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  1. 1. MONEY VOTE National Institute Of Technology Agartala 1. Nimit Vikrama(Team coordinator) 2. Anku Sharma 3. Adarsh Srivastava 4. Abhishek Kumar 5. Md. Mashihuz Zaman Team: Annant
  2. 2. PREFACE • We take an opportunity to present this treatise entitled as “INTRODUCING ELECTORAL REFORMS TO REDUCE THE MONEY AND MUSCLE POWER IN POLITICS”. We have worked together days and night for giving the generous views regarding the issue. Don’t just see it but also work with it always remains our team motto. First few slides deals with the working nature of the govt. i.e.; todays electoral functioning. Fourth slide deals with the first problem that our system face and next slide include its suggestion. The whole problem and suggestions have been given side by side. • Working for India is always energetic and this project comes with the boost among ourselves. Choosing one of the topic among so many is very difficult. But we have done its “Electoral reforms”. In the slides we have discuss about various political problem that our electoral system face at every instant and not only the suggestions but also the outcome of suggestions have been discussed. Hope everyone will have the same overwhelming feeling that we had while working on this project. Team : ANNANT
  3. 3. • All of us know to some extend that there is a use of money and muscle power in politics. That’s why we are discussing here. But the question is why political parties use money in elections? The answer is obvious to win them. What will they do after wining? They fill their pockets back with the same money which they have spend during elections. There are 1,200 political parties in India and of these only 150 are active and functioning. • A brief about the general election in the independent India:- Indian parliamentary democracy is the continuance of the British legacy and elections to the legislative bodies (both the nation- al as well as State) begin from 1952. Till the fourth general elections i.e. 1967, democratic election was largely free from any major flaw. In the fifth election of 1971 however, the distortions in its working appeared for the first time. This got multiplied in the successive elections, especially in those held in the eighties and thereafter. Elections in India are seen mutilated by the evil influences of money and muscle power which invariably led to criminalization of electoral politics. The trend is of big concern, as increase in the number of MPs with criminal records from 128 in 14th Lok Sabha to 150 in 15th Lok Sabha. Undemocratic and autocratic selection and nomination of candidates by political parties is evident. In many cases, parties ignored honesty giving and resorting to money power and muscle power. • The evolution of the party system after Independence presents a study of transformation from one-party dominant system to a complex of multi-party configuration. The resulting political system presently reflects trends of fragmentation, factionalism, caste-ism, communal politics and regionalism. • Political parties have invariably exploited ensuing instability for gaining electoral support and mobilisation of the voters on issues which are not even remotely of national concern. • Structural and functional problems which all most of the political parties are:- 1. Absence of inner party democracy. 2. Abysmal representation of women in the party leadership. 3. Lack of ideology and values in party politics. Lack of training of party members to inculcate core party ideology and party’s strategy for social change. 4. Weak and nepotistic party leadership. 5. Increasing role of regionalism, caste-ism and communalism within the parties. 6. Accommodation of criminals within the Party and acceptance of violence as a legitimate functional mode. 7. Fractionalization within the party and opportunistic coalitions with other political parties.
  4. 4.  Why India need Political reforms? Gross corruptions in public life and criminalisation of politics have led to distortions where the democratic credentials of the electoral system is being questioned seriously. There is a growing public awareness of the rampant entry of criminal elements into the political arena. For example, in the current Lok-Sabha, nearly a quarter (23.2%)of the MPs have reported criminal cases against them. One out of two among them (over 50%) has cases that could attract penalties of imprisonment of five years or more.  Electoral system in India and its anomalies First-Past-The-Post(FPTP):-FPTP voting refers to an election won by candidate(s) with the most votes. • ANOMALIES The winning candidate does not necessarily receive an absolute majority of all votes caste . FPTP may allow political parties to come to power, both in the state and at the Centre, with minority of votes. There are many instances where parties with less than 30% of votes have won a large percentage of seats and had claimed the right to form government. The Vast majority if voter, in this system, are left absent in governance. The present electoral system in India encourages corruption and use of muscle power and communal pull to gain the slight margin of winning votes. Parties using economic power, are often not successful in gaining a dominant position in govt. structure.
