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  • 1. Manthan Topic Sowing prosperity: Boosting agricultural productivity Skills Shortage Boosting rice productivity with the help of Biotechnology Team Details Ankit Singh, Supratim Chaudhuri, Aritra Roy Choudhury, Aparajita Chakraborty & Tuhin Kr. Dasgupta Kalinga Institute Of Industrial Technology
  • 2. RICE IS ONE OF THE MAJOR STAPLE FOOD OF THE INDIAN POPULATION INDIA IS ONE OF THE LEADING RICE PRODUCING COUNTRIES EVEN THE HIGHEST CONSUMER OF THE SAME A. Production: About 120,620,000 metric tons of rice is being produced per year approximately in India. (2011 RECORD) A. B. Consumption: About 82,602,265 metric tons of rice is being consumed per year approximately by the whole population of India. (2011 RECORD) C. Export: About 2,131,270 tons of rice being exported per year which gives a total of 10,000 crore rupees to India.
  • 3. HAS THE MAIN STAPLE FOOD HAVING 100% EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION??  There is approximately 4880 crores of rupees of losses due to various pests as stated above.  There is about 20% of loss of yield due to various diseases.  The most common diseases affecting rice plants in India are- 1) Rice blast & 2) Bacterial Blight. From the above the data we can conclude that there is a high range of yield loss in India. One of the main reason of this loss is the moist tropical environment of India. Rice being a Kharif crop in north India, is generally grown in the monsoon. In north India, the monsoon comes during the period of June- September during the southeast monsoon.
  • 4. THE ISSUE AT HAND The major rice producing states are: West Bengal, Punjab, Haryana, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, etc. The major rice producing states are susceptible to one of the major rice disease, i.e., Bacterial Blight. The data suggests that there is approximately 6-60% loss in yield due to this disease. For example, the rice variety Pusa Basmati is cultivated in the Haryana region. There is about 31-45% yield loss per year. States effected by Bacterial Blight Major rice producing states of India: States majorly effected by Bacterial Blight in India:
  • 5. ABOUT THE THREAT Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae. Symptoms: i) Water-soaked to yellowish stripes on leaf blades or starting at leaf tips then later increase in length and width with a wavy margin. ii) Appearance of bacterial ooze that looks like a milky or opaque dewdrop on young lesions early in the morning. iii) Lesions turn yellow to white as the disease advances and later become grayish iv) Leaves wilt and roll up and become grayish green to yellow and later the plant wilts completely. v) Green water-soaked layer along the cut portion or leaf tip of leaves as early symptom. vi) The pathogen causes typical vascular wilt in seedlings called kresek, and develops as leaf blight at later stages of crop growth. CAUSE OF THE DISEASE: i) The presence of weeds around the field, the rice stubbles, and ratoons of infected plants sustains survival of the disease. They become sources of initial inoculum. Likewise, the bacteria in the rice paddy and irrigation canals encourage new infection on leaves. ii) Warm temperature (25-30° C), high humidity, rain and deep water favor the disease. Wetland areas also encourage the presence of the disease. Severe winds, which cause wounds, and over fertilization are suitable factors for the development of the disease.
  • 6. COPING UP WITH THE THREAT CONVENTIONAL METHOD: The most widely used conventional method is the use of pesticide. This much use of pesticides are causing lots of environmental as well As health hazards. WHAT’S NEXT?? There can be innovative as well as hazardless solutions for minimizing the disease threat. The different types of remedies can be: 1) Genetic modification 2) Interspecific hybridization 3) RNA silencing PARAMETERS USED FOR ESTIMATING YIELD LOSS: Incidence and severity are the two quantitative parameters that are commonly assessed in epidemiological studies on any disease. Disease incidence is the proportion of visible infected plant units, and is usually expressed as a percentage of the total population. Disease severity is the proportion of tissue infected by disease and showing symptoms, and is expressed as a percentage of total tissue area. One method widely used by plant breeders and pathologists in tropical Asia is the scale in the standard evaluation system for rice. With the decimal scale for BLB, scores range from 0 to 9, and six grades of disease incidence or severity are recognized for field assessment as follows: 0 = no BLB; 1 = less than 1%; 3 = 1–5%; 5 = 6–25%; 7 = 26–50%; and 9 = 51–100% leaf area damaged. The decimal scale is widely used to determine the disease severity, but the disease prevalence over a rice-growing district is usually ignored.
