National Institute Of Technology Agartala
1. Nimit Vikrama(Team coordinator)
2. Anku Sharma
3. Adarsh Srivastava
4. Abhishek Kumar
5. Md. Mashihuz Zaman
• We take an opportunity to present this treatise entitled as “INTRODUCING ELECTORAL REFORMS TO REDUCE THE MONEY AND MUSCLE
POWER IN POLITICS”. We have worked together days and night for giving the generous views regarding the issue. Don’t just see it but also
work with it always remains our team motto. First few slides deals with the working nature of the govt. i.e.; todays electoral functioning.
Fourth slide deals with the first problem that our system face and next slide include its suggestion. The whole problem and suggestions have
been given side by side.
• Working for India is always energetic and this project comes with the boost among ourselves. Choosing one of the topic among so many is
very difficult. But we have done its “Electoral reforms”.
In the slides we have discuss about various political problem that our electoral system face at every instant and not only the suggestions but also
the outcome of suggestions have been discussed.
Hope everyone will have the same overwhelming feeling that we had while working on this project.
Team : ANNANT
• All of us know to some extend that there is a use of money and muscle power in politics. That’s why we are
discussing here. But the question is why political parties use money in elections? The answer is obvious to
win them. What will they do after wining? They fill their pockets back with the same money which they have
spend during elections.
There are 1,200 political parties in India and of
these only 150 are active and functioning.
• A brief about the general election in the
Indian parliamentary democracy is the continuance of the
British legacy and elections to the legislative bodies (both the
nation- al as well as State) begin from 1952. Till the fourth
general elections i.e. 1967, democratic election was largely free
from any major flaw.
In the fifth election of 1971 however, the distortions in its
working appeared for the first time. This got multiplied in the
successive elections, especially in those held in the eighties and
thereafter. Elections in India are seen mutilated by the evil
influences of money and muscle power which invariably led to
criminalization of electoral politics. The trend is of big concern,
as increase in the number of MPs with criminal records from
128 in 14th Lok Sabha to 150 in 15th Lok Sabha. Undemocratic
and autocratic selection and nomination of candidates by
political parties is evident. In many cases, parties ignored
honesty giving and resorting to money power and muscle
• The evolution of the party system after Independence
presents a study of transformation from one-party dominant
system to a complex of multi-party configuration. The
resulting political system presently reflects trends of
fragmentation, factionalism, caste-ism, communal politics
• Political parties have invariably exploited ensuing instability
for gaining electoral support and mobilisation of the voters
on issues which are not even remotely of national concern.
• Structural and functional problems which all most of
the political parties are:-
1. Absence of inner party democracy.
2. Abysmal representation of women in the party leadership.
3. Lack of ideology and values in party politics. Lack of training
of party members to inculcate core party ideology and
party’s strategy for social change.
4. Weak and nepotistic party leadership.
5. Increasing role of regionalism, caste-ism and communalism
within the parties.
6. Accommodation of criminals within the Party and
acceptance of violence as a legitimate functional mode.
7. Fractionalization within the party and opportunistic
coalitions with other political parties.
Why India need Political reforms?
Gross corruptions in public life and criminalisation of politics have
led to distortions where the democratic credentials of the electoral
system is being questioned seriously.
There is a growing public awareness of the rampant entry of
criminal elements into the political arena. For example, in the
current Lok-Sabha, nearly a quarter (23.2%)of the MPs have
reported criminal cases against them. One out of two among them
(over 50%) has cases that could attract penalties of imprisonment
of five years or more.
Electoral system in India and its
First-Past-The-Post(FPTP):-FPTP voting refers to an election won by
candidate(s) with the most votes.
The winning candidate does not necessarily
receive an absolute majority of all votes caste .
FPTP may allow political parties to come to power,
both in the state and at the Centre, with minority
There are many instances where parties with less
than 30% of votes have won a large percentage of
seats and had claimed the right to form
government. The Vast majority if voter, in this
system, are left absent in governance.