  5. 5.  Over coming the first drawback Proportionate Electoral System: PR is being widely practised in many democracies. Any party can gain the seats only in proportion of percentage of votes and percentage of seats. This allows parties with majority voter support to come to power. Popular electoral vote: The voters in each state cast preferential ballots. A state awards its electoral votes according to the first choice vote out count. If nobody got majority, the votes of losing candidates would be transferred to those voters’ second choice, and vote recomputed. Popular vote with runoff election: A free-for all election is followed by a runoff between the top vote-getters The requirement for winning election should be “50% + 1 of the registered votes cast”: To stop candidates and parties from asking votes on caste, religion and regional basis and to help stop division in Indian society based on these parameters, a requirements should be made to declare a candidate as winner only if the candidate gets more than 50%+1 vote. In the case when no candidate gets required number of voters, there should be a runoff between the top two candidates getting maximum votes. Popular approval vote: Approval voting consists of giving a “yes” vote for every candidate that you put up, and a “no” vote for all those you can not. Simply put, you can vote for as few or as many of the candidates as you wish. It’s like preferential voting system except that it is without a hierarchy of individual ranking. The winner is the candidate with the most total “yes” votes. 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 Rupiya and Ministers MPs/MLAs analysed MP/MLAs with criminal charges Serious criminal charges Avg.assets of MPS/MLAs(CR) MPs/MLAs assets with criminal charges(Cr) avg. assets of MPs/MLAs with serious criminal chares Survey of some Political parties
  6. 6. High demand culture of distribution of tickets Lack of transparency in funding of political parties and electoral expenses. Abuse of money power especially, black money for distribution of liquor, cash and other inducement to voters Abuse of media in the form of paid news and expenditure on political advertisement beyond the legal limit. Criminalization on politics- 30% MPs of Lok Sabha have criminals cases against them .  What are the some of the worst problems our electoral system facing today? • Recommendation on Electoral Reforms in India by various Forms Some of an uneducated people enters for the development of India I. Abolish the First-Past-The-Post system and make the requirement of 50% of votes +1 as mandatory to declare a winner. II. Simultaneous elections for Union and state legislature and Use of common electoral rolls in the union and state elections. III. Fixed tenure of elected legislative bodies. A no-confidence motion should be followed by a confidence motion. IV. Regulate the number of register parties. V. Do not allow candidates to contest from more than one constituency in an election. VI. Ban publication of exist/opinion poll result till voting in all the phases is complete. VII. A candidate must fill his Income-tax return for the previous two years from the constituency which he/she wants to represent. All candidates if elected and their close relative must publicly declare their total assets, before and after the election. VIII. No change of party or change of status of candidate to an independent member should be permitted till the announcement of the next elections. IX. All candidates must be required to submit audited accounts with receipts of poll expenditure. The EC (Election Commission) must have adequate auditing manpower to have accounts checked within 30 days after the counting of ballot papers. Over expenditure by 5% or more or discrepancies in the accounts amounting to over 5% should be grounds for disqualification of a candidate. X. The size of the Council of Ministers must be limited to 10% of the legislators in larger houses (over 120 members) and to 15% in smaller ones (less than 100). A minimum of 12 ministers may be permitted for even the smallest house. XI. The donation by an individual or company to a candidate must not exceed 5% of the total expenditure permissible. The total donation made by an individual or a company to all candidates in an election must not exceed 50% of the total permissible expenditure by one candidate. All donations given and received must be in public knowledge.
