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  • 1. Sowing Prosperity: Boosting Agricultural Productivity Three Tier Model for Agriculture Team: ‘Aaroh’ Minal Karanwal, St. Stephen’s College, Delhi Pragati Mishra, St. Stephen’s College, Delhi Inderveer Singh, IIT Kanpur Prateek Singhvi, BITS Pilani Siddharth Chaturvedi, RMLNLU Lucknow ‘त्रि-कृ षि’ ‘Tri-Krishi’ “About 65 per cent of Indian population still relies on agriculture for employment and livelihood.”
  • 2. Agricultural Sector in India  Reduced contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP (around 14%)  Conversion of Agricultural Land Holdings for industrial purposes  Poor / Marginal Financial conditions of majority of farmers  No access to Agricultural Consultancy  Subsidy for better technology but the technology is inappropriate  52% Indian Population involved in agriculture and associated activities but < 15% GDP contribution in 2011-12  Only 7% organized sector in agriculture in 2011-12  India: one of the largest producer of food grains in world but lags behind in terms of productivity  A poor financial background of the farmers leads to their complete collapse during adverse weather conditions.  Un-optimized supply chain from harvest to final production stage. At last, Least profit to most important stakeholder (i.e. farmer)  Improving efficiency of total agricultural supply chain from sowing to final packaged food.  Bringing in area specific basic improved technology along with consultancy to make agriculture process efficient  Bringing majority of agricultural sector into the domain of organized sector by focussing on the development of the skills of farmers (human capital for long term growth).  Focus on categorizing policies according to financial levels of farmers  Bringing in affordable and appropriate basic technology  Fostering Group Working among farmer Community  Development of agricultural side-activities to supplement agricultural income  Development of Better Post-Harvest Management systems  Basic Technology + Proper Resource Management + Efficient Administration of agricultural groups = Three Tier Model for Agriculture Need of the hour How to improve scenario 2 Feasibility & Challenges Burning Issues Current Scenario Impact & Implementation Mechanism Agricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution
  • 3. Proposed Solution : Three Tier Model Tier 1 • Development of Technically Efficient and Acceptable Agricultural Packages by agricultural scientists, technocrats, economists & social scientists • Effective Feedback Mechanism to optimize the packages regarding their efficiency according to local conditions Tier 2 • Better Technology cum Consultancy Package to be implemented by farmer(s) with onsite Skilled Person managing the system • Local Storage facility and Production of Packaged Food Products (Indian Gramin FDI), maintenance and vigilance by villagers Tier 3 • Formation of Self-Help Groups to foster group working and strengthening each level of farmer to handle adverse conditions and financial issues • Boosting Agricultural Side-activities to supplement their sources of income • Overall development of poor / marginal farmers takes places 3 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution
  • 4. Impact and Implementation Strategy of the Three Tier Model 4 Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Research & Development Skill Development + Package Implementation Grouping of Farmers & Holistic Rural Development • Technical Packages • Feedback Mechanism • Diverse Crop Pattern • Sustainable Development • A Body consisting of members from Indian Council of Agricultural Research, National Innovation Foundation, National Skill Development Corporation and Rural Development institutions work together to form region and crop specific packages. • Packages are tested by conducting Pilot Projects, this checks their feasibility, climate resistance and economic expenditures. • Skill Development + Package Implementation • Employment Generation • Domestic Agricultural Industry • Formation of teams of semi-skilled villagers at panchayat level to undergo training for package implementation in that region. • Resources are available at nominal rent to farmers from regional office that are to be used by hired skilled persons for implementation of any package. • Storage houses are to be maintained by committees formed under panchayat. Implementation • Grouping Diverse Farmers • Boosting Side Activities • Financial Strength to Poor Farmers • Holistic Development of Poor Farmers • Formation of groups at panchayat level containing farmers with diverse resources and different financial conditions. • Group uses resources available to it like manure, labour, machinery, seeds, land to do farming on combined land. • Fostering of side-activities like vermi- compost, animal husbandry & horticulture. Implementation Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution Benefits Benefits Benefits Implementation
  • 5. Technocrats & Scientists Technical Solutions for Region Specific Problems by formulating them into packages at Farmer’s disposal Emphasis of Packages is to foster production of varied crops and also to reduce serious impact on natural resources, e.g. Soil fertility Economists Work in collaboration with Scientists to develop optimized packages by studying the demands of specific regions Focus of packages must be to develop skill among farmers as well as make packages cost effective Social Scientists Checking the acceptance of packages among farmers and their effects on agricultural dependent population To suggest modifications in packages based on the feedback given by tier 2 skilled farmers working on these packages Tier 1: Research & Development 5 Mechanism of the Three Tier Model Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation Mechanism Agricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution
