research and innovation
An initiative for better INDIA
Team coordinator: Manisha Nair
Maqsood Ali, Isha Pahuja, Pooja Jayara, Sunita Karki
Deshbandhu college, Delhi university
Beginning of scientific research era
INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION- planned settlements like- use of drainage,sewerage,irrigation
,water storage (3000BC), canal irrigation by 2600 BC, standardization(using of weights for
weighing), gauging devices for construction and measurements, calibration was also found in the
measuring machines, world’s first clock dock & Lothal etc.
VEDIC PERIOD-use of large scale constructional plans, cosmological drawings , and cartographic
material was known, religious text and drawings written from ink , veterinary medicines, mention
of leprosy in Atharva Veda, cataract surgery was known with a special JABAMUKHI SALAKA .
SATAPATHA BRAHMANA- 9th century ,contains rule for ritual geometric construction.
BAUDHAYANA- 8th century, contains example of simple Pythagorean triplets , Pythagorean theorem.
VEDANTA JYOTISA- earliest Indian astronomical text.
Metal currency was minted in India before the 5th century BC. Coins of silver and copper were.
ARTHASHASTRA- construction of dams , bridges, stupa, pagoda,torii, rock cut step wells, wells, stepped
ATOMISM- vaishekshika school was founded. KANADA- proposed that atoms are indivisible and
WOOTZ- Damascus steel
COMMON ERA- glass was being used like molding ornaments, decorating Pascal triangle, Binomial
coefficients, Binomial theorem ,binary numbers, use of multiplication sign, negative numbers used ,
first to establish “law of signs ” ,decimal number system, Pell’s equation , trigonometric functions of
sine and versine (ARYABHATA), Rolle’s theorem (BHASKARA II), indigo dye , cashmere wool , jute
In search of better working environment and pay
package on account of unemployment.
This concept of taking education in a country but
earning for another is known as brain drain.
Foreign countries get cheap and hardworking labour
in this manner.
UNESCO has defined brain drain as, "An abnormal
form of scientific exchange between countries,
characterised by a one- way flow in favor of the most
highly developed countries”
• Trained/Certified teachers.
• School level curriculum builds on each year.
• Extra-curricular activities.
• Good infrastructure provided in graduation level for
research and project works.
• Lack of motivation
• Lack of investments for research in institutions of India
• Emphasizing on quantity rather than on quality
• Lack of opportunities among young scholars
• Research not valued as a part of teaching by some
institutions of India
Differences amongst Indian and
foreign education system.
38% of Doctors in America are Indians.
12% of Scientists in America are Indians.
36% of NASA employees are Indians.
34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians
28% of IBM employees are Indians.
India produces an estimated 178,000 qualified software engineers
every year. If they practiced their trade at home, India’s programmer
shortage—estimated at 145,000 and growing—would be wiped out
in a few months.
Four of out every ten Indian software developers are now working in
Several of India’s small software companies have been forced to shut
down—not for lack of business but because they couldn’t find
In 1998, the renowned Indian Institute of Technology sent 30
percent of all of its graduates to the United States, including 80
percent of its computer science graduates.
India ranks 34 in global spending on research with 0.9% only.
Facts about India and Indians!
Political instability of a nation
Lack of opportunities
Corrupt population system Under employment.
Economic under development.
Lack of research and other facilities.
Lack of freedom.
Discrimination in appointment and promotion.
Desire for a better urban life.
Desire for higher qualification and recognition.
Better career expectation.
Lack of satisfactory working conditions
Better economic prospects.
Higher salary and income.
Better level of living and way of life.
Better research facilities.
Modern educational system and better
opportunity for higher qualifications.
Prestige of foreign training.
Better working condition and better
Relative political stability.
Presence of a rich, scientific and cultural
Availability of experience/supporting staff.
Frequent chances of a lucky break in life.
Allocation of substantial funds research.
• Needs a mix of high quality basic research
• Backed by quality engineering, applied research , and a strong
manufacturing infrastructure as said by R. Chidambaram , PSA to the GOI
• By enhancing academic-industry interaction
• By increasing interactions between industry and research and
development advisory groups such as CAR(Centre for Automotive
Research) and CAG(Core Advisory Group)
• Technology foresight analysis including strategic technologies(nuclear,
space and defense related), environmental security(energy, food,
nutritional, health and water security), advanced materials(electronics,
network connectivity, micro small and medium enterprises)and cyber
• By exposing students entering into professional careers to challenging
• By attaining leadership positions in technological scenario as said by R.
Nithyananda , Chairman of Board of governors , NIT-T .
Improving research quality
Huge increase in funding
Technical man power supplies for IT and global research community
Reduce spending of public money on higher education and research for non performing
All institutes should be graded and judged as per their performance and public monitory
support should depend on that(UGC has started this but less cooperation is seen)
Introduce strict accountability of public money for any research in any institutes and should
be mentioned in an open source
Private institutes and universities must follow a minimum standard to give degrees
Increase spending substantially on primary an higher school education both qualitative and
Increase the salaries of university teachers as per with lectures and put stringent quality
control while recruiting teachers
Physical infrastructures like school building , standard of school labs and library, some
internet connected computer should be provided
Provide increase opportunities for students in rural and semi-urban areas
Exam pattern should be changed and to put more emphasis on original thinking and problem
solving rather than emphasizing data base quiz formats.
Basic education should be done in the mother language for better understanding along with
Convert brain drain into brain gain by
Dr. Manmohan Singh
• Revising the value of doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships and forming
of schemes that would cover all research scholars with some funding.
• “A national policy for data sharing and accessibility has also been
formulated. The Protection of Intellectual Property Bill, focusing on
sharing revenue from intellectual properties with researchers, will be
taken up for discussion in Parliament very soon,” he said.
• “Under the Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (Inspire)
scheme, we will soon be announcing the name of at least one science
awardee per school in the age group of 10-15 in the entire country.
• need for greater “autonomy from red tape and local politics”.
• “encourage scientists of Indian origin currently working abroad to return
to our country, including coming to our universities or scientific
institutions for a short period. In this way we can convert the ‘brain drain’
of the past into a ‘brain gain’ for the future. This will require special
Recent Improvement- Reverse Brain
• After the IT sector , Medical sector is witnessing
Reverse Brain Drain
• Reasons: (1)ample opportunities,
(5)better infrastructure and
Budget allocation and
The price money is not so
important than improving our
country. We want a better India
for future studies and research so
that we don’t have to look for
fellowship in other countries
Encourage student at school
level to join smaller research
projects so that we can
promote all young students
into researchers and may be
India will emerge as the
strongest power by 2050.
Prof. Pankaj Singh,
HOD, Physics Dept.,
Dr. IK, professor at