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  1. 1. Manthan Topic: Fairness at Play: Introducing electoral reforms to reduce the influence of money and muscle power in politics Team Details: Team name: CHAOS Team Coordinator: Joy Raval Other Members: Vedant Sumaria Sourabh Subramaniam Debashish Chakraverty Vaidish Sumaria
  2. 2. Criminals entering the political system Wi sto Chur hill o e said when ever we leave India, it would be ruled by goons a d looki g at the prese t s e ario, the state e t is not entirely wrong even after 67 years of Independence A sitti g ‘apist MP ould e er pass ri i al la a e d e t . A ri i al is o the ro g side of the la a d he e a ot e expected to make positive contributions to the legislative or administrative process. It brings a sense of futility among the administration particularly the police administration and demoralizes them Presence of tainted candidates in the law making institutions creates embarrassment for the country as well as the people Rise of a criminal to high levels of powers has an adverse effect on the society. The immunity and success of these people lures more and more youngsters to follow in their footsteps. This brings in degeneration of moral values in the society. Dynastic Politics There is no question that our country needs young blood and radical thinking at all levels of governance. We require people who are qualified, who will make technology work for our benefit, and who will have enough pride in their ability as well as faith in their decision-making to not grant contracts or frame policies for personal gain. But look at any list of first-time aspirants, and what stares back at us is how a majority of the candidates are sons and daughters of seasoned politicians. In many cases, more than ability or credentials, their name is their only political brand. Corruption Bofors s a dal, Fodder s a , la d s a , Ha ala s a , Coalgate, 2g spe tru s a …….. A d the list o ti ues Political corruption is the use of power by government officials for illegitimate private gain. According to a recent survey conducted by the Transparency International, 86% of the Indians believe that all political parties are corrupted and it is not mere a belief . This corruption has taken the inflation rate to a whole new level and its high time we bring it down. Lack of transparency in the voting by EVMs Contrary to claims by Indian election authorities, the paperless electronic voting systems suffer from significant vulnerabilities. Even brief access to the machines could allow dishonest election insiders or other criminals to alter election results. Just a pocket-sized device could be used to change the votes stored in the EVM between the election and the public counting session.
  3. 3. • Our main plan is to conduct a yearly based examination. The candidates that clear the examination will be awarded a degree which will enable them to contest for the elections henceforth. • It will be a computer based online examination. • Funding will be provided by the election commission. • EVMs do not provide the transparency required in a democracy. • Indian election authorities have repeatedly claimed that the voting machines are tamper-proof, but the Indian EVMs are susceptible to easy hacking. • The solutio is Voter- Verifiable Paper Audit trial or Pre i t-Count Opti al “ a Voti g syste . It ill involve a paper vote record along with a digital recording system. • In addition to the above solutions, we have proposed some changes in the existing system which is the root cause of criminalization, corruption and dynastic politics.
  4. 4. OutlineQualification • Max. age limit would be 70 years and the candidate must not be convicted of a crime. • Passed in the Higher Secondary examination conducted by CBSE/ State board or its equivalent. • Have some prior political background (as intern in any political party or part of local bodies like Panchayat and Municipal Cooperation. PaperPattern • Socio-economic conditions of the region. • Geographical conditions and biodiversity of region as well as disaster management techniques • Major problems faced by the people in past. • Heritage and History. • SRT ( Situation Reaction Test) which is successfully used in defense services for psychological tests). • Law, Economics, management, governance , constitution, social justice and International Relation. • General problems and overall condition of the state/ nation as whole. Execution • The exam will be conducted in both English and Hindi Languages. • Conducting an exam for 543 separate constituencies is not feasible. • Certain no. of constituencies will be clubbed to make a region and there would be one Centre per region. • In each Centre there would be 3 shifts having invigilators, technical persons and staff. • Examination would be conducted online using servers taken on lease. • For maintaining the transparency in the evaluation process the OMR cum answer scripts of the candidates would be up for public display (online). • Exam will be conducted every year. • The candidates that clear the examination will be awarded a degree which will henceforth enable them to contest the elections • Maximum no. of attempts would be 3. Pass Criteria • Min. 60% marks should be secured in each section. • 60% weightage would be given to the exam and 40% to the past political experience. Why? Why do we need to have an examination? The answer is that the education of a person has to be relevant to the job he does. A government official may have a degree in engineering or management, but what he/she really needs primarily is knowledge of the laws of the land and the constitution, and knowledge of economics so that he can review budget proposals and gauge the fiscal impact of the bills he/she has to vote upon. A government official should also have basic knowledge about all fields of human endeavour, because Parliament, State Assemblies and Local Bodies legislate on a wide variety of issues that may require knowledge about various fields.
