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ANJAN11
ANJAN11
ANJAN11
ANJAN11
ANJAN11
ANJAN11
ANJAN11
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ANJAN11
ANJAN11
ANJAN11
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  • 1. SUNRISE STATES REALISING THE GROWTH POTENTIAL OF NORTH EAST INDIA PRESENTED BY- TEAM ANJAN NEHA PAI MANASI SABADRA DISHA WALUNJ MONIKA WANKHEDE PRANITA SAWANT
  • 2. •NAME:NORTH-EASTERN REGION (NER),INDIA. STATES:ASSAM,ARUNACHAL PRADESH, MIZORAM, SIKKIM, NAGALAND, MANIPUR,TRIPURA •LOCATION: BETWEEN 21.5O TO 29.50 NORTH LATITUDES. BETWEEN 85.5 O TO 97.5 O EAST LONGITUDES. •TOPOGRAPHY: HIGHLY RUGGED STEEP MOUNTAINS AND HILLS TO ROLLING TOPOGRAPHY OF PLATEAU REGION •CLIMATE: THE AVERAGE ANNUAL RAINFALL OF THE REGION VARIES FROM 2000 TO 4000 MM. THE CLIMATE VARIES FROM SUB- TROPICAL TO EXTREME TEMPERATURE •TRIBES: 200 TRIBES EXIST OF WHICH SOME ARE BODO, KUKI, RENGMA,ETC. •DEMOGRAPHICS: THE TOTAL POPULATION IN 2001 WAS 10286.10 MILLIONS. THE POPULATION DENSITY IN THE REGION VARIES FROM 55-60 PERSONS PER KM2 AS COMPARED TO 275-290 PERSONS PER KM2 IN PLAINS. SUNRISE STATES REALISING GROWTH POTENTIAL OF NORTH EAST REGION
  • 3. SUNRISE STATES POTENTIALS HURDLES INFLUENCES EFFECTS AGRICULTURE FLOOD TRADITIONAL PRACTICES, NO MODIFICATIONS AS PER REQUIREMENT LOW PRODUCTION, FUTURE NEEDS PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE TERRAIN NATURAL AND POLITICAL UNDERDEVELOPED INSTEAD OF ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATION AND ITS POTENTIALS SKILL DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION SYSTEM AND MIGRATION GLOBAL AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GETTING FROM TRADITIONALVALUES AND ORIGINALITY OTHER PROBLEMS THAT NEEDS CRITICAL HANDLING: 1. POLITICAL AND MILITARY INFLUENCES 2. LACK OF UNITY WITHIN THE REGION AS “NORTH EAST INDIA” 3. REGIONAL INFLLUENCES REGARDING POLICIES OF BETTER STATE ON DEVELOPING ONES. “EARTH IS THE SAVIOUR OF EARTH” AGRICULTURE HUMAN POWER INFRA- STRUCTURE ISSUES AND RELATIONS WHAT THEY CAN DO? WHAT DO THEY HAVE? WHAT DO THEY NEED?
