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  2. 2. Slums are the products of failed policies, bad governance, corruption, inappropriate regulations, dysfunctional land markets, unresponsive financial systems and a fundamental lack of political will. 41.6 per cent of the total slum population resides in cities with over one-million population. City Proportion of slum households (%) Greater Mumbai 41.3 Kolkata 29.6 Chennai 28.5 Delhi 14.6 Bengaluru 8.5. cities have no space to accommodate immigrates in proper facilitated space so this result n increase of slums. Unemployment in rural areas drift people to towns in search of job and without property they became slum dwellers. Development of industries and services are mainly concentrated in cities. SLUMS- residential areas where dwellings are unfit for human habitation
  3. 3. Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)-2001 • designed to address housing deficits for the urban poor. • Its goal is to achieve ‘Cities without Slums’ by providing or upgrading shelter for people living below the poverty line in urban slums. Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) 1986 • independent scheme to provide grants for housing construction to rural residents below poverty line. • Rs. 20000 is provided to selected beneficiaries to build a new home or Rs. 10000 is provided for upgrading existing houses. NATIONAL SLUM DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME(NSDP),1996 • Up-gradation and improvement of Urban Slum through development of infrastructure and housing activities . • this scheme covered 2401 slums in India. Local authorities need to be empowered with financial and human resources to deliver services and infrastructure to the urban poor. stop begging – children involved in begging should be placed in some residential institutions maintained by government to avoid the risk of exploitation and health problems that accompany their lifestyle Provide education, necessary facilities and increase employment by promoting industrialisation at rural level to stop migration from rural to urban..... Local governments should develop strategies to prevent the formation of new slums. access to affordable land, reasonably priced materials, employment opportunities, and basic infrastructure and social services
  4. 4. Like other infrastructure in India, the urban water supply and sanitation sector (UWSS) is at crossroads.. *Faced with an increased demand and growing pollution problems, Indian cities are not able to provide services that are adequate, neither quantitatively nor qualitatively. *Indeed, new investments are required as well as a change in management of the sector, to be able to ensure supply for all as far as water is concerned, and to fill the gap as far as sewerage and sanitation is concerned. *Service delivery of water supply has not been able to match the needs of the increasing urban population. *However, a majority of urban population seems to have evolved their own mechanism to gain access to water, not necessarily potable.
  5. 5. The State is expected to fulfill water supply and sanitation services through - Their own departments, State level boards and corporations, Statutory and non-statutory bodies at the city level, and Urban local bodies. In most states,the concerned state departments, such as Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), the Public Works Department (PWD), the Urban Development Department and the Department of Local Self government,through their divisional and district offices carry out the capital works. GOVERNMENT EFFORTS GovernmentParticipation --Approval of connections. --makes use of existing government budgets allocated for slums. --Operation & maintenance of main Infrastructure. CommunityAwareness& Mobilization --Conscious setting aside by budgets by individual households. --Usage and maintenance of service. --Increased coverage of slum to maximize health impact. CommunityContribution &AvailabilityofFinance --Inculcates a sense of ownership. --Results in improved maintenance machinery to deliver. --reduce fiscal burden on government.
  6. 6. Recent NBR (National Bureau of Asian Research) publications said that without serious reform to the energy sector, India runs the risk of derailing its rapid economic growth. Coimbatore businesses everything from car parts to IT services are struggling with blackouts that last up to 14 hours every day. Crippling power cuts in Tamil Nadu are shutting factories and threatening an industrial debt crisis. Sharp Increase in Demand. Poor Utilization of Electrical Equipments Shortage Of Coal Delay in Commissioning of Power Project High Transmission Losses •60% of India’s Electricity Comes From Coal. •We Have World’s Fifth Largest Reserves But Still Mining Has Consistently Fallen Below Target.
  7. 7. SO MORE NUCLEAR ENERGY SHOULD BE PRODUCED WITH THERMAL ENERGY. SO MORE NUCLEAR ENERGY SHOULD BE PRODUCED WITH THERMAL ENERGY. SOLUTIONS BY THE GOVERNMENT *Issued a presidential directive to CIL (Coal India Limited) in April 2012, to sign fuel supply agreements (FSAs) with power companies. *To reduce its coal supply commitment from 100% to 80% in new fuel supply pacts and importing coal to meet production shortfall. *To pay more attention towards the half built railway Branch Line To Improve The Supply Of Coal All Over India. We should start awaring people more and more to save energy as coal reserves are depleting. Electrical Energy can be obtained from photosynthesis which can be used to power devices like Wi-fi routers and it should be made such that this application is accessible to all. Save energy,use efficient equipments and always check your factor. Nuclear power is a better source of energy than coal power • Nuclear fuel is available and profitable • Can be reused. • Coal mine clean up is costly. • Coal power produces a lot of waste. • Fission of an atom of uranium produces 10 million times the energy produced by the combustion of an atom of carbon from coal. •The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD) of India, has so far discovered 44,000 tonnes of natural uranium in just 15 kilometres of the 160 kilometres long belt.