The present electoral system in India encourages
corruption and use of muscle power and
communal pull to gain the slight margin of winning
votes. Parties using economic power, are often not
successful in gaining a dominant position in govt.
Over coming the first drawback
Proportionate Electoral System:
PR is being widely practised in
many democracies. Any party can
gain the seats only in proportion
of percentage of votes and
percentage of seats. This allows
parties with majority voter
support to come to power.
Popular electoral vote: The voters in each state
cast preferential ballots. A state awards its
electoral votes according to the first choice vote
out count. If nobody got majority, the votes of
losing candidates would be transferred to those
voters’ second choice, and vote recomputed.
Popular vote with runoff
election: A free-for all election is
followed by a runoff between the
The requirement for winning election should be “50% + 1 of
the registered votes cast”: To stop candidates and parties from
asking votes on caste, religion and regional basis and to help
stop division in Indian society based on these parameters, a
requirements should be made to declare a candidate as winner
only if the candidate gets more than 50%+1 vote. In the case
when no candidate gets required number of voters, there
should be a runoff between the top two candidates getting
Popular approval vote: Approval voting consists of giving a “yes” vote for every
candidate that you put up, and a “no” vote for all those you can not. Simply put, you
can vote for as few or as many of the candidates as you wish. It’s like preferential
voting system except that it is without a hierarchy of individual ranking. The winner is
the candidate with the most total “yes” votes.
Rupiya and Ministers
MP/MLAs with criminal charges
Serious criminal charges
Avg.assets of MPS/MLAs(CR)
MPs/MLAs assets with criminal charges(Cr)
avg. assets of MPs/MLAs with serious criminal chares
Survey of some Political parties
High demand culture of
distribution of tickets
Lack of transparency in
funding of political
parties and electoral
Abuse of money power
especially, black money
for distribution of liquor,
cash and other
inducement to voters
Abuse of media in the
form of paid news and
expenditure on political
advertisement beyond the
Criminalization on politics-
30% MPs of Lok Sabha
have criminals cases
against them .
What are the some of the worst problems our electoral system facing today?
• Recommendation on Electoral Reforms in India by various Forms
Some of an uneducated
people enters for the
development of India
I. Abolish the First-Past-The-Post system and make the requirement of 50% of votes +1 as mandatory to declare a winner.
II. Simultaneous elections for Union and state legislature and Use of common electoral rolls in the union and state elections.
III. Fixed tenure of elected legislative bodies. A no-confidence motion should be followed by a confidence motion.
IV. Regulate the number of register parties.
V. Do not allow candidates to contest from more than one constituency in an election.
VI. Ban publication of exist/opinion poll result till voting in all the phases is complete.
VII. A candidate must fill his Income-tax return for the previous two years from the constituency which he/she wants to represent. All candidates if elected and their close relative must
publicly declare their total assets, before and after the election.
VIII. No change of party or change of status of candidate to an independent member should be permitted till the announcement of the next elections.
IX. All candidates must be required to submit audited accounts with receipts of poll expenditure. The EC (Election Commission) must have adequate auditing manpower to have accounts
checked within 30 days after the counting of ballot papers. Over expenditure by 5% or more or discrepancies in the accounts amounting to over 5% should be grounds for
disqualification of a candidate.
X. The size of the Council of Ministers must be limited to 10% of the legislators in larger houses (over 120 members) and to 15% in smaller ones (less than 100). A minimum of 12
ministers may be permitted for even the smallest house.
XI. The donation by an individual or company to a candidate must not exceed 5% of the total expenditure permissible. The total donation made by an individual or a company to all
candidates in an election must not exceed 50% of the total permissible expenditure by one candidate. All donations given and received must be in public knowledge.
But not going off track, concentrating on the major problem i.e.; Why Money and Muscle power?
