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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION:- In our India's says that our body is made by three elements-1.AIR 2.WATER 3.FIRE 4.EARTH 5.SKY. Water is one of the important elements for life. Water everywhere is increasingly being contaminated from numerous sources and this, especially in potable (drinking) waters is a major concern, due to the associated health hazards. The most common contaminants being suspended matter, mud, silt, algae, bacteria and other pathogens.  A report says that in our country 9.7cror people lack access of safe drinking water. In India Water-borne diseases have been claiming the lives of about 15 lakh children annually. We can say "NO WATER, NO LIFE”.  In our India proper sanitation facilities is most common problem in ruler and urban area. "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faces.  Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. A report by the Indian Urban Development Ministry shows that as many as 4,861 of the 5,161 cities across the country do not have even a partial sewage network. India has around 81.4 corer people without safe sanitation India has 16 per cent of the world’s population and four per cent of its fresh water resources.. 92 per cent groundwater extracted is used in the agricultural sector, five and three per cent respectively for industrial area. In our India proper sanitation facilities is most common problem in ruler and urban area. "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faces.  Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities.
  2. 2. WATER &SANITATION CHALLENGE OR ISSUE:- Water & its management are a critical issue in India.  Water accessibility is a major issue in India.  Providing proper sanitation facility. There is an urgent need for investment in water and sanitation infrastructure across the country. Provide portable water is a measure problem of India. Due to not proper sanitation facility environment effect the human health. Lack of water. Lack of education& knowdge(awareness). The problem of lack of basic sanitation is also widespread in Indian homes with census data showing more households in the country of 1.2 billion people have a telephone than a toilet. 47 per cent of India’s 330 million households have toilet facilities while 63 per cent of homes have phone connections – mostly mobiles – showing how the nation’s rapid communication revolution has spread through society. In our INDIA 70% of households yet get tap water,3.8% defecate in the open and 96.7% have kitchen.
  3. 3. SOLUTION:- Making water potable and safe: Seek new sources.  Save and redistribute supplies.  Reduce demand.  Recycle. SEEK NEW SOURCES:- As we seek new sources, it is important to note that extracting freshwater from ocean saltwater is a time-honoured technique that can be further advanced through the development of new, energy-efficient methods of desalinization based on reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis, however, represents a much cheaper. The material comprising the membrane allows water to pass while leaving the salt and impurities behind. Development of sturdy, chemical-resistant membranes – made of thin, composite polyamide films that can last for 10 years – has made reverse osmosis an increasingly attractive and cost- effective technology for large-scale extraction of freshwater from the sea.  Today less than 1 percent of the world’s drinking water comes from the sea, but with advances in reverse osmosis, the percentage is likely to grow. This survey shows that 2010-2020 that water demand is more that available water cant full fill our demands. And if demand is increase at same leval than at 2050 impossible to available water.
  4. 4. REDUCE DEMAND:-  The third path for ensuring adequate supplies of safe drinking water focuses on reducing demand. In India agricultural practices place the highest demand on water.  In developed countries, industry, which accounts for about 60 percent of all consumption, is the largest user. According to this shows, reductions in demand for water must come from the agricultural and industrial sectors.  For example, the amount of water used in the production of one ton of steel has declined sharply from 80 tons in the 1950s to six tons today. Replacing steel with aluminium, other alloys and plastics (for instance, in the automobile industry) has reduced industry’s need for water even more. RECYCLE:- The fourth path to a more secure water future lies in recycling. Thedictum here is ‘waste not, want not.’  Terrace farming, practiced in many hillside communities throughout the world, may be the simplest example of effective water recycling and multiple use. In terraced farming, water flowing from the Ways to save and replenish12 Safe Drinking Water: The need, the problem, solutions, and an action plan higher terrain is not drained but is used to irrigate plants in the lower terrain. Even wastewater or sewerage can be – and has been – processed and recycled for use. Inlet from sedimentation tank Outlet Roots of acclimated plants in proprietary filling media Reed-bed recycling system
  5. 5. The reed-bed system used in many countries, represents an eco-friendly way of treating polluted wastewater for reuse.  Even when circumstances make it difficult to recycle wastewater, ‘grey’ water can be used to recharge groundwater. Such practices help curb salinity levels, raise the water table in aquifers, and improve the ecological health of wetlands or sanctuaries. WATER HARVESTING:- In India water harvesting system is very useful and applicable. By the harvesting system rain water can use for drinking after purify . The problem lack of water is reduces. SANITATION:- The key issue here is that each community or region needs to work out what is the most sensible and cost effective way of thinking about sanitation. In the short and long term and then act accordingly. Flexibility and pragmatism should be the key words – and both professionals and politicians need to try Solve sanitation problem. The build up of faecal contamination in rivers and other waters is not just a human risk: other species are affected, threatening the ecological balance of the environment. The discharge of untreated wastewater and excreta into the environment affects human health by several routes: • By polluting drinking water; • Entry into the food chain, for example via fruits, vegetables or fish and shellfish; • Bathing, recreational and other contact with contaminated waters; • By providing breeding sites for flies and insects that spread diseases; DISEASES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH POOR SANITATION:- Human excreta have been implicated in the transmission of many infectious diseases including typhoid, infectious hepatitis, polio and etc. Infection occurs with greatest frequency in tropical and subtropical regions,and in any areas with inadequate sanitation. Six million people worldwide are permanently blind due to Trachoma. Trachoma is spread by acombination of: poor sanitation, allowing the flies that spread the infection to breed; poor hygiene associated with water scarcity and poor water quality; lack of education and understanding of how easily the infection can spread in the home and between people. Infectious agents are not the only health concerns associated with wastewater and excreta. Heavy metals,toxic organic and inorganic substances also can pose serious threats to human health and the environment.
