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    girlz-5 girlz-5 Presentation Transcript

    •  SHAIMA RIFAIE  KAJAL VAKHARIA  DURVA RAUT  SAMIKSHA RANE  VIDYA PATIL.
    • The major problems confronting Indian agriculture are those of population pressure, small holdings, depleted soils, lack of modern technology and poor facilities for storage. (a) Population Pressure: India has a huge population of over one billion and it is increasing at a very fast rate. According to 2001 census figures the over all density of population is 324 persons per sq. km. This is likely to increase further in future. This has created great demand for land. Every bit of land has been brought under the plough. Even the hill slopes have been cut into terraces for cultivation. (b) Small and Fragmented Land Holdings: The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub divisions of farm holdings. Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence and discontentment. (c) Inadequate Irrigation Facilities: By and large the irrigation facilities available in India are far from adequate. So for half of the total area under food crops has been brought under irrigation and the remaining half is left to the mercy of monsoon rains which are erratic in time and space. (d) Depleted Soils: Indian soils have been used for growing crops for thousands of years which have resulted in the depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil has been drying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further depleted the soils of the natural fertility. Earlier only animal waste was enough to maintain soil fertility. (e) Storage of food grains: Storage of food grains is a big problem. Nearly 10 per cent of our harvest goes waste every year in the absence of proper storage facilities. This colossal wastage can be avoided by developing scientific ware-housing facilities. The government has taken several steps to provide storage facilities. (f) Farm Implements: Although some mechanisation of farming has taken place in some parts of the country, most of the farmers are poor and do not have enough resources to purchase modern farm implements and tools. This hampers the development of agriculture. PROBLEMS FACED BY FARMERS :
    • Vedic techniques of agriculture : India had ancient wisdom of farming since beginning of human civilization. It came from enlightened Rishis who lived in forests and understood all the rhythms of nature. One of these great rishis was Parashara but there were many others who taught the art and science of cultivation as per Vedic science. In modern times Mohan Deshpande has propagated this method which is called ‘zero budget farming’ as the raw materials to produce amazing crops, amazing soil fertility and no trouble from pests is close to zero. One comes to understand why the cow was ‘sacred’ in Vedic civilization as through the profound alchemy in her physiology, the cow gives us dung and urine which are amazing medicines and amazing food and medicine for all crops. So the cow was the centre of the Vedic village and is the centre of Rishi Krishi. Outside of India and even in modern India this profound connection with the cow is sadly being lost but we are working hard to raise awareness so all may see how life can be conducted with nature and without having to harm or destroy any life so all may have ample food. Even in the most deserted of soils one can revive with these methods below. For cow it is recommended to use traditional cow of India not the hybrids that are becoming popular in India and also found mostly outside of India. 1500 Acres of well maintained agriculture land for sale as a whole or plots adjacent to river side. plenty of water available (100acres,50acres,10acres etc) Price from Rs. 50000 to 250000 per acre (depending upon location, water level, road face etc.) This land can be registered in your name with proper registry and farmer passbook issued by local authorities after 15 days of registry of land in your name. Govt. giving subsidy for boring/pond Nearby lands having all kind of crops such as peddy, corn, sesame, beans, oilseed etc. Electricity is also available in nearby lands so getting a new connection is also very easy. Location: Panna & Katni districts, Madhya Pradesh High costs for rivers to get sufficient water:
    • In a major boost to farmers in north Karnataka, organic produce from this region will soon be exported to European markets. Many farmers here have switched to organic farming method and are selling their produce in local markets through various organizations. To meet the huge demand of organic products, traders from European countries have approached Karnataka Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KCCI). Buoyed by the new demand, KCCI in Hubli has started collecting data of organic farmers in north Karnataka. According to sources, organic produce export will only start after the completion of data collection. Speaking to TOI, C N Karikatti, KCCI joint secretary, said: "We have successfully marketed organic products in north Karnataka. Farmers today are easily selling their produce in local markets through various organizations." increasing productivity in a sustainable manner of the hour. The characteristics of organic farming includes : 1. Protecting the long term fertility of soils by maintaining organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity and careful mechanical intervention . 2. Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrient sources which are made available to the plant by the action of soil microorganisms. 3. Nitrogen self sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation as well as effective cycling of organic materials including crop residues and livestock manures. 4. Weed ,disease and pest control relying primarily on crop rotation natural predators diversity organic manuring resistant varieties and limited thermal, biological and chemical intervention. 5. The extensive management of livestock painful regard to their revolutionary adaptations behavioural needs and animal welfare issues with respect to nutrition ,housing ,health ,breeding and raring 6. Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment and the conservation of wild life and natural habitats. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE :
    • Measures TOOK to improve agricultural productivity i)Improvement in Technology Technological improvements in agriculture includes biological and mechanical innovations. Biological innovations include use of crops varieties. Mechanical innovations imply the use of modern machines. ii)Development of irrigation Efforts can be made by the government to improve and expand irrigation facilities so that the farmers are not left at the mercy of the Monsoon. iii)Land reforms Though many land reforms measures have been introduced in India, but their performance remains quite far from satisfactory. Efforts should be made to increase th size of the land holdings. iv)Use of improved fertilizers and seeds Indian farmers should make increasing use of HYV seeds, chemical fertilizers rather than the traditional seeds and manures. v)Agricultural research More efforts are requires in the research and the development in the field og agriculture. vi) Incentives to the farmers Crop insurance schemes can be implemented. Farmers can be given the merit certificates or prizes. Remunerative prices of agricultural crops should be guaranteed by the government. RESONS OF LOW AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY : 1. Multiple Cropping: Multiple cropping aims at maximizing production per unit of land and per unit of time by taking three or four crops in a year. By adopting multiple cropping, there are two advantages as of getting increased returns and economy of the farm resources. 2. Expansion of Irrigation Facilities: Irrigation facilities have increased manifold over time. Several, minor, medium and major irrigation projects have been launched in the country. At the inception of First Five Year Plan, India had only 18% of total irrigated area which at present increased to about 33.9 percent. Moreover, dry farming has also been introduced in those areas where means of permanent irrigation cannot be installed. In 1994-95 the country witnessed total irrigated area of 876 lakh hectares.
    • 3. Use of HYV Seeds: HYV seeds have absolutely revolutionized Indian agriculture by increasing yield per acre. Among these, mention may be made of dwarf varieties of wheat PU-18, Kalyan Sona 227, Sona Lika, Hybrid maize, Vijay, Rice I R-8, Jhona 351, Padma and Jaya etc. 4. Plant Protection: Considerable efforts have been made to protect the crops from the insects and pests. For this purpose, 14 Central Plant Protection Centres have been set up by the Govt. 5. Scientific Methods of Cultivation: In the planning period, stress has been laid on the scientific methods of cultivation. It has been emphasized to adopt superior agricultural technology in respect of crop rotation, selection of quality seeds, use of proper manure, treatment of soil, selection of crops etc. In this regard, Govt has initiated Intensive Agricultural Area Programme. Moreover, several Agricultural research centers and universities have also been established. In this regard, Haryana Agricultural University Hissar, Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, Himachal Agricultural University Palampur, ICAR, Delhi is playing a pioneer role to develop agriculture. 6. Use of Mechanization: Mechanization is another noteworthy step employed to develop agriculture. Small farmers are assisted with cheap credit facilities through co-operative societies, community development blocks to purchase machinery and other modern equipments. 7. More Use of Chemical Fertilizers: Use of chemical fertilizers has also contributed significantly to the growth of agricultural output. Several steps have been taken to encourage the use of cow-dung as manure rather than as fuel. In 1950-51, 0.13 million tonnes of chemical fertilizers was used which in 1980-81 increased to 5.52 million tonnes and further to 12.54 million tonnes in 1990-91. In 1995-96, the use of chemical fertilizers was recorded to the tune of 15.7 million tonnes. 8. Development of Agricultural Land: Efforts have been made to develop agricultural land during the five year plans. Major success has been achieved in the leveling of land, terracing of fields and contour building. Land surveys are also being conducted. 9. Animal Husbandry: Animal husbandry has assumed a much broader role in the overall agricultural development. Presently, this sector accounts for 25% of gross value of agricultural output. India's vast livestock population offers tremendous potential for meeting domestic demand for milk, egg, meat, wool, etc. 10. Land Reforms: In a bid to increase agricultural productivity, land reforms are of immense use. Since the dawn of independence, Govt, of India has undertaken several land reform measures. For instance, Abolition of zamidari system, Fixation of ceilings on Land Holdings, Consolidation of Land Holdings, co-operative farming etc.
