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  • 1. Nourish To Flourish Reducing Malnutrition 1. Bikash Shaw 2. Pranu Shree 3. Prasoon Mallik 4. Reshav Agarwal 5. Saurabh Chandan Asansol Engineering College Asansol, West Bengal
  • 2. MALNUTRITION- BELLIES FIGHTING HUNGER Malnutrition is the condition that results from eating a diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess, or in the wrong proportions. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under- or over-abundant in the diet. In most of the world, malnutrition is present in the form of under-nutrition, which is caused by a diet lacking adequate calories and protein—not enough food, and of poor quality. Extreme undernourishment is starvation, and its symptoms and effects are inanition. While malnutrition is more common in less-developed countries, it is also present in industrialized countries. In wealthier nations it is more likely to be caused by unhealthy diets with excess energy, fats, and refined carbohydrates. A growing trend of obesity is now a major public health concern in lower socio-economic levels and in developing countries as well. The Orange Ribbon- An Awareness Ribbon For Malnutrition
  • 3. Malnutrition deserves far greater attention and investment by public, private, and civic leaders and citizens than it currently receives WORRIES • 47 percent of India’s children below the age of three are malnourished(underweight). • 47 percent of Indian children under five are categorized as moderately or HELPING HAND • Midday meal scheme in Indian schools. • Integrated child development scheme. • National Children's Fund. • National Plan of Action for Children.five are categorized as moderately or severely malnourished. • At least 32 babies out of 1,000 born alive die before their first birthday. • Malnutrition impedes motor, sensory, cognitive and social development, so malnourished children will be less likely to benefit from school and will consequently will have less income as adults. • National Plan of Action for Children. • United Nations Children's Fund. • National Rural Health Mission.
  • 4. BEHIND THE CURTAIN... • MYTHS ₓ Indian children are better nourished than most African children. ₓ Poverty is the cause of malnutrition. ₓ India’s low per-capita income is the major underlying cause. ₓ International growth standards to • FACTS  The average rate of malnourishment forunder-3s in Sub- Saharan Africa is 30 percent. India’s corresponding rate is 37 percent.  There is no obvious linkage between levels of child malnutrition and income poverty. 26 per cent of India’s population lives below the poverty line, yet 46 percent of children under three are malnourished.  The correlation between per-capitaₓ International growth standards to assess malnutrition skew the results. ₓ It’s about not having enough food.  The correlation between per-capita income and child nutrition is a tenuous one: 28 out of 37 Sub-Saharan African countries have lower per-capita income than India, and – as said above – most have lower levels of child malnutrition.  Global standards of height and weight have in fact been applied to Indian children too, as repeatedly established by the Nutrition Foundation of India.  Food availability hardly matters it’s more about inadequate knowledge and feeding practices.
  • 5. FACE OF INDIA • The real laggards are also high-growth states such as Andhra Pradesh (49 percent malnourished), Bihar (82 percent), Haryana (43 percent), Rajasthan(43 percent), and, surprisingly rich Delhi (50 percent). • But other high-growth states do well on malnutrition, with Maharashtra having more than 77 percent normal kids (i.e. not malnourished), Madhya Pradesh 72 percent, and Uttarakhand 75 percent.Pradesh 72 percent, and Uttarakhand 75 percent. • It said that of the Rs.50,587 crore spent on the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme during 2006-2011, only Rs.30,861 crore (61 per cent) was spent for providing nutrition. • Nine out of the top ten states are from the northeast or north. Even Tripura, the only remaining north- eastern state, scores a tie with Kerala. The rankings are also wildly out of line with the only other vital health statistic for children that I am able to access for all Indian states: infant mortality rates (IMR) per thousand live births.
  • 6. CHALLENGES FOR GOVERNMENT Neo- natal deaths refers to the deaths of infants less than 29 days of age. In 2010, the percentage of neo- natal deaths to total infant deaths is 69.3% at national level and varies from 61.9% in urban areas to 70.6% in rural areas. Among the bigger States, Jammu & Kashmir (82.1%) registered the highest percentage of neonatal deaths to infant deaths and the lowest is in Kerala (53.2%). Birth weight is an important indicator which reveals the health condition of a child at birth. Higher is the percentage of underweight female children (< 5 years) than male children, whereas females are in a slightly better position compared to male children (< 5 years) while considering stunting and wasting. The economic condition of the family is another factor which has a strong impact on the nutritional condition of children as is evident from Figure 3.7. The percentage of underweight children in the lowest wealth index category (56.6%) is nearly 3 times higher than that in the highest wealth index category (19.7%). Anaemia, the condition of low level of haemoglobin in blood is a serious concern as it can result in impaired cognitive performance, behavioural and motor development, coordination, language development, and scholastic achievement, as well as increased morbidity from infectious diseases. Among male and female children (6-59 months) the percentage of children with any anaemia was reported as 69% and 69.9% respectively, severe anaemia was reported for 3.2 % male children and 2.7% female children.
