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  1. 1. INSURGENCY: The main hurdle of NER.
  2. 2. Solutions for insurgency Causes of Insurgency •The north eastern part of India is a region of extreme diversity ,consisting of people from various communities and tribes. This is the main reason for the rise of rampant political turmoil in the region and amidst all the confusion emerged of so called revolutionary groups across the states . Throughout the last six decades as successive Indian governments tried to nationalize the political space in the Northeast by pushing ahead with mainstreaming efforts the struggling ethnicities of the region continued to challenge the nation building process.  Despite recurring themes in rebel narratives such as political autonomy, economic justice, and cultural rights any understanding of rebel group in the Northeast must come to terms with multiplicity of voices, and the tensions that often exist between competing rebel agendas.  A rebel group with a particular ethnic constituency may be at war with another rebel group, and indeed its primary opposition may not be with the Indian state at all. It might even cooperate with government security agencies in fighting rival group. The north eastern region consists of 8 states which are the ‘Seven Sisters’ states and in the year 2002 a brother was added to this region, the Sikkim state. Land is another important factor in the on–going conflicts in the Northeast. It is the struggle for land as territory that each emerging ethnic nation claims to own as a right. These armed groups often attack settler communities or rival tribes as part of a strategy of ethnic cleansing to achieve ethnically compact homelands. It has become a trend for almost each ethnic community in the Northeast to claim nationhood
  3. 3. Irom Sharmila Chanu , also known as the "Iron Lady of Manipur" is a civil rights activist, political activist, and poet from the Indian state of Manipur. Since 2 November 2000, she has been on hunger strike to demand that the Indian government repeal the Armed Forces (special forces) (AFSPA) Act, which she blames for violence in Manipur and other parts of northeast India. Having refused food and water for more than 500 weeks, she has been called "the world's longest hunger striker“ and now she is been accused for “attempt to suicide”. For Indians in the North East, their country's growing economy and expanding influence in the world stage is of little use.  A culture of rich benefiting at the expense of poor and the majority's interest before the repressed minority is pushing people in these regions away from national mainstream. They are being pushed to economic and cultural poverty. For the women of India’s NER which cover the road to economic prosperity is littered with stumbling blocks. First, they must overcome the limitations of their patriarchal society and the perception that being women renders them less valuable and less competent than their male counterparts.  Then, as residents of India’s poorest region, they struggle to acquire the financial capital, education or connections needed to break poverty’s vicious cycle. And, for women of a certain caste, social stratification presents yet another barrier to upward mobility.
  4. 4. 0 500 1000 1500 2007 2008 2009 2012 Assam Nagaland Manipur Stress is to be given on understanding the root cause of insurgencies in NER and designing policies and strategies accordingly. Policies made for dealing with the insurgent groups should win the hearts and minds of the people of North East. Military solution is a must before going for any political solution. Criticizing the implementation part of various policies in the North East, divergence of various issues in North East makes policy making difficult. The people are pushed away from the national mainstream leading to economical and cultural poverty.  Moreover, the location of the eight northeastern Indian States itself is part of the reason why it has always been a hotbed of militancy with trans-border ramifications. The NE states have a 4,500kms international boundary with the four South Asian countries while it is connected to the Indian mainland by tenuous 22km corridor passing through Silliguri in eastern part of West Bengal called the “CHICKEN’S NECK”. The graph beside shows the number of deaths caused in different years in three states. The main trouble that we are facing is that the militant groups are either Indian’s or of Indian origin ,it is very difficult to march action against our own people. Creating such islands of desperation and disenfranchisement will only add to India's domestic terrorism problems. Angry and hungry citizens don't make a happy and secured nation.