    • Vermiculture, or worm farming, is the utilization of some species of earthworm such asEisenia fetida(commonly known as red wiggler, brandling, or manure worm),E. foetida, and Lumbricus rubellusto make Vermicompost (aka Worm Compost, Vermicast, Worm Castings, Worm Poop, Worm Humus or Worm Manure), which is a nutrient-rich, natural fertilizer and soil conditioner,which is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter. Unlike composting, worm farming can be carried out on the balcony of an apartment, in the basement of a house, or in a heated garage if the bin is suitable and it is well maintained to avoid odors. Worm bins also: *.can speed up the process by months *.are often much smaller than compost bins *.can take pure kitchen waste, without needing garden waste or soil once the colony has been established *.can handle paper (e.g. paper with food on it, which can't be put out with paper recycling) Using vermiculture in agriculture can help us a lot as it will provide us with a fertilizer which is more nourishing to our soil. It can be used to convert animal waste, food scraps, and other dead organic matter into a nutrient rich fertilizer. This can ultimately be used to fertilize the farm and produce a greater quality and quantity of food for the Country like INDIA. One of the most beneficial aspects of worms is the casts they produce. Worm casts (vermicasts/ worm poop/worm compost) are the feces of worms. Worm casts are high in nutrients such as NH4, accessible P and SO4, K, Ca, and Mg. Soil with worms also contained almost twice as much organic carbon. worms casts stimulated plant growth by making nutrients more available and also by increasing the water holding capacity of the soil . Worm casts increase the amount and accessibility of nutrients to the soil, and the amount of beneficial microorganisms in the soil. With earth population recently reaching 7 million and continuing to rise, a large problem is feeding all of these people with a limited amount of agricultural land. Because of this problem, urban gardening is becoming ever more important. In Kibera, Nairobi, urban gardening has been shown to increase nutrition and also increase family income by money generated from selling excess produce. Families have been able to increase their income by 5-6 USD per week. Vermiculture is an easily made fertilizer that could be used in urban agriculture to boost nutrition and crop yields, potentially increasing family income.A study done showed that in India and other locations, vermiculture and vermicompost have the potential of completely replacing chemical fertilizers . This could have a large impact because much of today’s synthetic fertilizers are made using large amounts of fossil fuels. A large impact that vermicomposting can have is reducing the amount of organic waste that is sent to landfills each year. With vermiculture, much of this waste can be composted and turned into vermicompost. This has the potential to increase the longevity of landfills and reduce the costs associated with handling municipal solid waste 1) VERMICULTURE :Solutions:
    • Invovling NGO’s can be a better option as govt. can’t reach to each and every framer . Selecting some responsible NGO’s for such development will be of great help. NGO’s will make farmer aware of the govt. policies and can even help in the distribution of the fertilizer’s. Unlike the Peasant movement that was a social movement involved with the agricultural policy. Peasants movement have a long history that can be traced to the numerous peasant uprisings that occurred in various regions of the world throughout human history. Early peasant movements were usually the result of stresses in the feudal and semi feudal societies, and resulted in violent uprisings. More recent movements, fitting the definitions of social movements, are usually much less violent, and their demands are centered around better prices for agricultural produce, better wages and working conditions for the agricultural laborers, and increasing the agricultural production.The economic policies of British adversely affected the Indian peasants the British Govt. used to protect the landlords and money lenders.they exploited the peasants.The peasants rose in revolt against this injustice on many occasions .The peasants in Bengal formed their union and revolted against the compulsion of cultivating indigo. 2) Involvement of NGO’S:-
    • In today’s world everyone who is struggling is basically for there bread and butter i.e money for buying food, clothes, increase in the standard of living, etc. if all the farmer’s are given fair prices for there product, there won’t be any suicide cases or the case of selling the farming land. The farmers are given a cheap price for their products and selled at such a high rate for example : wheat from farmers is selled to middle man at the rate of Rs.8 but In market it is sold at the rate of Rs.32. so farmers are cheated at their price or customers are cheated if the farmers rate and customer’s consuming rate is same or probably similar then their will be a proper balance to provide the right of the farmers and this will avoid further consequences.fair prices for land will also help the farmer to own a land and cultivate more crops, as the population is increasing there is a great demand for food so to fulfill their demand and make them healthy and alive we can provide farmers a loan for their land of interest we can also help them by providing cheap but nutritive fertilizer. 3) Inspiring by giving fair prices:
    • If farmers are made aware of using crop rotation they can make the land more fertile.the time between the season of a single crop will be utilized in growing other crops. And thus we can increase the crop productivity and more products will be available to fulfill the demands of increasing population.Even this will help farmers to make a correct decision for the plantation of different crops and increasing their income too.Also generating employment to farmers and agricultured field colleages. There are general principles of crop rotation that can help you make this decisions but in the end, each farmer devises a unique crop rotation land depending on which crops they grow and in what amount. It helps in avoiding problems of soil borne diseases and some soil dwelling insects such as corn root worms . These balances soul fertility as different crops have different nutrient requrement affect the soil balance differently. Cropping system should be planned around the use of deep_rooting legumes . Rotations depend wholly on green manure legumes should be confined to the more level and fertile land. These should occur about once in 4 year period for the maximum production. 4) Increasing crop rotation :
    • Conclusion from above slides : According to us if the above solutions are brought under action the productivity of our nation will increase and this will also help in increasing GDP of the nation and less farmers will commit to suicide.