(Students from KIIT University)
Agriculture in Shambles
Although India has a wide physiographical diversity, the agro produce is negligible
to its variety….WHY???????????
Low Agricultural productivity per unit of land coupled with improper storage.
•Inadequate irrigation facilities-unscientific canal
diversions from rivers, unable to tap monsoon rains.
•Depleted Soils-Due to deforestation and use of pesticides
•Improper storage leading to wastage of crops
•Land fragmented due ancestral reasons.
Why is this a MAJOR problem?
Agro produce provides for 21% GDP.
60% of the population still depends on agriculture.
Very important source of raw material for industries.
Sustainable agriculture uses the principle of
ecological relationships between various
organisms for implementation in farming.
Satisfy human food and economy.
Enhance environmental quality.
Use of renewable energy resources.
Enhance the quality of life of
Rain Water Harvesting-Accumulation of rain water for reuse in
•Aquatic agriculture-The technique involves creating floating
rafts on which vegetables, grains and flowers can be grown.
•Strip cropping- Growing of soil/nutrient consuming and nutrient
restoring crops in alternate strips.
•Rooftop agriculture-Growing of crops on roofs of huts and
•Crop rotation-Changing crops season wise to suit the needs of
PRESENT Vs. SOLUTION
oRain water harvesting will provide improved irrigation conserving water as opposed to canal irrigation
oProtection of soil by strip cropping and crop rotation from nutrient run off which is prevalent now due
to intensive farming.
oAquatic agriculture make use of water instead of soil as a base for agriculture
GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS
AND TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Extensive use of engineering strategies in agro science to magnify the quality and quantity of crops.
WHY GM CROPS??!!
Much improved shelf life.
Increased nutrient quantity (e.g.:
carbohydrate 25.6% increase in GM rice.
Drought, frost, salinity, temperature
resistance. Crops can grow perennially.
Herbicide and pesticide resistance
(bromoxyil resistance in tobacco).
Production of biofuels due to lignin
content and medical drugs as by-products.
Bioremediation which could clean up
even TNT and RDX.
SITUATION vs. SOLUTION:
Pesticide use containing Cadmium, Lead can be replaced if crops
themselves can fight off pests.
The nutritional quantity of current staple crops can be magnified
exponentially by the use of GM crops.
Soil and water depletion and erosion arise chiefly from chemicals
used in agriculture which can be obliterated.
The low labor to yield ratio can single handedly be overcome by
genetic engineering strategies.
IMPLEMENTING OUR SOLUTIONS
•Initial flow of rainwater runoff in heavy rainfall regions – store
rainwater for irrigation and consumption before it reaches aquifer.
• Catchment- The area where rain is tapped (can be anything from a
concrete roof to an asbestos covering.
•Gutter Manifold, valves and pipes transport the collected rain
water from the catchment.
•Three layers of filtration: first the big particles like leaves and chips
are separated by overflow mechanism; mechanical filter removes
the dirt and a Carbon filter renders microorganisms vegetative.
•The water can then be stored in underground tanks and geotextile
sand beds for irrigation later or can directly recharge aquifers.
•Modern approaches like RainSaucer can be used instead of roofs
for catchments for less potency of water.
Strip cropping- prevent soil erosion by growing small crop
like wheat, hay alternately with row crops like cotton, corn.
Small crops act as dams to run off of nutrients from rows.
Crop rotation- Growing dissimilar crops seasonally to
retain nutrients in soil. In a season, an extracting crop like
rice is grown while in next season leguminous plants like
Eucalyptus fix nutrients(nitrogen) back to the soil.
Rooftop Agriculture- Arid and harsh areas like Kashmir-
the huts’ oof a e soiled a d s all he s a e g ow .
Aquatic Agriculture- Construction of rafts in freshwater
bodies for cultivation where landuse becomes strenuous.
Here…we prese t so e guidi g steps to the solutio
GENE“….THE BA“I“ OF LIFE!!
Biotech crops involve modification of DNA to introduce new traits like pest resistance,
Bacillus Thurengensis(Bt)- an insecticidal protein is genetically introduced in crops like
Cotton and brinjal. In cotton, it makes it resistant to bromoxynil. Use in sugarcane can
be done for resistance against red rot.