  8. 8. •The limited availability of land in urban areas makes it unviable for developers to take up affordable housing projects. Unavailability of urban land •prices of affordable homes are primarily driven by the cost ofconstruction. Rising construction costs •high cost of finance is restraining them from lowering housing prices Limited financing avenues for developers *EWS( Economically Weaker Sectionincome up to Rs 5000 per month ) *LIG (Lower Income Group- Income between Rs 5001- 10,000 per month) URBAN HOUSING SHORTAGE :
  9. 9. *Leverage innovative and low-cost technologies Developers should leverage on innovative and low-cost technologies such as pre-fabrication, which can be used to construct affordable houses quickly and cost–effectively *Provide incentives on construction: Providing incentives which can reduce the construction cost for developers would not only make the project viable for developers but also make it affordable for the buyers. *Initiatives to build talent capacity: The Government can take initiatives to fill the manpower demand supply gap by collaborating with educational institutions * Improve land planning and utilization: The Government should ensure adequate availability of land for housing and infrastructure by *computerization of land records, *Systems implementation of master THE WAY FORWARD!!! Govt Policies for affordable housing: – The National Urban Housing & Habitat Policy, 2007 has sought to earmark*land for EWS/LIG groups in new housing projects The Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) * focused on the provision of cash subsidy scheme to rural BPL families for construction of dwelling units using their own design and technology. Housing Finance : Housing Finance Companies *Major component of the mortgage lending institutions in India
  10. 10. India’s urbanization by 2030 5 times-the number by which GDP will have multiplied by 2030 68 cities will have population of 1 million plus, up from42 today.Europe has 35 today 700-900 Million square meters of commercial and residential space to be built or a new chicago every year2.5 billion square meters of road will have to be paved ,20 times the capacity added in the past decade 590 million will live in cities ,nearly twice the population of USA today 270 million people net increase in working –age population FUTURE INDIA –The search for new sources of growth and new market opportunities is on and how India performs over the next 20 years is of acute interest globally India's large metropolises struggling to cope with rapid growth and the rising demand for urban facilities WHAT TO DO??????
  11. 11. VIZAG Why future city: *boosts of an array of heavy and light industries. *big potential for financial services, retail and entertainment business MANESAR Why future city: *Has potential to become an envious future city rivaling its big brother Gurgaon. *Manesar is listed amid top prospective investment locations in India. SURAT Why future city *Ideal for business in - education, trading and business centre. Diamonds, textiles, diamond-studded gold jewellery manufacturing. *Real Estate is a new emerging business in Surat. INDORE Why future city: * Enjoying the reputation of mini- Mumbai. * centre of trading, financial and manufacturing , already boosting of cosmopolitan pretence COIMBATORE Why future city: * emerged as a strong engineering, textiles, hosiery and poultry, industrial hub .. *The city is the second largest software producer in Tamil nadu LUDHIANA Why future city: *Reputed as a tool room center and an automobile parts production centre *The World Bank ranked Ludhiana as the city in India with the best business environment in 2009. *IT Hub with several IT institute that provide professional computer education. smaller cities with vast treasures of natural resources have the opportunity to unlock their value and rival the country's mega cities..
  12. 12. Report of The Technician Group on Urban Housing Shortage (TG-12) 2012-17, National Buildings Organization, Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. Housing, Household Amenities and Assets - Key Results from Census 2011 , Office of Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Websites of National Housing Bank & National Buildings Organization. Report on “Government Initiatives and Programme for Affordable Housing”, presented in National Workshop on Pro-Poor Housing Finance October 29, 2008, New Delhi conducted by Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation. report of the working Group on poverty, slums, and service Delivery System. Report : no.23011/4/2007-CPD, Government of INDIA common ministry of coal, New Delhi, 18th Oct, 2007. CSH occasional paper, the water sanitation scenario in Indian metropolitan cities : resources and management in Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai and Mumbai 2011 INDIA Energy Handbook.