  5. 5. CENTRE CONSTITUENCIES COVERED SURAT Surat, Valsad, Navsari, Dangs, Bharuch, Narmada. AHMEDABAD Ahmedabad, Gandhinagar, Kheda, Vadodara, Dahod, Anand, Panchamhals. MEHSANA Mehsana, Banaskantha, Patan, Sabarkantha. KACHCHH Kachchh RAJKOT Rajkot, Jamnagar, Surendranagar. JUNAGADH Junagadh, Porbandar, Amreli, Bhavnagar. •Let us consider the case of Gujarat. There are 25 constituencies in Gujarat and there would be roughly around 2500 candidates (here we have presumed that on an average there would be 100 candidates per constituency). •Thus, the entire state would be divided into 6 regions and the exam would be conducted at 6 Centre, the papers being different for each region. There would be around 420 candidates at each Centre. •Taking similar assumptions for the other states and union territories There would be approximately 55000 candidates in total and 126 Centres would be required to conduct the exam. No. of students appearing for the examination in a day will be around 9000. Thus, approximately 6 days would be required. Online examination conducted annually by a separate body under the Election Commission.
  6. 6. TotalFundingRequired (Annually) Organization Cost Technology Cost Miscellaneous Cost Invigilation Tech support at centers Staff (Election Commission + Experts) Per session needs 2 invigilators at INR 500 each. Per session 1 required at INR 1000 . Chairman and Supervisors (election commission) Experts at central and local level to finalize and evaluate the paper (around 400 required). Hardware & Software Technical Support 6 Servers needed(on lease). Each server lets 500 computer s run at a time so 3000 students at once. Software would be developed for the examination Software designers and hardware experts needed for setups in all centers Postal & Advertisement cost Stationery, papers and other things needed. Examination Hall tickets, other details about the exam and promotion. Rough Papers, OMR sheets, and other things required.  INR 25 Lacs  INR 25 Lacs  INR 40 Lacs  INR 25 Lacs  INR 40 Lacs  INR 15 Lacs Centres would be Government Colleges, thus no cost of Centres. Registration forms would cost INR 50. Total Funding of 1 cr and 70 lacs would be required (from Govt. bodies annually).
  7. 7. • The processor in the EVM is designed so that the election software is hard to read out. Election officials claim this is a security feature, but it makes it difficult for even the authorities to verify that the correct software is in the EVMs • An application that runs on an Android mobile phone and wirelessly tells the dishonest display which candidate should receive the stolen. • Criminals could replace the display in the EVM with a dishonest look- alike, shown here. Added parts (small chip can be hid that changes the results and a Bluetooth radio can be fitted so as to wirelessly signal so as to decide who should win), hidden under the LEDs, that substitute bogus vote totals when showing election results. votes Indian election authorities have repeatedly claimed that the voting machines are tamper-proof. Security researchers have already come up with ways in which criminals can tamper with the machines to steal votes and change the outcome of the election. • An attack device that clips on to the memory chips inside the EVM and steals votes. The clip-on attack device is small enough to fit in a shirt pocket. A rotary switch allows the attacker to select which candidate to favor.
