• And to exercise agency to use their rights and opportunities, Women must live without the fear of
coercion and violence.
Making it happen
The practical actions and key essentials that can be
taken with each strategic priority to bring about gender
equality and empower women. The framework provides a
powerful legal mechanism
enabling stakeholders at
the country level to hold
accountable for meeting
NGO’s such as women’s
organizations and other
civil society organizations
have taken the lead in
holding government &
commitments to gender
equality & women
Political commitment by and mobilization of large
group of change agents at different levels within
country who seek to implement the vision of the
Technical expertise and knowledge of how to
mainstream gender into development policies and
Institutional structures and processes to support
the transformation, including structures that enable
women to successfully claim their rights.
The allocation of adequate financial resources for
direct interventions by governmental and non-
governmental organizations in the strategies.
Accountability and monitoring systems need to be in
place within country to ensure that fundamental
change is broad based and lasting.
Total Funding required • Fund Management
For the strategies expenditure should be
categorized in 3 categories.
An accurate cost analysis is the first step in
efforts to mobilize the financial resources
needed to implement the various
interventions and policy measures are:
The cost of universal primary and
expanded secondary education would
be roughly Rs.1500 per capita on
Cost of setting up a primary health care
system(for child & maternal health,
sexual & reproductive health) would
average roughly Rs.2000 per capita
Cost of water & sanitation provision
would average roughly Rs.700 per capita
Preliminary estimates suggest that the
addition cost of gender specific
intervention to meet goals will average
approximately Rs.100 per capita
annually with costs peaking at Rs.150 in
Public expenditure can be clustered in terms
of four categories
Existing Government Schemes and
Besides these Government
policies, NGO’s are playing a
significant role in the
Govt. have set up the Central
Social Welfare Board(CSWB), an
apex body of the voluntary
sector that aids more than
10,000 NGO’s across the country,
helping women stand on their
own through such programmes
as socio-economic programme,
vocational training and other
Some of the NGO’s that are
working to uplift the status of
Nanhi Kali (for the girl child)
Sarojini Rehabilitation Centre for
The establishment of the National Commission for
Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)
Balika Samriddhi Yojna (BSY)
Rural Women’s Development & Empowerment
Indira Mahila Yojna (IMY)
Reproductive & Child Health Scheme (RCH)
Adolescent Girls Scheme
Working Women’s Hostel Scheme
Support to Training & Employment Programme
for Women (STEP)
Stree Shakti Puraskar
Education & Training support
The National Policy for Empowerment of women
Convention on the elimination of all forms of
discrimination against women (CEDAW)
Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of
A National Resource center for Women
Criteria to measure the impact of the solutionProposedindicatorsfortrackingprogress
• The ratio of female to male gross enrollment rates in primary, secondary, & tertiary education.
• The ratio of female to male completion rates in primary, secondary & tertiary education.
Sexual and Reproductive health & rights
• Proportion of contraceptive demand satisfied.
• Adolescent fertility rate.
• Hours per day (or year) women & men spend fetching water and collecting fuel.
• Land ownership by male, female or jointly held.
• Housing title, disagregated by male, female or jointly held
• Share of women in employment, both wage & self-employment, by type.
• Gender gaps in earnings in wage and self-employed.
Participation in National parliaments & local Government bodies
• Percentage of seats held by women in National parliament.
• Percentage of seats held by women in local government bodies.
Violence against women
• Prevalence of domestic violence
The rule of law means little to most women & girls: Access to
justice demands knowledge, literacy, money & time.
• Appropriate Monitoring
Country statistical agencies need an
infusion of resources to strengthen
their capacity & efforts to do all
that is necessary to collect and
prepare sex-disaggregated data.
Work at the country level also
requires technical support from key
international statistical agencies to
develop methodological guidelines
and undertake new data collection
• Scalability & Sustainability
It includes gender specific interventions in
agriculture, education, health, nutrition,
rural development, urban development,
water & sanitation, environment, trade,
science & technology.
These strategies are included in the needs
assessment for specific sectors-
Post primary education for girls has
been costed as part of the education
needs assessment methodology.
The provision of sexual & reproductive
health services has been costed within
the wealth sector needs assessment
Infrastructure to reduce women’s time
burdens has been costed as part of the
infrastructure needs assessment
Legal empowerment strategies can help create a culture of justice among
women and ensure that principles of equality are translated into practice.
“Let us give them wings to fly high. Let her be happy, so that she can give
her best to family, society and nation.”
Challenges of the women empowerment
Maternal Morality: India accounts for more than 25% of all maternal deaths in
Malnourishment: More than 80% of pregnant Indian women are found to be
anemic. This results in high rates of child malnutrition.
Lack of girl education: only 39% of Indian women attend primary school.
Female Infanticide: India loses around 3 million girls in infanticide per year.
Dowry Deaths: NCRB statics show that 91,202 dowry deaths were reported in
country from Jan 1 ,2001 to Dec 31,2012.
Trafficking: Forcing girls in to prostitution, forced labor or services, slavery or
practices similar to slavery & trade in human organs.
Health :Basin sanitation facilities, adequate medical camps, govt.
health schemes would be conducive to bring about a major change.
Education: It is one of the most important means of empowering
women with knowledge, skills & self confidence necessary to
participate fully in the development process.
Global urban Development Magazine, March 2006
National policy for the empowerment of women,2001
Neera Desai & Usha Thakkar: “Women in Indian
society”(2001)-NBT, New Delhi
Report by the UN Millennium Project Task Force on Education
& Gender equality.
Report by The International Development Law Organization.