  6. 6. 7% 37% 31% 19% 1% 3% Arunachal Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Sikkim Tripura Manipur Percentage of Tourist in the year 2010-11 Advantages of Tourism: Direct spending by tourists and the associated economic multiplier effect Tourism generates different types of income for a community: business income, wage earnings, share earnings, rates and levies.  Direct spending by visitors has a positive impact on business profitability and employment growth. The money that is then circulated and re-spent in the economy is often referred to as indirect spending or the multiplier effect.  Because much of a region’s tourism patronage comes from metropolitan centre, it is an effective way to redistribute wealth from urban to rural areas. KAZIRANGA is a vast expanse of tall elephant grass, marshland, and dense tropical moist broadleaf forest, crisscrossed by four major rivers, including the Brahmaputra, and the park includes numerous small bodies of water. KAZIRANGA has been the theme of several books, songs, and documentaries. CHERRAPUNJI, about 56 kms from Shillong .CHERRAPUNJI attracts more than 50,000 tourists every year, it is of great tourism attention for the government as well as people. UJJAYANTA PALACE , compound covers an area of approximately one km².It is situated in Agartala in Tripura state. The name was given by Rabindranath Tagore.
  7. 7. Tea 46% Limesto ne 3% Coal 45% Ginger 5% Other 1% LEADING EXPORTABLES OF NER(%) The uranium mining question of Meghalaya has become a symbol of unrest because the local people feel threatened if they are dispossessed from their land. After all, where will the people go if space is taken up for mining. These are issues which must be considered in NER which is characterized by sharp class divisions •The huge reserves of more than 1000 MILLION TONES of high chemical grade limestone in the Eastern Nagaland is a major prospect for setting up of mineral resource based industries. •The NER is famous for its exclusive handicrafts and handloom products. Some of the products are bamboo frame mirror, bamboo dressing chest, wood carving, embroidery jewellery , hand-made flowers made of palm leaves ,coral leaves and host of others. TEA PLANTATION is a major revenue generator, it plays a vital role in improving the socio-economic condition of North Eastern states of India. Assam and Tripura are the traditional tea growing areas in this region. Assam is the largest producer of tea in India. Some effort has been made in the recent past to introduce tea in all the other . Assam accounts for nearly 53% of the all India production and 69% of North Indian production.
  8. 8. STATES 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Arunachal 1 1 1 Assam 2284 2284 2433 Manipur 1 1 1 Meghalaya 0 0 0 Mizoram 2 2 2 Nagaland 13 13 13 Sikkim 0 0 0 Tripura 64 151 151 The length of Railway Lines(kms) in NER.  The railway lines in the North Eastern states of India are yet to see their applications . Till yet there are only 2,592 kms of total rail length in the entire region.  But it is projected that by 2017 all the capital cities of Northeast will be set on the Indian Railway Map. However, it remains doubtful with the current pace of progress.  While the railway connectivity will take a longer period to accomplish , as an immediate task the air-routes can be used as a medium for promoting tourism and trade in the region.  The road connectivity within the NE is extremely poor. The presence of national highway is quite negligible in most of the NER. The centre has envisaged connecting the NE state capitals to the EW highway through the SEVEN SISTER’s ‘corridor project’ . This will link the capitals of the seven states and the border points of Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Many other projects develop roadways are still on paper and have not been implemented or have failed to operationalize .
  9. 9. AGRICULTURE : Realizing the potential of fertile land and its types. The Northeastern region falls under the high rainfall zone and the climate ranges from subtropical to alpine.  The region is characterized by difficult terrain, wide variations in slopes and altitudes, land tenure systems and indigenous cultivation practices. Although cereals dominate the rain fed hill ecosystem, dependence on livestock and horticulture as an alternative source of income is significant. Nagaland has increasingly become a preferred investment destination in India. It is highly endowed with fertile soil, plentiful rainfall , salubrious climate , large number of plant and animal species and availability of vacant land for plantation purposes. All of these create favourable conditions for producing various kinds of agricultural products and agriculture and allied sectors of Nagaland, in turn, offer good inputs for development of a host of industries . The PRODUCTIVITY of land as compared to its potential is low throughout NER. Area under HIGH YIELDING VARIETY paddy is 9.50 lakh hectares (35%). WOMEN FARMERS are UNTAPPED SOLUTION to NER’s HUNGER. Unfortunately the growth potential of hill agriculture has remained under- exploited due to lack of system-specific production technologies, poor infrastructure (transport, markets, processi ng) and underdeveloped institutions (credit, extension, informati on, insurance), not withstanding the structural constraints imposed by difficult terrains, inaccessible habitations, diverse socio- cultural and agricultural typologies, and small, scattered and fragmented land holdings.