  • 4. SUNRISE STATES ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY INDIVIDUAL COMMUNITY GRAM PANCHAYAT LOK SABHA CENTRAL GOVERN- MENT •DIRECT PARTICIPATION IN THE DISCUSSIONS REGARDING ISSUES • RESPONSIBLE FOR ELECTING THE COMMUNITY REPRESENTATIVES IN THE GRAM PANCHAYAT •ROLE AS A WITNESS TO THE GRAM PANCHAYAT MEETINGS • AS ONE COMPONENT (OUT OF 4/5 TRIBES) OF THE GRAM PANCHAYAT • COMMUNITY BASED ON REGION AND NOT BASED ON CASTE OR ANY DISCRIMINATION • THEY CAN EXPRESS OR PROPOSE THEIR REQUIREMENTS OR POLICIES IN FRONT OF GOVERNMENT THROUGH RESPECTIVE GRAM PANCHAYAT •REPRESENTATIVES OF 4-5 TRIBES FORMING A BODY • UNBIASED JUDGEMENT • WRITTEN DOCUMENTATION OF EVERY MEET AND DISCUSSIONS WITH DUE APPROVAL OF WITNESSES •IT WILL WORK TOWARDS AGRICULTURAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT , AWARENESS AND MAINTENANCE OF LAW AND ORDER BLURRING THE BOUNDARIES BETWEEN THE NORTH EASTERN STATES CAN ENABLE THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESS AT COMMUNITY LEVEL AND CREATE INTER TRIBE BONDING TO EMERGE AS ONE WHOLE REGION THAT BELONGS TO INDIA. •GOVERNING BODIES OF NORTH EAST REGION WITH BIFURCATIONS AS NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN REGIONS • FILTRATING UNIT BETWEEN GRAM PANCHAYAT AND CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CONSIDERING ISSUES • DELIVERATION OF PROPOSALS FOR THEDEVELOPMENT OF NORTH EAST REGION • IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FROM LOK SABHA WITH NEEDED REVISION • PROVIDING FINANCIAL AND MORAL SUPPORT BLURRING THE BOUNDARIES GRAM PANCHAYAT. (G.P) 1 G.P 2 G.P. 3 STATE 1 STATE 2
  • 5. ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY SUNRISE STATES FORMATION GUIDELINES – LOCAL GOVERNING BODY (PROPOSAL) “BRIDGING THE GAP” ( BRINGING THE GOVERNMENT TO THE LOCALS) • THE BODY SHALL EXIST AT A VILLAGE LEVEL WITH REPRESENTATIVES FROM EVERY TRIBE SO AS TO MAINTAIN EQUALITY IN THE ADMINISTRATION. • THE MEMBERS OF THIS BODY SHALL BE CHOSEN AS A RESULT OF VARIOUS EVENTS FOR JUDGING THEIR CAPABILITY TO HANDLE GOVERNANCE AT COMMUNITY LEVEL AND COME TO AN APT AND JUST SOLUTION TO ANY PROBLEMS ARISEN. • MEMBERS SHALL ADDRESS THE LOCAL ISSUES AND OPINIONS OF THEIR VILLAGE AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL BODY WITH HIGHER AUTHORITY AND LARGER AREA UNDER ADMINISTRATION. • THE LOCAL ISSUES THAT ARE TAKEN TO THE HIGHER LEVEL BODY HAVE TO BE FIRST THOROUGHLY DISCUSSED AND DEBATED IN THE CONSENT OF THE PEOPLE OF THE VILLAGERS (WOMEN AND MEN AT EQUAL BASIS) • INITIATIVE FROM THE YOUTH OF THE REGION FOR THE REFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION SHALL BE HIGHLY APPRECIATED. • EVERY MEETING WITH THE LOCALS MUST BE THOROU GHLY DOCUMENTED WITH ITS CONCLUSIONS AND ANALYSIS, AND SIGNED BY THE APPROPRIATE WITNESSES TO