Basic genes are grown by biolistic(particle gun) method. Agrobacterium removes
bacterial T-DNA and replaces it with a foreign gene.
Tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana being the most resistant plants of earth can serve
as ideal genome models.
Examples: First gene modification was done in Tomato(Flavr Savr tomato). Inserted
DNA matched and magnified an endogenous gene creating RNA to interfere with
insects and nematodes.
Glycophosate kills plants by interfering with plant respiration. Roundup Ready GM
crops can be implemented for glycophosate resistance(Done in soya bean).
Several cross species genetics can be done for ideal results(Eg: Golden rice crossed
with 11th chromosome of maize to contain beta carotene(a source of vitamin A).
•CGIAR promotes agro research for sustainable
•FAO and World Bank fund and monitor the growth of the
•Jal Biradari by Tarun Bharat Sangh to teach rural people
about importance of water conservation and harvesting.
•Biodiversity International provide enough scope for gene
modification testing and implementing.
•Sustainable development programme by Anna Hazare can
be spread all over India.
more steps to implement…
…and for all this… e need…
•In rainwater harvesting minimum amount of expenditure and human sources are required since the method is simple.
•Strip cropping, crop rotation and rooftop agriculture are geology and climate dependant and hence funds and man
power is not in excess.
•Provision to cleanse freshwater lakes canals and rivers for development of aquatic agriculture(Personal and state wise
funding and labors).
•A/c to 2009 census, Rs. 4200cr were required for production of pesticides. This can be reduced to a minimum and it
can be use for research in GMC, their manufacture and educating peasants.
•Provision for biotechnologists and bio engineers for research.
•Private and Govt. funding for importing of machines for gene modification.
•Funding for apt technologies in refrigeration for in vitro cultivation of GM seeds and their storage along with the
harvest(which has an improved shelf life).
Hands and `GREENS’ for `The Green’
SOURCES OF THESE `GREENS’:
With some $5.5 billion in net commitments from both IDA and
IBRD, and 24 ongoing projects, the World Bank’s agriculture and
rural development program in India is by far the Bank’s largest such
program worldwide in absolute dollar terms.(coordinated by the
Government of India’s Indian Council for Agricultural Research
The Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna has laid an outlay of Rs. 9954cr
and Rs. 2250cr for mobilizing higher investment in sustainable
agriculture and National Food Security Mission.
Also with World Bank, ICAR has collaborated National Agro
Innovation Project for intensive research standing at an amt of
Funding for GMC research by agro based industries like Kissan.
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
• Use of natural resource(water)
reduces flooding, storm water
runoff and erosion.
• Reducing water bill due to simple
• Less depletion of natural water
sources due to less competition
by different sectors.
• Water conservation and excellent
irrigation with no chemicals and
• SUCCESS STORY- After a drought
of 3 years, in SUKHOMAJRI in
Haryana, there has been a
flourish of forest and agriculture
due to effects of PR Mishra in
rain water harvesting. Crop yield
increased from 6.83 to 14.32
qn/ha in 11 yrs.
AQUATIC & ROOFTOP
• Aquatic Agriculture help grain
crops on floatation, contributing
to increased food production
without spending fresh water
beyond what normally
evaporates from lakes.
• Proper utilization of space and
resources lead to higher
productivity in rooftop
• Plants with sub-aquatic roots in
aquatic agriculture increase the
oxygen content of fresh water
bodies resulting in biodiversity
• SUCCESS STORY-The “ustai a le
A uati Ag i ultu e fo Lakes
project, of Grupo Cabal in
Nicaragua and the Univesrity of
Costa Rica in Costa Rica.
STRIP FARMING & CROP
• Small crops in strip cropping acts
as dams, trapping soils eroded
from row crops
• Equitable use of water & soil
resources due to crop variations.
• Increase in GDP 16-20% as
compared to intensive
• In crop rotation, pests and
pathoge s a ’t get esta lished
due to change in plantation.(e.g.-
Ergot from grain is naturally
• Due to natural rotation &
striping chemical fertilizers can
be replaced by greens &
•Increase in shelf life thrice
its normal time period
(Flavrsavr of tomato)
•Improved nutrients quantity
leading to food
Corn 169x inc. in beta-
carotin & 6x vitamin c)
n)& pathogens like
cucumber mosaic virus.