  7. 7. But not going off track, concentrating on the major problem i.e.; Why Money and Muscle power? 1. Every candidate from one political party standing for the election in their zone should be kept on strict vigilance by the state police and the each member of other political parties. And the cadre should be allotted to the other member of Political party secretly without informing to anyone by the Election commission of India. Outcome of the first suggestion:- • If any political party take the unfair mean during the elections, the vigilance team will inform the Election commission of India. If the information provided by vigilance team found correct with the evidence(like video recording, photos, informing the police/Election commission etc.), immediately the tickets of the candidate should be cancelled and candidate should be imprison. • If information provide by vigilance team found false, then the members should penalised with some good amount of money and in case imprison also. 2. Election commission of India seeing through the geographical, economical and population condition of place where election is going to happen should fixed the amount of money that will require for the election. The candidates will have to spend that much amount of money only. Outcome of the second suggestion:- • This gives the equal chance to all candidate to fight in elections. At the end of elections the winning and losing candidates should submit the report on the expenditure of money spend during elections. A committee of retired supreme and high court judge's should be formed so to investigate the report and take action accordingly. • The excessive use of money in elections vitiates democracy. Anyone who breaks the law by giving money and gifts to voters, or exceeding the legal spending limits should have his/her election set aside. 3. Advertising the name of political parties after or before the specified time should be banned. Whether electronically or by ringing the door bells of the houses. Outcome of the third suggestion:- • The money which is spend on the advertisement in private media will not be wasted. The government has a special hour for all political parties on govt. owned channels which could be free of cost. How influence of money in election could be controlled? 4. Funding from the private institutions should be banned. Private institution fund the political parties so that they would help them in numerous ways. Outcome of the Fourth suggestions:- • Every body in the election is then consider as equal. Parties will function in the same amount. • Parties will now more concentrate on policy issues not in money making. 5. Implement ceiling on expenses of political parties during election period– • To make the current laws on election expenses more effective, ceiling should be imposed on expenses during elections made by political parties as well.
  8. 8.  Estimation of the cost and people will be used in reform number one:- Totalcostneedfor Engaging people’s of different backgrounds for different works like vigilance , thinking Media Law making A big ZERO Criminalization of politics in India has attained a stage, where it needs serious attention from the citizens, government and political parties as there is steady decline in values of all sections of our society. Criminalization of politics has led to immense pressure on functioning of political institution. The worst part of the picture is that "criminal record" becomes an essential qualification for entry into politics. In India Politics is not a social service anymore, instead it emerged as a lucrative profession or business. Today crime is the shortest access to legislature and parliament in India. Success rate of criminals into electoral process is alluring the young blood of the country. It remains as a source of negative inspiration. It is now believed that the safest haven for criminals is politics and political par- ties have gone overboard in associating criminals with them more because of their muscle and money power to ensure victory in polls. Criminalization of politics in India is visualized into two different senses. 1. In narrow sense it refers to the direct entry and interference of criminals into state legislatures and parliament of India, and 2. In wider sense it refers to interference of criminals into politics either directly or indirectly like financing any candidate, providing anti-social manpower, booth capturing, contract killing of rival candidates, providing muscle power services, as well as campaigning or canvassing for any candidate contesting elections. 3. . The problem of criminalization of politics is also interlinked illiteracy, poverty, corruption, lack of awareness and sense of responsibility as an Indian citizen beside others 4. . A closer and deeper look at Indian politics, the causes of criminalisation of politics have many at tributaries. Political Culture of India is one of the first issue which help successful in criminal activities. A banal remark has been in frequent use in Indian politics since last few years that "innocent until proved guilty.“ Nature of the Problem One problem solved, other problem arises and that is Criminalisation
