Nourish To Flourish
1. Bikash Shaw
2. Pranu Shree
3. Prasoon Mallik
4. Reshav Agarwal
5. Saurabh Chandan
Asansol, West Bengal
MALNUTRITION- BELLIES FIGHTING HUNGER
Malnutrition is the condition that results from eating a diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess, or in the
wrong proportions. A number of different nutrition disorders may arise, depending on which nutrients are under- or
over-abundant in the diet. In most of the world, malnutrition is present in the form of under-nutrition, which is caused
by a diet lacking adequate calories and protein—not enough food, and of poor quality. Extreme undernourishment
is starvation, and its symptoms and effects are inanition. While malnutrition is more common in less-developed
countries, it is also present in industrialized countries. In wealthier nations it is more likely to be caused by unhealthy
diets with excess energy, fats, and refined carbohydrates. A growing trend of obesity is now a major public
health concern in lower socio-economic levels and in developing countries as well.
The Orange Ribbon- An Awareness Ribbon For Malnutrition
Malnutrition deserves far greater attention and investment by
public, private, and civic leaders and citizens than it currently receives
• 47 percent of India’s children below
the age of three are
• 47 percent of Indian children under
five are categorized as moderately or
• Midday meal scheme in Indian schools.
• Integrated child development scheme.
• National Children's Fund.
• National Plan of Action for Children.five are categorized as moderately or
• At least 32 babies out of 1,000 born
alive die before their first birthday.
• Malnutrition impedes
motor, sensory, cognitive and social
development, so malnourished
children will be less likely to benefit
from school and will consequently will
have less income as adults.
• National Plan of Action for Children.
• United Nations Children's Fund.
• National Rural Health Mission.
BEHIND THE CURTAIN...
ₓ Indian children are better nourished
than most African children.
ₓ Poverty is the cause of malnutrition.
ₓ India’s low per-capita income is the
major underlying cause.
ₓ International growth standards to
The average rate of malnourishment forunder-3s in Sub-
Saharan Africa is 30 percent. India’s corresponding rate is
There is no obvious linkage between levels
of child malnutrition and income poverty. 26 per
cent of India’s population lives below the poverty
line, yet 46 percent of children under three are
The correlation between per-capitaₓ International growth standards to
assess malnutrition skew the results.
ₓ It’s about not having
The correlation between per-capita
income and child nutrition is a tenuous one: 28
out of 37 Sub-Saharan African countries have
lower per-capita income than India, and – as
said above – most have lower levels of child
Global standards of height and
weight have in fact been applied to Indian
children too, as repeatedly established by the
Nutrition Foundation of India.
Food availability hardly matters it’s more about
inadequate knowledge and feeding practices.
FACE OF INDIA
• The real laggards are also high-growth states such as
Andhra Pradesh (49 percent malnourished), Bihar
(82 percent), Haryana (43 percent), Rajasthan(43
percent), and, surprisingly rich Delhi (50 percent).
• But other high-growth states do well on
malnutrition, with Maharashtra having more than 77
percent normal kids (i.e. not malnourished), Madhya
Pradesh 72 percent, and Uttarakhand 75 percent.Pradesh 72 percent, and Uttarakhand 75 percent.
• It said that of the Rs.50,587 crore spent on the
Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
scheme during 2006-2011, only Rs.30,861 crore (61
per cent) was spent for providing nutrition.
• Nine out of the top ten states are from the northeast
or north. Even Tripura, the only remaining north-
eastern state, scores a tie with Kerala. The rankings
are also wildly out of line with the only other vital
health statistic for children that I am able to access
for all Indian states: infant mortality rates (IMR) per
thousand live births.
CHALLENGES FOR GOVERNMENT
Neo- natal deaths refers to the deaths of infants less than 29 days of age. In 2010, the percentage of neo-
natal deaths to total infant deaths is 69.3% at national level and varies from 61.9% in urban areas to 70.6% in rural
areas. Among the bigger States, Jammu & Kashmir (82.1%) registered the highest percentage of neonatal deaths
to infant deaths and the lowest is in Kerala (53.2%).
Birth weight is an important indicator which reveals the health condition of a child at birth. Higher is the
percentage of underweight female children (< 5 years) than male children, whereas females are in a slightly better
position compared to male children (< 5 years) while considering stunting and wasting.