•By-products like drugs and
bio-plastics can be obtained
contributing to a manifold
increase in agro-GDP
>>Due to research in GM crops, employment in manufacturing production
&education(personal & industrial level) increases.
>>Aquatic & rooftop can promote employment even among housewives.
Any & all factories should be constructed away
from farm lands.
DNA level research organisations and technologies
to be implemented through out the country.
Awareness of indigenous success stories of
Television media(e.g.-tv show Kalyani),Radio media,
mass media(SMS messaging for advisory services to
Launching of night farm schools and mobile vans to
educate farmers (e.g.-Rythu Ratnam-208, a high
technology mobile van launched in Andhra Pradesh).
Rainfall variability, runoff quality and quantity, local
skills and investment capacity, labour availability and
institutional support influence sustainability of
rainwater harvesting systems.
Train farmers such that they can judge the
nutritional values & yield of their own crops.
Agro-societies to be set-up in villages so that
farmers can interact for better techniques of
Use of nano sensors for nutrient status in crops,
remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems
(GIS) to improve and monitor land use
It is extremely important to recruit on field
researchers such that there is no flow of genetic
residue from GM crops to non GM crops. This also
calls for an increase in employment.
To monitor large farms for sustainable development
satellite data should be used which is web-based soil
moisture information service for irrigation
management integrating data from specifically
designed on-site sensors with space imaging.India benefits from GM rice Increase in agro area by GM
*GMC requires large funds.
*Construction of underground catch
*Farming machines (Threshers)-crores
POLITICAL & LEGAL
>>Land acquisition Act-insufficient, untimely
pay; reduce in area for sustainable
>>Ruling parties tend to neglect agro-
# Less scope for genetic research
# Inadequate modern machinery
division of land holdings(esp. poor
:: fragmented lands ->less production -
:: Traditional farmers shun use of GMC
>Water scarcity ,land degradation, soil salinity.
>some GMC unable to survive above conditions
>irregular rainfall render irrigation futile in some
>chemical wastes from factories decrease soil
We feel pride in calling ourselves as the 2nd largest Agricultural Research system
(ARS) in World. When we review our performance we are no where in top ten of most
cited agriculture publications in the World.
• Collaboration of Govt. & Pvt. Sector for funding in research.
• Due to GMC & sustainable agriculture returns will be exponential in future along with low maintenance cost.
• Provision for micro-finance as introduced in Bangladesh(by Mohammad Yunus).
• sensors for nutrient status in crops, remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to improve and monitor
land use and SMS messaging for enhancing advisory services to farmers should be implemented everywhere.
• Use of farm machines which use renewable energy sources(Wind,solar).e.g.-Combines could use solar energy.
• The Environmental Protection Agency in June 2007 declared that any legal research in agriculture has to be supported by the
Government as long as it is eco friendly.
• The ruling parties need to be aware of the success of GM crops and sustainability to properly promote them countrywide.
• Proper training for use of modern mechinaries,GM crops.
• Night Agro-Schooling for farmers of all age-group.
• Awareness campaigns of successful implementations of solutions.
• WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-Canal irrigation can be implemented in areas that are dry and rainwater harvesting can;t be
done due to lack of rainfall.
• Transportation of rain harvested water can be done as oil is trans ported across long distances.
• Growing of the GM seeds in artificial environment of greenhouse and the young plants then transported to farm.
• Constructing factories away from farms and producing GM crops immune to chemical reactions.
(mitigate the challenges)
Accepting the challenges to feel the e hilaration of ictor ….
•Satellite irrigation : http://www.linkedin.com/company/recycled-incorporated/satellite-
•Facts about agriculture and role of world bank - http://web.worldbank.org
•Report on GM Crop production worldwide
•Agriculture and Rural Development Discussion Paper 20,World Bank
•Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges-CSO
•Environmental challenges to agriculture- http://www.agritech.tnau.ac.in/sustainable_agri/
•Industry funding- isidev.nic.in
•Images and graphs from online newspaper surveys.
From survey about GM Food.