STEPPING STONE: ENHACING QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN INDIA
BIBHUJJAL RAJ KASHYAP
KANWAR ABHAY THAKUR
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SYSTEM MANAGEMENT
Introduction to primary education
Education in rural sector
Concept of clusters
How cluster school works??
Cluster school structure
Improvements in primary education (4 years of a basic education, between the ages of 6 and
10) address poverty and food insecurity in the long term by targeting the root problems of a
lack of literacy and numeracy in communities.
Improved literacy and numeracy will allow impoverished individuals to.
Become informed about nutrition and health, so they will be better able to care for themselves
Become capable of understanding and using new technologies that improve agricultural yields
Obtain higher-paying jobs, so they have an increased ability to buy food
Empowerment of women through education can play a crucial role in conquering childhood
Education in rural & developing area
On relative cost-effectiveness of education in developing regions, it is advises
that anything beyond general secondary education and 'a minimum exposure to
pedagogical theory' is not cost-effective.
It is also suggests a focus on basic and sufficient resources; that is, don't plan for
high quality buildings and furniture, TVs, and computers if the students don’t
even have chalkboards.
Parents are more likely to send their children to school if they see primary
education as a stepping stone to greater achievement and success. When primary
education quality improves, resulting in an increased earning capacity and thus
greater freedom to look beyond simply growing enough food to eat, secondary
education will become a more viable option.
Introduction to Cluster Schools
Our goals for education will be realized through the implementation of regionally-
designed variations of the cluster-school system.
The physical building of schools will be a smaller component of this plan, since the
problem in most impoverished areas is not lack of schools, but low attendance rates.
Rather, we will focus on improving school quality and relevancy of material taught,
and on increasing attendance through our other plans
Cluster school systems have been implemented with great success in some Southeast
Asian and Latin American countries. Thailand turned to a cluster system for rural
schools in the 1960s with extraordinary results.
How cluster school will work??
Grouping schools into clusters is an effective way to improve primary education quality
in rural areas while remaining cost-effective.
6 to 11 schools are associated with a central school in a single cluster. We recommend a
maximum of 7 schools per cluster, however, based on indications that a greater number of
schools per cluster decreased the effectiveness of the system .
The access between each school to the central school must be good, and if adequate
transportation methods do not exist, improving them must be a priority.
Adequacy of transportation is judged on the basis of transit time, cost, and safety.
This arrangement permits the sharing of school resources (textbooks, for example).
In rural areas of Thailand, for example, village schools would rotate a set of books in
a tin box; thus, instead of a single school benefiting, all of them did (Bray, 1987).
Each school would receive resources for a certain amount of time based on the size
of the school.
Important points of cluster schools
Cluster schools also allow for regular teacher meetings/trainings at the central
school location. Since teacher quality and teacher attendance are two of the most
important factors in school quality, regular meetings and trainings would hold
teachers more accountable, increase teacher quality and provide support for
Teaching in an impoverished rural area is a significant challenge, and teachers
lacking in training will not be able to face it.
Teacher attendance is such a problem in some areas that teachers are required to take
a time-stamped photo of themselves with their students each day in the school year,
and the amount of pay they receive depends on the number of valid photos recorded.
Governments are advised in the Nation Protocol to develop effective education in
rural areas through variations of the cluster school model. However, since the
Protocol also advises countries to lower or abolish school fees in the interest of
increasing attendance, governments may need assistance to cover the costs.
To achieve universal primary completion (UPC), 103 million additional children
must be enrolled in school.
A lack of adequate resource or funding allocation indicates that the available funds
and resources for cluster school programs are stretched thin. It was these instances
when past implementations of cluster schools failed, so special care should be taken
to prevent overextension of resources; a general principle of quality over quantity
should be observed.
We will focus on improving primary school connections and access to information
using the cluster school plan in rural areas where existing primary schools are
Quality of primary schools will be evaluated by indicators of student attendance,
teacher attendance, and test scores.
Student and teacher attendance rates lower than 70% are target areas.
Our focus is on rural areas since these regions are where hunger rates tend to be
higher and education quality tends to be lower.