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    cogitators cogitators Presentation Transcript

    • Sowing Prosperity Team Details Sunil Kumar MN| Alan Bagya Praveen| Gokula Bala Sathish Prabahar| Harinivash B| Boosting Agricultural Productivity The timely challenge for India
    • Current Scenario of agriculture in India • The GDP share of agriculture in India has decline to less than 14% over last 50 years • Average agriculture growth is 3.7% during 11th five year plan • 42% of farmers are ready to quit agriculture • More than 50% of population works on agriculture • 20 lakh hectares of cultivable land acquired for non agricultural purposes • Two thirds of India’s population depends on rural employment • 64% of cultivable land depends on monsoon • Famers receive price 20% less than what the consumer pays 0 20 40 60 1950 1970 1990 2000 2006 2009 GDP share • About 120.72 million hectors of land is degraded due to soil erosion • 8.4 million hectors are lost due to water logging and soil salinity • Indian farmers receive less than 20% of price for what the customers pay • Indian total productivity growth remains below 2% per annum • Annually India is losing nearly 0.8, 1.8 & 26.3 million tonnes of nitrogen, phosphorous & potassium respectively • Without innovative conservation techniques 12 million hectors ( 20 million tones of grains ) are lost to desertification
    • PRE PRODUCTION • Soil fertility • Water scarcity • Labour • Awareness and techniques DURING PRODUCTION • High quality seeds • Irrigation facility • Fertilizers and pesticides • Technology • Climate POST PRODUCTION • Yield • Minimum support price • Transportation • Storage of crops • Access to markets through proper Transports • Transport of products • Storage facilities Physical • Precision Farming • Simulation techniques to estimate the water level and climatic condition Technology • Soil Fertility and Soil Erosion • Ground water level depletion • Water Contamination Natural • Credit access • Insurance Schemes for crops • Government subsidies Financial • Access to formal and informal Education • Knowledge of farming management Human Overview on agricultural process and factors
    • Driving factors for the Proposed model • Increase in food Demand: The population of India is growing at the rate of 1.8% per year and is expected to double in 40 years • Concentration on Rainfed agriculture: Out of 3 hectare of cultivable land in our country, two thirds are under rainfed agriculture • Average Age: In 2020, the average age of the Indian is estimated to be 29 years • Scope of agriculture: 42% of farmers are ready to quit agriculture due to higher income in other sectors • Retail System: Indian retail system is highly inefficient • Transport and Storage facilities: Lack of transport and storage facilities for crops to reach the consumers • Deprivation of local infrastructure, climate, information on soil quality and farmer awareness on The need for a change in model to increase agricultural productivity Expected outcomes of the model • Increased outcome: The most important outcome of this model would be increased livelihood for the farmers and their ability to exercise more responsible use of the natural resource base • Empowerment: Empowers the farmers through informed decisions taken by them and to increase capacity to sustain their own development efforts • Creating Operational Links: The operating institutional links that would be created between the farmers ,development committees and universities enabling them to overcome production and post harvest specific farmers • Skilled labours: Availability of better skilled personnel in specific areas such as irrigated and irrigated helps in improving agricultural productivity by solving timely solutions to problem • Employment: Both rural and urban employment
    • India Alluvial Black Red & Yellow Rain-Fed region Committee Village Zone1 Village Zone2 Irrigated region Laterite Desert Mountain Proposed Model- Value Delivery Network Region based States classified based on 8 soil Types Various committee under the region Group of villages form a zone and monitored by each committee
    • Implementation of Value Delivery Network • The major accomplishment will be development of dynamic agricultural model and knowledge system • Soil and water are the vital natural resources for optimising agricultural production • Classification based on soil: The regionalization of agricultural Indian states are done based on six major types of soil distributed across India. • It is a Special network formed exclusively for agricultural sectors • Dependency based on water dependency: Every Indian states are sub-divided into two major regions based on dependency on water viz., rainfed and irrigated • Committee members: Each region will have regulatory body which comprises of expert personnel- Environmentalist, Economist, Pedologist, Agricultural technology specialist. • Zonal group division: The region(rainfed, irrigated) is further sub divided into group zones(group of villages). • Zonal members: Every zone will have zonal administrative Officer, intermediary officer, legal advisor, crop protection officer, Knowledge personnel • Database framework: Each zone will have zonal database framework which would facilitate interconnection between all zones across India. This database contains farmer details, crops produced, technology used, details regarding financial Supports.