1. Every candidate from one political party standing for the election in their zone should be kept on strict
vigilance by the state police and the each member of other political parties. And the cadre should be allotted
to the other member of Political party secretly without informing to anyone by the Election commission of
Outcome of the first suggestion:-
• If any political party take the unfair mean during the elections, the vigilance team will inform the Election
commission of India. If the information provided by vigilance team found correct with the evidence(like video
recording, photos, informing the police/Election commission etc.), immediately the tickets of the candidate
should be cancelled and candidate should be imprison.
• If information provide by vigilance team found false, then the members should penalised with some good
amount of money and in case imprison also.
2. Election commission of India seeing through the geographical, economical and population condition of place
where election is going to happen should fixed the amount of money that will require for the election. The
candidates will have to spend that much amount of money only.
Outcome of the second suggestion:-
• This gives the equal chance to all candidate to fight in elections. At the end of elections the winning and losing
candidates should submit the report on the expenditure of money spend during elections. A committee of
retired supreme and high court judge's should be formed so to investigate the report and take action
• The excessive use of money in elections vitiates democracy. Anyone who breaks the law by giving money and
gifts to voters, or exceeding the legal spending limits should have his/her election set aside.
3. Advertising the name of political parties after or before the specified time should be banned. Whether
electronically or by ringing the door bells of the houses.
Outcome of the third suggestion:-
• The money which is spend on the advertisement in private media will not be wasted. The government has a
special hour for all political parties on govt. owned channels which could be free of cost.
How influence of money in
election could be controlled?
4. Funding from the private institutions should
be banned. Private institution fund the political
parties so that they would help them in
Outcome of the Fourth suggestions:-
• Every body in the election is then consider as
equal. Parties will function in the same
• Parties will now more concentrate on policy
issues not in money making.
5. Implement ceiling on expenses of political
parties during election period–
• To make the current laws on election
expenses more effective, ceiling should be
imposed on expenses during elections made
by political parties as well.
Estimation of the cost and people will be used in reform number one:-
Engaging people’s of different
backgrounds for different works like
vigilance , thinking
Criminalization of politics in India has attained a stage, where it needs serious attention from the citizens, government and political parties as there is steady decline in values of all sections of
our society. Criminalization of politics has led to immense pressure on functioning of political institution. The worst part of the picture is that "criminal record" becomes an essential qualification
for entry into politics. In India Politics is not a social service anymore, instead it emerged as a lucrative profession or business. Today crime is the shortest access to legislature and parliament in
India. Success rate of criminals into electoral process is alluring the young blood of the country. It remains as a source of negative inspiration. It is now believed that the safest haven for
criminals is politics and political par- ties have gone overboard in associating criminals with them more because of their muscle and money power to ensure victory in polls. Criminalization of
politics in India is visualized into two different senses.
1. In narrow sense it refers to the direct entry and interference of criminals into state legislatures and parliament of India, and
2. In wider sense it refers to interference of criminals into politics either directly or indirectly like financing any candidate, providing anti-social manpower, booth capturing, contract killing of
rival candidates, providing muscle power services, as well as campaigning or canvassing for any candidate contesting elections.
3. . The problem of criminalization of politics is also interlinked illiteracy, poverty, corruption, lack of awareness and sense of responsibility as an Indian citizen beside others
4. . A closer and deeper look at Indian politics, the causes of criminalisation of politics have many at tributaries. Political Culture of India is one of the first issue which help successful in criminal
activities. A banal remark has been in frequent use in Indian politics since last few years that "innocent until proved guilty.“
Nature of the Problem
One problem solved, other
problem arises and that is
Conclusion And Suggestion On The Criminalisation In Politics
• The criminalization of politics continues to increase in the number of MPs with
criminal records in 2004 from 128 to 150 in 2009. The number of MPs with
serious criminal cases has gone up. While voter awareness on this issue is very
high, the problem is that those who win after spending huge amounts are
unlikely to focus on good governance. They are more likely to focus on
recovering the funds they spent and on giving favours to those who supported
their campaigns. Not only the new government must tackle these issues on a
priority basis and include them in their agenda but it's very important on
people's part to be aware of not voting for the wrong person.