  • 7. GENETIC MODIFICATION Incorporating the disease resistant gene into the plant genome: The first gene that was found to be resistant against this disease is Xa21. The gene of interest(Xa21) is isolated from genome The gene of interest is incorporated in a plant expression vector. The vector is transferred in the plant by a carrier. Callus formation & selection Plant regeneration Expression level assays Pyramiding the genes of interest in the plant genome: The incorporation of the single gene like Xa21 in the plant genome can make the plant variety tolerant to the disease ,i.e., Bacterial Blight. This can also result in the loss of tolerance after few days due to some mutation in the gene. Hence there are more number of other genes like Xa1, Xa2, Xa5, Xa7, Xa10, Xa11,etc which are tolerant to the disease. If more than one gene is being incorporated into the plant variety, then there is a high probability that the plant will be tolerant to blight for a longer period of time. As there are more number of genes, the genes that will lose its viability can be shadowed by the work of the other genes.
  • 8. INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDISATION Cross between Oryza sativa & Oryza glaberrima produces a blight resistant rice variety O. Sativa X O. glaberrima F1 BC1F1 BC2F1 BC2F2 Selection of desirable lines continues till homozygosity (BC2F6) . Proposed scheme to obtain fertile lines from interspecific cross between O.sativa and O.globerrima. Crosses with different accessories, identify barriers to incompatibility & methods to overcome them. Back cross with O. sativa embryos culture is needed. Anther culture Marker aided elimination of plants with major sterility loci. Back cross with O. sativa Anther culture Doubled haploids (homozygous lives) Selection of desirable lines Sexual incompatibility low seed set Sterility Partial sterility
  • 9. Budget items Amount requested in Rs 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year Research Scholar – One [Rs.12,000 + 20% HRA= Rs. 14,400/-] 1,72,800/- 1,72,800/- 1,72,800/- Contingency Chemical Glassware Maintenance Travel 4,00, 000/- 2,00, 000/- 50, 000/- 50, 000/- 3,00, 000/- NIL 50, 000/- 50, 000/- 2,00, 000/- NIL 50, 000/- 50, 000/- Equipment 10,00,000/- NIL NIL Total 18,72,800/- 5,72,800/- 4,72,800/- GRAND TOTAL for THREE YEARS Rs. 29,18,400 - (Rupees twenty-nine lakhs eighteen thousand four hundred only) APPROXIMATE EXPENDITURE FOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT The financial supports can be expected from CSIR, DBT, DST & UGC (Govt. of India)
  • 10. ADVANTAGES DRAWBACKS A. The use of pesticides can be minimized. This can minimize the expenditure of the farmers. B. There would be increase in yield upto 20- 25% of rice. C. As mentioned in the previous slides, Pusa Basmati (scented rice) is being a export quality rice & there is about 31-45% loss due to bacterial blight. This brings about 10000 crore rupees to Indian government. If there is significant depletion in the yield loss & if the whole quantity of increased yield is being exported, then there would be an increment of about 20-25% in the export of rice. D. In case of interspecific hybridization as we are not using any bacterial gene it has no threat of long term herm to human health and environment. E. The need of the growing population can also be easily fulfilled by implementing the remedies. Even there is shortage of land for cultivation. We can easily cut short the yield loss & take benefit out of it. A. In case of genetic modification, we are not aware of the consequences in the population in long term consumption. Even this is the matter of concern in case of RNA silencing. Both the gene & RNA can undergo mutations very easily. We are not sure of any type of such consequences in the future aspects. B. In case of interspecific hybridization, the resistant varieties will only be expressive during F1 generation only. Farmers need to purchase the seeds again & again to minimize the threat of Bacterial blight. But overall, the remedies will surely cut-short the expenditure of the farmers, bring money to the government, reduce the yield loss & fulfill the needs of the growing population.
  • 11.  http://www.tropicalmedicinecentre.com/downloads/Oryza%20glaberrima.pdf  https://www.integratedbreeding.net/news/unlocking-breeding-potential-wild-rice-species-oryza-barthii  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S073497500900113X  http://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=cvKSmAOOFW8C&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=interspecific+hybridizatio n+between+oryza+sativa+and+oryza+barthii+to+prevent+bacterial+blight+of+rice&ots=hGyyEp3eNM&sig=wkwJI Nj50Pb08yyqNs77hM0fj6I#v=onepage&q&f=false  http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6905e/x6905e04.htm  http://www.genethik.de/rice.htm  http://irri.org/ References

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