  9. 9.  Conclusion And Suggestion On The Criminalisation In Politics • The criminalization of politics continues to increase in the number of MPs with criminal records in 2004 from 128 to 150 in 2009. The number of MPs with serious criminal cases has gone up. While voter awareness on this issue is very high, the problem is that those who win after spending huge amounts are unlikely to focus on good governance. They are more likely to focus on recovering the funds they spent and on giving favours to those who supported their campaigns. Not only the new government must tackle these issues on a priority basis and include them in their agenda but it's very important on people's part to be aware of not voting for the wrong person. • Stricter laws need to be implemented to prevent criminals from contesting the election. And once convicted he/she must be barred from contesting any election for the next 10 years or so. Also, parties with more number of criminals must be blacklisted and disciplinary action must be taken. The answer would be in the negative only if morals and ethics have no place in politics. It would indeed be a sad day for politics in India, if it is accepted that moral and ethics have no place in politics in India. But fact remains a fact. We can consider this issue in the light that even a peon would not be appointed to a government job in case he is alleged to be involved in a criminal case. There is a clear bar on any person involved in criminal activities to be appointed on a government job. As a matter of fact, every government servant has to file an affidavit that he has never been involved in criminal activities and he has no criminal case pending investigation or trial against him. • The problems of criminals in politics it needs that all political parties instead of blaming each other should evolve a code of ethics among themselves by consensus and not give ticket to such criminal elements [Stop nurturing crime in politics]. The Election Commission has made various recommendations regarding partial state funding of polls which should be given a serious thought by government. Steps should also be taken to ensure transparency in the funds of political parties; if it requires framing new laws then government should not hesitate in going ahead. Government should adopt an integrated approach towards this problem. The candidate should not be allowed • to contest election if charges are framed against such person by the court (does not matter whether charges are major or minor).Vigilant public opinion is also required to put pressure on government. People have to be sensitized about the malaise of the electoral process. Only then, free and fair poll can be conducted, which will lead to strengthening of democracy in India. Youngster along with civil societies and voluntary groups can spread awareness on mass level so that people can choose educated, sincere, dedicated, transparent and deserving candidates as their political representatives Reduce criminals in politics Treat them as an infectious disease • A recent Supreme Court verdict deemed unconstitutional Section 8 (4) of the Representation of the People Act. The act gave charge sheeted members of Parliament three months of time to file an appeal to a higher court after conviction. According to the recent order, convicted MPs will be immediately disqualified from their position as a member of the house. The order is being currently analysed by the law ministry. • A 2009 report by the Association for Democratic Reforms suggests that around 1158 or 15% of all candidates contesting in the general elections had criminal charges pending against them. While candidates who are convicted of crimes are disqualified, there are many against whom the cases are pending and there are those who are out on bail • New policies must be devised to create transparency if we are to draw a new breed of leaders into the electoral process. Pioneering and feasible steps are needed to be taken to clean our political system and make it fair and efficient. • Do not give tickets to the criminals. • Do not give tickets on the sole criteria of money. • Disclosure of the criteria of selection of candidates during elections. • Adequate Representation for women in selection of candidates during elections. Proposed by Election commission of India
  10. 10. Only money and muscle will not reduce the improper use of power. Several other reforms should also be implemented. Other measures Implement ceiling on expenses of political parties during election period Bring financial transparency in the accounts of political parties Provision for verifying the declarations in the affidavits of the candidates Action against candidates who fail to file their election expenses Reduce the time provided for filing election expenses Provide “None of the Above” (NOTA) option in the EVMs Introduce provisions for inner- party democracy within political parties Make public the list of polling agents in advance- The list of polling agents should be made public well in advance of the elections. Declare Political parties as Public Authorities: As political parties work for the public in public space and are responsible for making government to run the country and they should comes under RTI. Appointment of the CEO from cadre of another state - The Chief Electoral officer of a state is sometimes apprehensive that after his term is over, he will have to work under the same political authorities over which he exercised powers during elections as CEO.
  11. 11. • National Election watch surveys and the recommendation. • The Hindu newspaper article by Navin Chawla ‘Need an urgent reform’. • Table data and content from along with Associates for democratic reforms(ADR). • NEED FOR ELECTORAL REFORMS IN INDIA, A BACKGROUND PAPER by M. Vijaya Kumar( All India Progressive Forum (AIPF)). • Indrajit Gupta Committe on State funding of Elections. • reports and articles. • Chetan Bhagats’ What Young India wants. • Facebook an open survey with many people.