• Stricter laws need to be implemented to prevent criminals from contesting the
election. And once convicted he/she must be barred from contesting any
election for the next 10 years or so. Also, parties with more number of criminals
must be blacklisted and disciplinary action must be taken. The answer would be
in the negative only if morals and ethics have no place in politics. It would
indeed be a sad day for politics in India, if it is accepted that moral and ethics
have no place in politics in India. But fact remains a fact. We can consider this
issue in the light that even a peon would not be appointed to a government job
in case he is alleged to be involved in a criminal case. There is a clear bar on any
person involved in criminal activities to be appointed on a government job. As a
matter of fact, every government servant has to file an affidavit that he has
never been involved in criminal activities and he has no criminal case pending
investigation or trial against him.
• The problems of criminals in politics it needs that all political parties instead of
blaming each other should evolve a code of ethics among themselves by
consensus and not give ticket to such criminal elements [Stop nurturing crime in
politics]. The Election Commission has made various recommendations
regarding partial state funding of polls which should be given a serious thought
by government. Steps should also be taken to ensure transparency in the funds
of political parties; if it requires framing new laws then government should not
hesitate in going ahead. Government should adopt an integrated approach
towards this problem. The candidate should not be allowed
• to contest election if charges are framed against such person by the court (does
not matter whether charges are major or minor).Vigilant public opinion is also
required to put pressure on government. People have to be sensitized about the
malaise of the electoral process. Only then, free and fair poll can be conducted,
which will lead to strengthening of democracy in India. Youngster along with
civil societies and voluntary groups can spread awareness on mass level so that
people can choose educated, sincere, dedicated, transparent and deserving
candidates as their political representatives
• A recent Supreme Court verdict deemed unconstitutional Section 8
(4) of the Representation of the People Act. The act gave charge
sheeted members of Parliament three months of time to file an
appeal to a higher court after conviction. According to the recent
order, convicted MPs will be immediately disqualified from their
position as a member of the house. The order is being currently
analysed by the law ministry.
• A 2009 report by the Association for Democratic
Reforms suggests that around 1158 or 15% of all
candidates contesting in the general elections
had criminal charges pending against them.
While candidates who are convicted of crimes
are disqualified, there are many against whom
the cases are pending and there are those who
are out on bail
• New policies must be devised to create
transparency if we are to draw a new breed of
leaders into the electoral process. Pioneering
and feasible steps are needed to be taken to
clean our political system and make it fair and
• Do not give tickets to the criminals.
• Do not give tickets on the sole criteria of
• Disclosure of the criteria of selection of
candidates during elections.
• Adequate Representation for women in
selection of candidates during elections.
Only money and muscle will not reduce the improper use of power. Several other reforms should also be implemented.
on expenses of
the accounts of
the affidavits of
fail to file their
Reduce the time
Provide “None of
(NOTA) option in
Introduce provisions for inner-
party democracy within
Make public the list of polling agents in
advance- The list of polling agents
should be made public well in advance
of the elections.
Declare Political parties as Public
Authorities: As political parties work
for the public in public space and are
responsible for making government to
run the country and they should comes
Appointment of the CEO from cadre of
another state - The Chief Electoral
officer of a state is sometimes
apprehensive that after his term is over,
he will have to work under the same
political authorities over which he
exercised powers during elections as
• National Election watch surveys and the recommendation.
• The Hindu newspaper article by Navin Chawla ‘Need an urgent reform’.
• Table data and content from myneta.info along with Associates for democratic reforms(ADR).
• NEED FOR ELECTORAL REFORMS IN INDIA, A BACKGROUND PAPER by M. Vijaya Kumar( All India Progressive Forum (AIPF)).
• Indrajit Gupta Committe on State funding of Elections.
• http://www.indiancag.org/manthan/ reports and articles.
• Chetan Bhagats’ What Young India wants.
• Facebook an open survey with many people.