    • Roles and Responsibilities of members in the value delivery network Environmentalist • To increase agro-forestry projects • Studies the climatic change pattern and advice zonal officers on timely cultivation and timely harvesting Crop protection officer • Encourage development of drought and climate resistant genes • Interact with village groups to facilitate them to use integrated pest management techniques depending on the crop Legal advisors • To create awareness on beneficial schemes for farmers • To ensure every farmers access to credit and insurance policies Hydrologist • To manage the ground water level and its quality • To monitor farmers to follow drip/drop irrigation techniques and efficient utilization of water Pedologist • To study soil formation, classification, fertility and the proper use and management of soil • Chemical composition of the soil are tested to grow crops and plants accordingly. Zonal administrative officer • To conduct quarterly meetings among farmers to motivate and influence their agricultural mechanisms Intermediary Officer • To procure produces directly from farmers and channelize it to the government and consumers Techno Specialist • To improve agriculture mechanization • Facilitates modern agricultural practices Economist • To conduct research on econometric analysis on values of crop production, water supply demand and soil fertility • To study demand and supply of the market
    • • Database creation: Database containing the collection of latest technologies and implications of WTO on agriculture can be created which would enable the farmers to gain access to best practices • Geographic information systems : Land can be mapped digitally and pertinent geodetic data such as topography and contours can be combined to provide analysis of soil. • Biotechnology: Use of genetically modified crops such as water resistant crops will reduce the farmers dependence on water and would improve the growth • Simulation Tools: Collecting the historical data related for past 30 years and combining the data with inputs such as soil, water facilities to provide suggestion on the crops that can be planted for the current year to farmers. Role of technology in agriculture • Soil fertility to be analysed & Soil test to be done before plantation for proper crop selection • Eco-friendly pesticides and fertilizers to be used • Rotation of crops to regenerate nutrients and encourage contour farming • Cover crops are planted alongside with other crops to avoid soil erosion and prevent over exposure to sun • Check dams, canals, lakes and ponds can be constructed to maintain the under ground water table • Good efficient irrigation techniques like drip irrigation • Improve rain water harvesting & recycling techniques • Develop integrated water shed management models • Partnership with local farmers will introduce pivot irrigation as an alternate to traditional flood irrigation • Dedicated government programme and integrated aquifer mapping to manage groundwater level Soil and Water resources
    • 0 1 2 3 1970 2000 2005 2011 2020 2030 Average size of land holdings Causes • Fall in farm income • High opportunity cost : Engaging in non agricultural activity provides higher income • Land acquisition / urbanisation :Conversion of farm lands for non agricultural purpose • Skilled labour: Lack of skilled labour Solutions • Land acquisition act can be strengthened • Improve supply chain management • Minimum support price for crops • Increase in cropping intensity • Incentives for farmers • promote diversified rural livelihood opportunities for upward mobility through participation in off firm and non firm sources of employment and income • Beneficiaries of land reforms can be organised in to self help groups that empower them for equitable access to credit, irrigation water and quality seeds • 83% of famers have operating land holdings of less than 2 hectares • 20 lakh hectares of cultivable land have been acquired for non agricultural purpose Increased opportunities in other sectors and loss in farm income leads to decline in average size of land holdings •Raising energy crises geopolitics and concerns over green house gases emissions and climate change and increase in demand for bio fuel production •At present bio fuel 35 billion lit – 2 % of annual gasoline consumption world wide •Contribution of bio fuel to energy supply will improve Energy Crisis
    • Recommended Government Policies and advantages Policies Advantages Concept of public and private can be introduced in agriculture and allied sectors Better capital investment Intermediaries between producers and consumers can be eliminated Huge benefits and profits to farmers Method of contract farmers between producer and consumer can be practiced More people would take up agricultural activity incentivizing to produce more Concept of cooperative/Integrating farming can be introduced among small and marginal land holders •Opportunity to increase economic yield per unit area per unit time •Effective utilization of land Leasing in and leasing out of agricultural land can be legalised and permitted within ceiling limits of various states Illegal possession of land can be controlled More Dynamic Insurance policies Helps the capacity of the farmers in absorbing the shock( Extreme weather and climate changes) Enactment of laws for ecological foundation for climate resilient agriculture, waste management and carbon sequestration of soil Overall natural resources can be managed efficiently
    • Additional Solutions • Media channel: An exclusive media channel for agricultural programs which include crop cultivation techniques, schemes for farmers, technological updates. • Promotion for agricultural education: – Agricultural universities are to be increased which promote – Compulsory subjects on farming are to be introduced for 8th to 10th standard students. • Creating awareness among farmers: – Organizing yearly agriculture conferences for zonal officers and workshops on Innovative techniques for farmers through agricultural university. – Encourage farmers to take up non farming activities like poultry, cattle, fishing and other activities which provide opportunities for off-farm employment and increase their income • Labor employment: – MGNREGA can be extended to provide employment in agriculture, eliminating dearth of farm labourers. • Food processing: Demand for processed food is expected to increase because of high income and demand Investment in food processing would enhance the income of farmers. • Exclusive transportation: A separate transportation department for distribution of agricultural produces to the market • The potential of the rainfed areas has not been fully utilised. Rainfed areas are prioritised for agricultural production through the proposed model • Reform agricultural practices to be less harmful for forest regeneration by utilising zero tillage agriculture
    • Challenges and Risks •Unpredictable climatic changes and over exploitation of natural resources •Optimizing the use of energy in crop production and management of waste in agricultural crops Implementation Challenges •Starting a new channel for creating awareness in latest agricultural practices required huge investment and maintenance cost • The infrastructure cost for starting new agricultural universities is high •Budget allocation towards agriculture needs to be redefined and it should be allocated in such a way to increase awareness •Career trends for younger generation needs to be directed towards agriculture The value delivery network for improving agricultural productivity involves various challenges and implementation risks Implementation in Investment Estimated cost( per zone) in crores Media channel 50 Irrigation 20 Rural roads & Transportation 45 Power supply 30 Cold storages, Godowns & food processing units 20 Agro forestry projects 10 Ground water management program 23 Estimated duration of the project 3-5 years Human resources employed Around 10 lakhs