MAINTAIN TRANSPARENCY AND AVOID SCANDALS. THE BODY GOVERNS THE REGION IN THREE SECTORS AGRICULTURE SOCIAL AWARENESS, REFORMATION • JUST DISTRIBUTION OF CROPS • POWER TO DECIDE ON EXPORT AND IMPORT (AS PER SURPLUS AND DEMAND) • TACKLING ISSUES AND CRIMES WITHIN SOCIETY- AN EQUIVALENT TO REGIONAL COURT. • MAINTAINING THE HERITAGE AND CULTURE IN RIGHT WAY WITH DUE CHANGES IN FAVOUR OF TRUE HUMANITY. • A BODY WHICH WILL LOOK OVER TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN THE REGION
  • 6. AGRICULTURAL ADMINISTRATING PROFILE FARM LANDS FALLOW LANDS AVAILABLE LAND DISTRESIBUTION AGRICULTURAL POLICY (PROPOSAL)- FOR ONE GRAMPANCHAYAT UNIT CURRENT SCENARIO • THE REGION IS ENDOWED WITH A VARIED TOPOGRAPHY AND AGRO-CLIMACTIC CONDITIONS WHICH OFFER VAST POTENTIAL FOR AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY. • AGRICULTURE PROVIDES LIVELIHOOD TO 70% OF THE REGION’S POPULATION. • THE STATES CONTINUE TO BE NET IMPORTERS OF FOOD GRAINS EVEN FOR THEIR OWN CONSUMPTION. • LOW PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURE UNDER INDIVIDUAL LANDOWNERS DUE TO ITS DIVISION INTO SMALL PATCHES OF LAND. “ NEED TO AVOID OWNERSHIP DISPUTES AND INCREASE PRODUCTION” ………….Hence the programme…. Because….. JHUM CYCLE -MOST TRADITIONAL WAY OF AGRICULTURE IN THE REGION - THE CYCLE IS THE PROCESS WHICH INCLUDES KEEPING THE LAND FALLOW FOR SOME SPECIFIC TIME, TILL THEN THE FARMER DO THE FARMING ON SOME OTHER LAND. - THE TIME PERIOD MAY VARY FROM 2-15 YEARS. MAIN DRAWBACKS:1. OUTPUT BECOMES HALF 2. MORE ACQUISITION OF LAND, LEAD TO MANY DISPUTES REGARDING OWNERSHIP SUNRISE STATES STAGES IN THE PROGRAM( POLICY) 1. IRRADICATION OR MODIFICATION OF NON-SUITABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES. 2.ONE GRAM PANCHAYAT OWNS ONE ‘WHOLE’ FARM LAND 3.PRODUCTION FOR WHOLE REGION DONE UNITEDLY- DISTRIBUTION OF LAND BASED ON ITS CONTENTS AND THEN IRRIGATING THEM TOGETHER. + = LOW PRODUCTION= DOESN’T FULFIL ALL NEEDS + = PRODUCTION OF MANY DIFF. FOOD ITEMS = THEN DISTRIBUTING IT FURTHER AMONG PEOPLE 4. DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD BASED ON NUTRITIVE REQUIREMENT PER PERSON AND NOT BASED ON FAMILY OR OWN- ERSHIP
  • 7. SKILL DEVELOPMENT • EMPOWERING AN INDIVIDUAL FINANCIALLY. • FACILATING AN IN-HOUSE OCCUPATION IN ADDITION TO AGRICULTURE. • DEVELOPMENT AND CONSERVATION OF TRADITIONAL PRACTICES. • WIDE RANGE OF SOCEITAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. • CREATING COMMON GROUND FOR INTERACTION WITHIN COMMUNITY. • GIVING A UNIQUE IDENTITY TO EACH SKILLED –BASED COMMUNITIES. • GIVING A BOOST TO THE STANDARD OF LIVING OF REGION. • SOCIETIES PRACTISING SIMILAR SKILLS HAVE A SCOPE OF HEALTHY COMPETITION. SUNRISE STATES INDIVIDUAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT SELF DEPENDENT IN RESPECTIVE