  8. 8. Idea1. One option that can be used is Voter- Verifiable Paper Audit trial , hi h o i es a ele tro i record stored with a paper vote record that can be audited by hand. To update an existing EVM and have it attached to a printer is estimated to cost anything between Rs. 8,000 to Rs. 10,000. And if all the EVMs are to be updated, the total cost would work out to nearly Rs. 1,000 Crore. However, of the 11 lakh existing EVMs, only 4 lakh are compatible with printers. The remaining cannot even be updated. This paper trail can be seen by the voter soon after he casts his vote, after which it will automatically sever from the printing roll and drop into a box. Idea2. Other option is using Precinct-Count Optical Scan Voting system, the voter will fill out paper ballot scanned by a voting machines at the polling station before being placed in the ballot box. The paper will be an OMR sheet and the voting machine, a OMR sheet scanner. The ballot will store the paper vote record and the scanner will save the digital record. 10.25 lakh Machines will be used costing Rs. 615 Crore (including installation and software cost). Idea3. Third opinion is to return to simple paper ballot. Despite of all their known weaknesses, simple paper ballot provides the highest degree of transparency. EXECUTION
  9. 9. Parties accumulate huge money in the form of anonymous donations and use for the funding of all types of malpractices during election. As per sources: Congress has around 1200 Crore anonymous donations BJP has around 800 Crore of anonymous donation SOLUTION • 98% of the donations to parties are anonymous. So the rule that donations less than Rs.20,000 can be anonymous must be changed and every donation must be acknowledged. Also the sources of donations must be verified i.e. the accounts of the donators must be properly checked • Political parties should come under RTI • Their accounts must be strictly audited by the Public Accounts Committee (PAC) which currently audits the expenditure of the Government of India. • The CBI should be made a separate body like the Supreme Court of India, with no interference from the central government. Misuse of power and position by ministers to accumulate huge sums of money and use it for funding elections is very rampant. And the use of Hawala system for money laundering is a major cause. Highly complicated nexus between Hawala brokers, builders and politicians is used to convert the black money of politicians into white money so that it can be easily used SOLUTION • This nexus can be broken if foreign nations are persuaded to share information . • A special vigilant cell of Income tax department to be made which exclusively traces Hawala money. • Information given by candidates in their affidavits will cease to have any useful effect if its correctness and accuracy are not ensured. It is therefore recommended that the information given in the affidavits of the candidates on criminal charges, assets etc. should be verified by an independent central authority in a time bound manner. • The details of the assets declared by the candidate should be audited by the Public Accounts Committee or a special committee formed under it. PARTYLEVEL INDIVIDUALLEVEL
  10. 10. Judicial reforms Political and electoral reforms can only be initiated through Judicial reforms Indian Judicial system is very slow Until convicted of his crime the criminal candidate become immune and free to stand for elections Dynastic Politics Usually members of a high profile political party stand foe elections from a particular constituency. That constituency becomes GA‘H of that fa ily. Example Raebareli Gandhi family, Mainpuri Yadav family SOLUTION • Fast Track Courts(FTC) were created, after recommendation by the Eleventh Finance Commission, for disposal of long pending sessions and other cases. The funds for the same was provided by the Ministry of Fi a e. “i ilar FTC s should e reated under the existing FTC for the high profile cases of politicians and administrators. And these FTCs should have a minimum number of cases that must be solved within a month • Example:- limit for a rape trial under IPC 376 can be 150 days. Currently normal time taken for the same is about 12 to 10 years. Thus time reduced by around 14 times. SOLUTION Immediate family members of the sitting MP or MLA should be debarred from the next elections of the same constituency.
  12. 12. http://articles.timesofindia.indi 02/india/36702629_1_evms- paper-trail-ballot-cast 08/07/25/electoral-system-in- india-flaws-and-reforms/ howtoovercomemoneypower.h tml Can-educated-politicians- make-a-difference-in-India# ews/general/How-Educated- are-Indias-Renowned- Politicians-nid-141668-cid- 1.html Ahuja, M.L. Handbook of General Elections and Electoral Reforms in India, 1952-1999, New Delhi: Mittal Publication, 2000. Singh, A.P.K, Election and Political Dynamics, New Delhi: Mittal Publication, 2009.