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  1. 1. TOPIC: Future cities: Ensuring world class civic amenities in Urban India Building sustainable cities for a better India Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan By: Preeti Kumari Samya Ray Somya Barpanda Sreedev Basu Sulagna Dutta IIM Kozhikode
  2. 2. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan  Around 60% of India’s population is still living in rural-areas  In 20 years, 40% Indian population will be living in cities and 50% by 2050  Implies that there’ll be 300 million more city dwellers  This means a serious Demand-Supply GAP  Rapid but smart and sustainable Urbanisation needed to meet the gap  Heavy traffic congestion, pollution, overcrowding, infrastructure-deterioration etc. have become salient features of almost all Indian cities  The existing metropolis are unable to withstand the incessant influx of immigrants  The need of the hour is to come up with satellite cities and tier-two cities that are sustainable in nature  We propose new metropolis that are eco-polis Transforming India from a Reluctant Urbanizer to a Smart urban-scape Smart and Sustainable Future Cities Self-sufficient (in terms of energy/power, revenues and resources etc.) Minimal Ecological Footprint (minimal pollution, efficient land- use, waste recycling) Planned and Mixed-land Use: Residential, industrial, commercial and recreational Accessible and Affordable Housing for all Proactive People Involvement: City Development & Maintenance Efficient Public Transport Network
  3. 3.  Use HSBC model of reducing air condition in shopping malls  Installed in HSBC Mumbai office, it is estimated to increase energy saving by 28%*  Recyclable fee should be collected from electronic goods consumers  Presently the waste collectors pay consumers a price instead, for their obsolete appliances  Roof top garden should be encouraged and facilitated  This can help solve the problem of less open space for plantations in cities  Construction of Cycle lanes  Environment friendly mode of transport for short distances can thus be facilitated better  Facilitate Zero waste agriculture –  Integrated cycle where one waste of each process becomes feed for another process Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan There is an urgent need to take measures to curb the threat on environment. Recommendations to manage environmental conditions in the self sustainable cities : *http://www.hsbc.co.in/1/PA_1_083Q9FFKG80E20RA9Q00000000/content/website/pdf/about/csr/cs_brochure.pdf 50 28 21 1 % of Cities in India with critical, high, moderate and low levels of Particulate matter Critical High Moderate Low
  4. 4. Housing Environmental Sustainability: Assign best practice standards for building regulations (a la BREEAM) keeping in mind: Energy/CO2, Water, Materials, Surface water runoff (flooding and flood prevention), Waste, Pollution, Health and well-being, Management, Ecology India will need to generate at least 700,000 MW of additional power by 2030 to meet growing electricity demands. Adopt alternative energy solutions like the solar powered Rabi Rashmi Abashan project. Affordability: Implement subsidized rental housing owned and managed by the central or local government. Nearly 85% of Singapore and 50% of Hong Kong avail of such public housing schemes. Purchase by long-term tenants and Interim Housing are further possibilities. Constraints: • Unavailability of urban land • Delay in project approvals from multiple authorities • Rising construction cost • Financing constraints of low income groups • Limited financing avenues for developers Proposals: • Fast track approvals for affordable housing projects • Incentivize FSI and FAR optimization • Infrastructure linkages by using proceeds from sale of land • Direct Tax Incentives and Service Tax exemptions • Micro-credit, Priority sector lending and increase financial literacy for economically weaker sections India’s urban housing shortage is estimated at nearly 18.78 million households in 2012 Urbanization is likely to grow till 2050 at a CAGR of 2.1% – double that of China
  5. 5. Transportation WHY IS A SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SYSTEM CRUCIAL? Forms backbone of a city, economy and commerce by forming vital means of transportation and Freight carriage. CURRENT PROBLEMS 1. Traffic congestion and Air Pollution have a negative impact on GDP as it imposes a heavy cost in terms of health and productivity. 2. Increasing road capacity is a temporary solution as it gets clogged again after a mean life of 2 years . 3. Increase in price of construction materials has made it difficult to increase capacity of existing road networks. Thus, adding lanes to cope with traffic congestion is not a financially feasible option for many cities anymore. Adding capacity is also not environmentally sustainable because as the amount of roads increases, the amount of green space decreases. Building more roads has an adverse environmental impact. Citizens for Accountable Governance RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Use ‘Transportation Gap’ concept introduced by Gabriel Bouladon. Fill all possible Tranportation Gaps possible. 2. Public Transit System introduction is crucial to develop an effective transportation system. 3. Cooperative society for car pooling and car sharing. 4. Improve efficiency of Freight Transport Operations through facilities such as Consolidation Centers or Freight Villages. 5. Use Web based technology for freight optimisation and Intelligent Transport System ( ITS). 6. DENSE USE DEVELOPMENT AND MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW CITIES. Citizens for Accountable Governance
  6. 6. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan
  7. 7. Sanitation • Micro-financing development of sanitation facilities • Revamping sewage system to segregate different sewage & effluent treatment • Controlling bank erosion for the waterways in cities to prevent clogging of sewage • Any form of manual scavenging should be prevented and automation be used for garbage disposal Drinking water • Community or block based desalination plants for cities located in water scarce regions • Introduction of water ATM’s concept at places of semi permanent residence in cities like in construction sites • Water harvesting for water storage as well as ground water replenishing to be compulsorily introduced • A system of water quota and differential pricing system could be introduced Healthcare • Raising awareness against lifestyle related health problems • Subvention of medical subsidies through private clinics • Infant & maternity specialty clinics to control mortality and feticide • Health insurance cover for the economically disadvantaged groups • Promoting core strengths to promote medical tourism • Mobile apps for emergency healthcare should be introduced Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan
  8. 8. Citizens for Accountable Governance www.indiancag.org/manthan Leveraging the power of PPPP  An emerging need to move from the conventional Public-Private- Partnership (PPP) to People-Public-Private-Partnership (PPPP) model  At present, citizen-involvement in City Planning and Maintenance is almost nil  “The spirit of Indian democracy and desire for further devolution makes it imperative that urban planners of Indian cities master participative processes of planning that enable citizens to shape the cities they want” (Approach Paper to 12th Five Year Plan)  Under present PPP-system there exists a GAP: The government mainly cost-effectively divests responsibility of infra-projects to private sector that is primarily concerned with meeting contractual terms at minimum costs.  Full Value For Money (VFM) for the end-user, the non- participative citizen, is not realized  Full VFM ensured through PPPP-model involving: • a proactive people’s body, • committed and clean government and • an incentivised and efficient private sector  Enables better risk allocation between statesmen, developers and end-users  Involvement in stages: I. In City Planning, Design & Development:  End-users (future city-dwellers) actively reveal preferences for urban infrastructure and services to the private sector (that executes the city-projects supported by state funds)  Such a consumerist approach via information-sharing helps promote innovative solutions and greater citizen- satisfaction II. In Maintaining the City Infrastructure:  Devolution of more powers and greater autonomy to Residents Welfare Associations (RWAs)  Senior citizens can be formally engaged as city-activists and as conduits of awareness generation  School-kids can be conditioned to serve as ambassadors for sustainable city practices
  9. 9. Proposal Planning: London micro-plans everything in a cascaded system with a metropolitan master plan and implementation in detail at the borough level. London plans for peak morning traffic 20 years in advance. Planning in India, although extant, is esoteric rather than practical. Projects that failed in Delhi, like the BRT, are nonetheless being replicated in Pune. Governance: • Empower city administration • Accountable, empowered directly elected mayor • Fully formed metropolitan development authorities with clearly defined roles. • Update service delivery mechanisms by moving to corporatized agencies like BEST • Create a Civil services cadre dedicated to city governance, with private sector lateral entry
  10. 10. Implementation Financing: Four sources that could be leveraged are: • Monetizing land assets • Higher property taxes • Debt and Public-Private Partnerships • Formula based government spending Largest Indian cities should be able to generate 80 to 85% of the required funding internally. Shape: • Aim for a distributed model of urbanization • Renew Tier 1 cities through capital investment • Pre-emptively shape the growth of Tier 2 cities • Specialize top 100 cities focused on sectors such as tourism and manufacturing • Facilitate 20 to 25 new cities near the largest 20 metropolitan areas by providing adequate infrastructure such as water, electricity and transportation links • Seed future urbanization by building 19 transportation corridors linking Tier 1 & 2 cities The road ahead: • Need Central Govt. impetus despite cities falling under the ambit of State governments. • Proactive involvement from citizens • Private institutions & investors to drive change By 2030, approximately 590 million (from 290 million in2001) will live in cities. 68 cities will have population of over 1 million: India will need $1.2 trillion additional investment
  11. 11. REFERENCES: 1.Urban housing shortage Report of the Technical Urban Group (TG-12) on Urban Housing Shortage 2012-17, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, September 2012 2.CAGR (China) Opportunities in an Urbanizing World, Credit Suisse, April 2012 3.http://www.naredco.in/pdfs/recommendations-conference.pdf 4.http://www.breeam.org/about.jsp?id=66 5.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/5976/code_for_sustainable_ homes_techguide.pdf 6.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/6378/1972728.pdf 7.http://inhabitat.com/indias-first-green-housing-project-completed/ 8.http://www.hdb.gov.sg/fi10/fi10320p.nsf/w/aboutuspublichousing?opendocument 9.http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hkstat/srh/index.jsp 10. http://cpcb.nic.in/upload/NewItems/NewItem_192_NAAQSTI.pdf 11. UNITED NATIONS ESCAP – CITYNET 12. http://www.unescap.org/esd/suds/publications/Sustainable-Urban-Transportatation-System/Sustainable- Transportation-9.pdf 13. http://www.princeton.edu/~mauzeral/wws402d_s06/Laffel.pdf 14. Sankhe, Shirish et al, “India's urban awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth” (2010) McKinsey Global Institute Citizens for Accountable Governance