  6. 6. SANITATION PREVENT DISEASE:- For a sanitation system to provide the greatest health protection to the individual, the community, and society at large it must: Isolate the user from their own excreta;  Prevent nuisance organisms (e.g. flies) from contacting the excreta and subsequently transmitting disease to humans; and Inactivate the pathogens before they enter the environment or prevent the excreta from entering the environment. It is important to understand that sanitation can act at different levels, protecting the household, the community and 'society’.  In the case of latrines it is easy to see that this sanitation system acts at a household level. However, poor design or inappropriate location may lead to migration of waste matter and contamination of local water supplies putting the community at risk.  In terms of waterborne sewage the containment may be effective for the individual and possibly also the community, but health effects and environmental damage may be seen far downstream of the original source, hence affecting ‘society’. OPTIONS FOR CONTROLLING SANITATION:- Sanitation can be divided into on-site and off-site technologies. On-site systems store and/or treat excreta at the point of generation. In off-site systems excreta is transported to another location for treatment, disposal or use. Some on-site systems, particularly in densely populated regions or with permanent structures, will have off-site treatment components as well. ON SITE DISPOSAL:- In many places, particularly in areas with low population densities, it is common to store and treat wastes where they are produced - on-site. On-site systems include: ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines, double vault composting latrines, pour-flush toilets, and septic tanks.  Dry sanitation or eco-sanitation is an onsite disposal method that requires the separation of urine and faeces. Building and operating these systems is often much less expensive than off-site alternatives. Some on-site systems (e.g. septic tanks or latrines in densely packed urban areas) require sludge to be pumped out and treated off-site. OFF-SIDE DISPOSAL:- In more densely packed areas sewerage systems are frequently used to transport wastes off-site where they can be treated and disposed. Conventional centralized sewerage systems require an elaborate infrastructure and large amounts of water to carry the wastes away. The cost of a sewerage system (which can be as much as 70 times more expensive than on-site alternatives and its requirement of a piped water supply preclude its adoption in the many communities adequate sanity in less-industrialised countries that lack ion.
  7. 7. In specific circumstances, cost-effective alternatives to conventional sewerage systems have been developed including small diameter gravity sewers, vacuum and pressure sewers. WASTEWATER AND EXCRETA TREATMENTW :- Waste needs to be treated to remove or inactivate pathogens before it can be safely reused or disposed of safely. Many on-site waste disposal methods treat excreta by storing it for enough time to kill the pathogens. Most off-site strategies (and some on-site systems) require wastes to be treated at a facility before it can be safely used or released into the environment. SANITATION EFFECT ENVIROMENT:- In regions where a large proportion of the population is not served with adequate water supply and sanitation, sewage flows directly into streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, affecting coastal and marine ecosystems, fouling the environment and exposing millions of children to disease.  Particularly in the context of urbanization, domestic wastewater, sewage and solid waste improperly discharged presents a variety of concerns from providing breeding grounds for communicable disease vectors to contributing to air, water and soil pollution. The results of poor waste management also contribute to a loss of valuable biodiversity. In the case of coral reefs, urban and industrial waste and sewage dumped directly into the ocean or carried by river systems from sources upstream, increase the level of nitrogen in seawater. Increased nitrogen caused over growths of algae, which in turn, smother reefs by cutting off their sunlight.  Improved sanitation reduces environmental burdens, increases sustainability of environmental resources and allows for a healthier, more secure future for the population. THANK YOU
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