The economic condition of the family is another factor which has a strong impact on the nutritional condition of
children as is evident from Figure 3.7. The percentage of underweight children in the lowest wealth index category
(56.6%) is nearly 3 times higher than that in the highest wealth index category (19.7%).
Anaemia, the condition of low level of haemoglobin in blood is a serious concern as it can result in impaired
cognitive performance, behavioural and motor development, coordination, language development, and scholastic
achievement, as well as increased morbidity from infectious diseases. Among male and female children (6-59
months) the percentage of children with any anaemia was reported as 69% and 69.9% respectively, severe anaemia
was reported for 3.2 % male children and 2.7% female children.
DEGREE & SYMPTOMS
Degree of PEM % of desired body wt. for age and sex
Face Moon face , simian facies
Eye Dry eyes, pale conjunctiva, Bitot's spots,
Mouth Angular stomatitis, cheilitis, glossitis, spongy
bleeding gums, parotid enlargement
Teeth Enamel mottling, delayed eruption
Musculature Muscles wasting, particularly in the buttocksMild
Musculature Muscles wasting, particularly in the buttocks
Cardiovascular Bradycardia, hypotension, reduced cardiac
output, small vessel vasculopathy
Loose and wrinkled , shiny and edematous ,
dry, follicular hyperkeratosis, patchy hyper-
and hypo pigmentation, erosions, poor wound
Skeletal Deformities usually a result of calcium,
vitamin D, or vitamin C deficiencies
Neurologic Global development delay, loss of knee and
ankle reflexes, impaired memory
Nail Koilonychias, thin and soft nail plates, fissures
Behaviour Lethargic, apathetic
WASTE NOT STARVE NOT
• The revelation exposes how the government is struggling on two counts
— safe storage of food grain and inadequate storage facilities for food
items. Food processing minister Sharad Pawar had told Parliament that
inadequate storage infrastructure resulted in wastage of fruits, grain and
vegetables worth Rs 44,000 crore every year.
• National Food Corporation has informed that though its storage capacity
in the 28 states and six union territories have increased over the years, it
is finding it a major challenge to store the food grains. Bengal leads
amongst the states, where in the last three years 2,300 tonnes of rice
was wasted due to lack of storage facility.
As per international norms, an average human being needs 250 grams
of food grains everyday to survive. By that calculation, 70 million people
could have fed on rice that has been wasted due to lack of storage.could have fed on rice that has been wasted due to lack of storage.
India’s ruling Congress party wants to use the food security bill as a
major poll plank for the upcoming general elections, but the data has
revealed that the government does not have the capacity to implement
its largest ever social security programme.
• Thirteen percent of [India's] gross domestic product (GDP) is wasted
every year due to wastage of food grains in the supply chain.
• At least 17,546 tonnes of food grains was damaged between 2009-10
and July 2012 in Food Corporation of India (FCI) godowns, an RTI reply
has revealed at a time when Parliament looks poised to pass the food
• The farmers toil in the hard sun and depend on rains to feed the Indian
country. The same farmers are also underpaid for the yield
generated. The Prime Minister released the survey report in 2012
wherein it was stated that 47 % of Indians are suffering from
malnutrition. It means 1 in every 2 Indian does not get 2 full meals a
day. This is indeed a sad state of affair in the country.
MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION
Evidence present on Maternal and
Child Nutrition shows the
importance of adolescent and
maternal nutrition for the health of
the mother and for ensuring healthy
fetal growth and development. Fetal
growth restriction is a cause of
800 000 deaths in the first month of
life each year, more than a quarter
of all neonatal deaths.
STEPPING STONE TO ERADICATE
Government should hold host missions and work
towards achieving the long term goal of
eradicating malnutrition from INDIA. The subset
of goals under this mission are:
• Reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) and maternal
mortality ratio (MMR).
• Provide universal access to public health services.
• Prevent and control both communicable and non-
communicable. diseases, including
locally endemic diseases.
• Provide access to integrated comprehensive
• Create population stabilisation, as well as gender
and demographic balance.
• Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream.
• Finally, to promote healthy life styles.
• The Times of India
• The Telegraph
• The Frontline
• Ncert Books (9th&10th)• Ncert Books (9 &10 )
• Sam Mendelson & Dr. Samir Chaudhuri, Child
Malnutrition In India: Why Does It Persist?
• Ministry Of Statistics and Programme Implementation
Government of India, Children in India 2012