  10. 10. 80.5 35.3 76.5 77 90.7 80.3 47.3 76.1 19.5 64.7 23.5 23 9.3 19.7 52.7 23.9 Forest Area( %) Area under other use(%) •The region is identified as one of the world’s most BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT , it hosts species rich tropical rainforest and supports flora and fauna and several crops species. •FIVTY FOUR PERCENT of total NER area is under forest cover. •The NER has been in spotlight for its high diversity and traditional knowledge and this region has been a priority for leading conservation agencies of the world. The region is affluent in medicinal plants and many other rare endangered taxa. 1. Large natural resources and potential for growth in the agro-forestry sector including expensive and extensive BAMBOO PLANTATION , exotic flora. 2. Large MINERAL DEPOSITS(particularly in Assam and Meghalaya). 3. Vast water resources including tremendous HYDEL POWER PROJECT . 4. Great promise for TOURISM DEVELOPMENT. 5. Proximity to one of world’s fastest growing economy , SOUTH EASTASIA. 6. A LITERATE POPULATION. 7. Rich heritage of HANDICRAFTS. 8. Unique COMMUNITY SPIRIT and democratic traditional system of local self-government. THE BASIC STRENGTH OF NER
  11. 11. Proposed Remedies 1. MEDIA plays an important role in development of any sector of a region. The need of MEDIA is a must in NER, in the past years apart from the insurgent groups news nothing much has been covered by the MEDIA . MEDIA has a direct impact on tourism encouragement which indeed will help the development of NER. 2. The LITERACY RATE of all the NE states is above the average literacy rate of India. It is not that the population lacks in education , MIZORAM has the 2nd highest literacy rate of India . It is all because of the political instability running across the NER that they feel alienated from the rest of India. This leads to the decline in growth of NER . Thus insurgency must be healed first. 3. TAX EXEMPTIONS and SUBSIDY in AGRICULTURE and INDUSTRIAL POLICIES such as in the recent industrial policy issued in 2010-11, any new industry interested in business has no LAND TAX for first five years. Such policies attract more industries and indeed lead to the development of NER. Using availability of natural resources and oil deposits can change the whole scenario of NER. 4. The NON GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION(NGO) can play the most important STAKEHOLDERS in the growth potential of NER. ARGHYAM a water and sanitation system helping NGO has worked for the betterment of NER. 5. INCREASING THE ANNUAL BUDGET OF STATES : The annual budget of Manipur state is less than the single department of Andhra Pradesh state’s annual budget. Drawing the attention of government to the potential of NER is a must , otherwise this will lead to wealth distribution instability in the whole of India. 6. MAKING AVAILABILITY OF NON GOVERNMENT AND IT SECTOR JOBS: As the literacy rate is good IT sector can develop easily. Most of the people are dependent on government jobs ,as government jobs have less availability , most of the people remain unemployed . Thus creating UNEMPLOYED YOUTH which is the biggest hurdle for any developing country. 7. STRICT INTERNATIONAL BORDER SECURITY :The repeated interference of CHINESE and BANGLADESHI CITIZEN’S in NER must be stopped , as this gives rise to INSURGENCY AFFAIRS.
  12. 12. References I. Troubled Periphery: Crisis of India’s North East, a book by Subir Bhaumir. II. Ministry of development of North Eastern Region , III. Ministry of Tourism , annual tourism report 2010-11. IV. The Times of India , an English daily of India. V. NER Databank. VI. Wikipedia. VII. The Shillong Times: An English daily of Meghalaya. VIII. Sikkim Express: An English daily of Sikkim. IX. Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion. X. North East Council(NEC). XI. North East India: Understanding the XII. Land used and status of NER ,