FIELDS COMMUNITY SKILL DEVELOPMENT INTERDEPENDENCE ON COMMUNITY LEVEL START OF DEVELOPING SOCEITY IMPROVED STANDARD OF LIVING • THE INTERDEPENDENCY AT COMMUNITY LEVEL LEADS TO FORMATION OF THE LOCAL BODY - GRAM PANCHAYAT WHICH IN TURN GOVERNS THESE COMMUNITIES. • THE MEMBERS BEING THEMSELVES SKILLED ,THEY PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF THESE SKILLS. • ALSO ,THE MEMBERS BEING AMONG THOSE SKILLED ,THE LOCALS CAN EASILY PUT FORTH THEIR OPINIONS AND ISSUES. • THEY CONTRIBUTE TO THE CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC STABILITY OF THE REGION. SKILLS PRACTISED IN NER
  • 8. SUNRISE STATES WATER CHANNELISING SYSTEM- TUNNEL WATER AND NORTH EAST REGION • NEED OF CATERING PROBLEM OF PROTECTION FROM FLOODS • SMALLER AREA, LARGE AMOUNT OF WATER-CAUSING DESTRUCTION OBJECTIVE OF THE SYSTEM • RESCUE FROM FLOODS • FACILITATING WATER SERVICES TO REMOTEST AREAS EQUALLY • APPROPRIATE AND BETTER USE OF FLOOD WATER THE WATER CHANNELISING PROGRAMME • DIVERTING WATER FLOW TOWARDS DROUGHT PRONE AREAS- -NEAREST DROUGHT PRONE AREA WHICH CAN ACCOMMODATE THE AMOUNT OF WATER AVAILABLE IN EXCESS (IN NORTH EAST REGION) IS RANCHI,JHARKHAND. -THE WATER CAN BE CHANNELISED BY CREATING DISTRIBUTARIES IN THE FORM OF TUNNELS. ROUTE OF CHANNEL TEJPUR BONGAIGAON SILIGIRI KISHANGANJ PURNIA BHAGALPUR RANCHI • -THE TUNNELS SHOULD HAVE GRADUAL SLOPE TO ALLOW SEEPAGE OF WATER TO INCREASE WATER TABLE LEVEL -THIS TUNNELS WILL BE A SPINAL CORD OF THIS STATES PROVIDING WITH DEVELOPING OPPORTUNITIES. -THE AREAS NEAR THIS TUNNELS WILL BE RECREATIONAL GROUNDS TO MAKE IT A PART OF HUMANLIFE, MAINTAINING NATURAL HERITAGE OF THIS AREAS. FURTHER CHANNELISING THE FLOW INTO REMOTE AREAS -THE TUNNEL WILL BE CHANNELISED AS SMALLLER CHANNELS TO THE TRIBES . -THEY WILL BE STORED FOR REGULAR USE INTO WELLS OR TANKS (CONSTRUCTED BY NATURAL MATERIALS) -THE WATER BODIES THEN WILL BE MAINTAINED BY THE RESPECTIVE LOCAL BODY. O R I G I N
  • 9. SUNRISE STATES WATER CHANNELISING SYSTEM-IMPLEMENTATION, USES AND DRAWBACKS - CONSENT – THE CONSENT OF PEOPLE , GOVERNMENTAL BODIES FOR ALLOWING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE- EMPLOYMENT OF LOCAL PEOPLE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE PROJECT. MONETARY HELP- FINANCIAL HELP FROM GOVERNMENT FUNDS. TECHNOLOGY- FOR FAST CONSTRUCTION OF THE TUNNELS BETTER TECHNOLOGY IS NEEDED TO BE MADE AVAILABLE TRANSPORT-GOOD QUALITY GRAVEL ROADS ARE REQUIRED FOR EASY TRANSPORT OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT- ECONOMICAL MANAGEMENT OF MATERIAL CONSIDERING INVESTMENT & OUTPUT RATIO. • REQUIREMENT FOR TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION RETAINING WALLS SEEPAGE OF WATER TUNNEL SECTION MITIGATION OF ROAD TRANSPORT • CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS BY BASIC LOCAL MATERIALS AVAILABLE. • THIS ENSURES LOCAL PARTICIPATION IN THE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE ROADS. • ALSO THEFUNDS REQUIRED FOR ITS CONSTRUCTION WOULD BE MINIMUM AS IT SAVES ON THE TRANSPORTATION AND USE OF TAR AND CONCRETE MATERIALS. • IN CASE OF FLOODING, THE WATER WOULD EASILY SEEP THROUGHTHE ROADS THUS AVOIDING WATER LOGGING AND POTHOLES ON ROADS. WATER FLOWING TO CREATE A HISTORICAL CHANGE- “A CIVILIZATION” ROAD SECTION 1.SOFT EARTH 2.GRAVELS 3.ROCKS
  • 10. SUNRISE STATES WATER CHANNELING SYSTEM- POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS. POSITIVE • DIVERSION OF EXCESS FLOOD WATER FROM THE RIVER TO THE REMOTEST OF THE TRIBAL VILLAGES TO GIVE ADDITIONAL IMPETUS TO AGRICULTURE. • CONNECTIVITY OF THE NORTH EASTERN REGION TO OTHERS STATES OF INDIA . • THIS SHALL ENABLE THE INTRODUCTION OF SOME LIBERAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL POLICIES OF OTHER STATES TO THE NORTH EASTERN REGION. • THE PROJECT SHALL ENHANCE THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE REGIONS AROUND THE TUNNEL. • WATER TRANSPORT SHALL TAKE PLACE WITH IN THE COUNTRY BY WAY OF LOCAL BOATS AND OTHER SOURCES. • THIS SHALL GIVE NEW SECONDARY OCCUPATION TO THE LOCAL TRIBES, VIZ.,BOAT MAKING, PISCICULTURE. • THE RECREATIONAL SPACES FORMED ALONG THE TUNNEL SHALL INCREASE THE LOCAL INTERACTION AS WELL AS INTERSTATE PROGRAMMES. • THE ROADWAY WILL ENSURE PROPER TRANSPORT FOR THE BUDDING OCCUPATIONS TO PROGRESS AND REACH OUT TO DIFFERENT PLACES. NEGATIVE • THE GOVERNMENT FUNDING POLICIES MAY NOT SUFFICE THE PROPOSAL. • ALLOWANCES AND SUBSIDIES SHALL BE A PART OF THE COSTING PROPOSAL FOR SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO THE NORTH EASTERN REGION. • THE RESOURCES OF THE NORTHEAST MAY IN TIME SHIFT ITS FOCUS TOWARDS OTHER STATES LEADING TO STAGNANCY IN THE REGION. • THE PROJECT MAINLY AIMS AT ENHANCING THE GROWTH POTENTIAL OF THE REGION.THEREFORE, THE RESOURCES SHALL BE FIRST USED IN DEVELOPMENT OF REGION. • THE WATER BODY MAY LEAD TO INTERSTATE DISPUTES SPOILING THE LAW AND ORDER OF THE STATES. • AWARENESS IMPARTED TO THE CITIZENS OF STATES SHALL LEAD TO MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING AMONG THE STATES. • INFILTRATION OF CROSS BORDER ANTI SOCIAL ELEMENTS MAY LEAD TO ITS MISUSE. • THE ASSISTANCE OF THE MILITARY FORCES FOR THE SECURITY AND ALERTNESS OF LOCALS SHALL RESTRICT INFILTRATION. • MAINTENANCE OF THE TUNNEL COULD BE A CHALLENGE FOR THE LOCALS IN TERMS OF MONETARY FUNDING. • TRAINING THE LOCALS FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF TUNNEL,AND INITIATIVE BY THE LOCAL ADMINISTRATIVE BODIES TO MAKE SAVINGS ON COMMUNITY LEVEL FOR ITS FUNDING AS ALSO PROVISION OF FUNDS FROM CENTRAL GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.