  • 7. DEGREE & SYMPTOMS Normal Nutrition Status Mild Degree of PEM % of desired body wt. for age and sex Site Sign Face Moon face , simian facies Eye Dry eyes, pale conjunctiva, Bitot's spots, periorbital edema Mouth Angular stomatitis, cheilitis, glossitis, spongy bleeding gums, parotid enlargement Teeth Enamel mottling, delayed eruption Musculature Muscles wasting, particularly in the buttocksMild Malnutri- tion Moderate Malnutri- tion Severe Malnutri- tion Musculature Muscles wasting, particularly in the buttocks and thighs Cardiovascular Bradycardia, hypotension, reduced cardiac output, small vessel vasculopathy Skin Loose and wrinkled , shiny and edematous , dry, follicular hyperkeratosis, patchy hyper- and hypo pigmentation, erosions, poor wound healing Skeletal Deformities usually a result of calcium, vitamin D, or vitamin C deficiencies Neurologic Global development delay, loss of knee and ankle reflexes, impaired memory Nail Koilonychias, thin and soft nail plates, fissures or ridges Behaviour Lethargic, apathetic
  • 8. WASTE NOT STARVE NOT • The revelation exposes how the government is struggling on two counts — safe storage of food grain and inadequate storage facilities for food items. Food processing minister Sharad Pawar had told Parliament that inadequate storage infrastructure resulted in wastage of fruits, grain and vegetables worth Rs 44,000 crore every year. • National Food Corporation has informed that though its storage capacity in the 28 states and six union territories have increased over the years, it is finding it a major challenge to store the food grains. Bengal leads amongst the states, where in the last three years 2,300 tonnes of rice was wasted due to lack of storage facility. As per international norms, an average human being needs 250 grams of food grains everyday to survive. By that calculation, 70 million people could have fed on rice that has been wasted due to lack of storage.could have fed on rice that has been wasted due to lack of storage. India’s ruling Congress party wants to use the food security bill as a major poll plank for the upcoming general elections, but the data has revealed that the government does not have the capacity to implement its largest ever social security programme. • Thirteen percent of [India's] gross domestic product (GDP) is wasted every year due to wastage of food grains in the supply chain. • At least 17,546 tonnes of food grains was damaged between 2009-10 and July 2012 in Food Corporation of India (FCI) godowns, an RTI reply has revealed at a time when Parliament looks poised to pass the food security bill. • The farmers toil in the hard sun and depend on rains to feed the Indian country. The same farmers are also underpaid for the yield generated. The Prime Minister released the survey report in 2012 wherein it was stated that 47 % of Indians are suffering from malnutrition. It means 1 in every 2 Indian does not get 2 full meals a day. This is indeed a sad state of affair in the country.
  • 10. MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION Evidence present on Maternal and Child Nutrition shows the importance of adolescent and maternal nutrition for the health of the mother and for ensuring healthy fetal growth and development. Fetal growth restriction is a cause of 800 000 deaths in the first month of life each year, more than a quarter of all neonatal deaths.
  • 11. STEPPING STONE TO ERADICATE MALNUTRITION Government should hold host missions and work towards achieving the long term goal of eradicating malnutrition from INDIA. The subset of goals under this mission are: • Reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) and maternal mortality ratio (MMR). • Provide universal access to public health services. • Prevent and control both communicable and non- communicable. diseases, including locally endemic diseases. • Provide access to integrated comprehensive primary healthcare. • Create population stabilisation, as well as gender and demographic balance. • Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream. • Finally, to promote healthy life styles.
  • 12. REFERENCE • The Times of India • The Telegraph • The Frontline • Ncert Books (9th&10th)• Ncert Books (9 &10 ) • Sam Mendelson & Dr. Samir Chaudhuri, Child Malnutrition In India: Why Does It Persist? • Ministry Of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India, Children in India 2012 •