  • 11. SUNRISE STATES CONCLUSIONS NORTH EAST REGION IS A RICH SOURCE OF NATURAL AND ECONOMIC RESOURCE FOR THE COUNTRY. THE GROWTH POTENTIAL IS HIGH BUT NOT EXPLORED TO ITS OPTIMUM ABILITY. THUS AWARENESS TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITY AND MINIMAL INTERVENTIONS SHALL GIVE AN INITIATIVE FOR THEIR DEVELOPMENT. UNITY AMONG THE NORTHEASTERN STATES. • BLURRING THE SOCIAL BOUNDRIES BETWEEN THE COMMUNITIES SHALL ENHANCE THE BELONGINESS OF THE PEOPLE TOWARDS THE DIVERSITY AMONG THE STATES. • THIS SHALL RESULT IN UNITY AMONG THEM THERE BY GIVING A BETTER SCOPE FOR INDIA TO FACILITATE AND IMPROVE ITS CONNECTIVITY WITH REST OF THE COUNTRY. • UNITY WILL ENSURE THEIR DEVELOPMENT AT COMMUNITY LEVEL. DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD OF LIVING. • SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN COMMUNITIES INTRODUCE ALTERNATIVE OCCUPATIONS. •ALTERNATIVE OCCUPATION SHALL INCREASE THE INCOME AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL. ECONOMIC STABILITY. • ECONOMIC STABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL SHALL CONTRIBUTE IN ACHIEVING THE ECONOMIC STABILITY OF REGION. IMPETUS TO AGRICULTURE. • PREVENTING THE SMALLER DIVISION OF LAND, AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE PRODUCT AT A LATER STAGE SHALL ALLOW TO INCREASE THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF THE CLAN. • ENCOURAGING AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES SHALL ALLOW DEVELOPMENT THUS OPENING DOORS TO MORE OPPORTUNITIES. • REDUCTION IN WASTAGE OF LAND BY PLANNED FARMING SYSTEM. DECREASE IN MIGRATORY FACTORS. • BETTER OPPORTUNITIES AND IMPROVED STANDARD OF LIVING IN THE REGION SHALL CURB MIGRATION. • REDUCTION IN MIGRATION WILL LEAD TO SMOOTH FUNCTIONING OF THE AGRICULTURE BY PROVIDING HUMAN RESOURCE. CONSERVATION OF TRADITIONS AND CULTURE. • IMPROVEMENT IN SKILL DEVELOPMENT WILL LEAD TO THE CONSERVATION OF NORTHEASTERN CULTURE AND TRADITIONS. WATER MANAGEMENT • DIVERTING THE EXCESS FLOOD WATER TO DROUGHT PRONE AREAS LIKE JHARKHAND SHALL ENSURE OPTIMUM USAGE OF NATURAL RESOURCES. EVERY SMILE COUNTS
  • 12. REFERENCES • AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-EASTERN INDIA: THE ROLE OF NABARD,K.G KARMAKAR, ASCI JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT 37(2): 89–108 • NORTH EASTERN REGION VISION 2020, MINISTRY OF DEVELOPMENT OF NORTH EASTERN REGION, NORTH EAST COUNCIL. • PLANNING COMMISSION. 2002. INDIA: VISION 2020. GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. • SHARMA, P. 1988, WATERLOGGED LANDS IN NAGAON DISTRICT ASSAM: A STUDY IN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOMORPHOLOGY. • RANGACHARI, R., AND OTHERS. 2000. LARGE DAMS: INDIA’S EXPERIENCE. WCD CASE STUDY PREPARED AS AN INPUT TO THE WORLD COMMISSION ON DAMS, CAPE TOWN. • NEC (NORTH EASTERN COUNCIL). 2005. BASIC STATISTICS OF NORTH EAST REGION. • REPORT OF THE WORKING GROUP ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN EASTERN & NORTH EASTERN INDIA FOR THE FORMULATION OF THE TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN GOVERNMENT OF INDIA. •NORTH-EAST_SUMMIT-2013. •F.A.O., 1984.ALTERNATIVES TO SHIFTING CULTIVATION. •JACKSON, M. G. 2001. LET US TAKE ANOTHER LOOK AT JHUM CULTIVATION. ASIAN AGRI- HISTORY. •SHARMA, U.C., 1996. YIELD SUSTAINABILITY & STRATEGIES IN NORTH EASTERN STATES. PRODUCTIVITY. www.tripura.nic.in/kt3.html http://www.censusindia.net/results/provdata.xls. •"RALLY DEMANDS PROTECTION OF MANIPUR TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY", ASSAM TRIBUNE, SEPTEMBER 30, 2000. THE RALLY WAS ORGANISED IN IMPHAL BY THE NATIONAL IDENTITY PROTECTION COMMITTEE AND APUNBA MANIPUR KANBA IMA LUP (AMKIL). •"FINALLY, ASSAM TO RECOMMEND BODO COUNCIL TO THE CENTRE ", THE INDIAN EXPRESS, FEBRUARY 12, 2002. www.wikipedia.com www.google.com www.shangaiexpress.com SUNRISE STATES

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