  • 6. Tier 1: Research & Development 6 Mechanism of the Three Tier Model Step 2 Step 3 Technology Consultancy Technical Scientists Social Scientists Economists Farmer Friendly Package Step 1 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation Mechanism Agricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution
  • 7. Skilled Farmers • Classification of Agricultural Workforce into Skilled / Unskilled categories. • Implementation of Packages by trained skilled farmers work under assistance of Tier 1 Professionals. • Local Skilled Farmers Reporting of Local issues regarding implementation problems and will be responsible for effective implementation of Packages. Local Storage • Installing local production plant to produce packaged food products so that we can employ trained villagers. This will also act as a source of employment for villagers. • This Domestic Agricultural Industry will prove to be elemental in providing appropriate share of income to farmer.Local Production Units • To be established at village level and maintained by village authorities to reduce pressure on farmers to sell their produce in hurry after harvest. • This will reduce the problem of Time Delay during transportation as these are located at farmer’s disposal. Tier 2: Skill Development and Local Facilities Mechanism of the Three Tier Model 7 Tier 2: Skill Development & Local Facilities Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution Mechanism
  • 8. Mechanism of the Three Tier Model 8 Step 2 Step 3 Better Resources at Village Level Employment Generation Skilled Farmers Local Storage Facility Local Production Units Skill Development + Employment In Village Step 1 Tier 2: Skill Development & Local Facilities Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution Mechanism
  • 9. Access to Better Facilities for Marginal Farmers - Working in groups will avail facilities for them to do farming on their own land - Facilities include: Machinery, financial support, better seeds, fertilizers No Force to Sell their Harvests - By Grouping of Farmers, immediate dependence on selling harvest for money will reduce - Local Storage Facility will reduce the danger of rotting of crop due to natural factors Diversity of Group -A group contains farmers from various categories based on their financial status (poor / moderate/ rich) - Each member will contribute something unique to group, i.e., machinery / labour / irrigation / manure - This working method will reduce dependence of group on natural conditions for resources Holistic Rural Development & Boosting Side Activities - Involving in Side-Activities will supplement income for marginal farmers. Organic production can be a Unique Selling Point. - Gradually this will lead to improvement of living conditions of poor farmers Unskilled Farmers (No Land + No Money) Tier 3: Self-Help Groups for Farmers Mechanism of the Three Tier Model 9 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution Mechanism
  • 10. Tier 3: Self-Help Groups for Farmers Mechanism of the Three Tier Model 10 Step 2 Step 3 Grouped Farming Self-Help Groups Better Facilities Side Activities Financial Support Empowering of Poor Farmers + Holistic Rural Development Step 1 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution Mechanism
  • 11. • Based on feedback mechanism taking in review by farmers. • Appropriate Technology application for that region. • Increasing sources of income for marginal farmers. • Restoring natural resources without degrading them. • Improved methods of storage of harvest. • Use of Technology efficiently, for e.g., • Drip Irrigation being a very efficient irrigation technique when used in a region where water has high salt content would render this revolutionary technology inappropriate at that place. • Robotics application is very robust technique in place of manual working, but it may have side effects also as it may render agriculture dependent people unemployed. So proper analysis of local issues needs to be done to bring some Appropriate Technology. • Maintaining efficiency of packages during adverse weather conditions. • Proper application of packages to maximize productivity. • Proper maintenance and inventory management of local storage centres. • Quality control of products produced from local production units. • Uniformity and cooperation among the members of groups formed related to sharing of resources and final produce. • Threat from existing touts in local mandi to setting up of storage and production units. • Managing of these employment resources by local people. Feasibility and Challenges in Implementation 10 Feasibility Challenges 11Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution
  • 12.  National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) research papers  World Bank: Agriculture in South Asia  Indian Agriculture: Performance and Challenges (pib.nic.in/archives)  Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) research papers  Institute of Rural Management Anand research papers  Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-12, Planning Commission, Government of India  Agropedia and Openagri (agropedia.iitk.ac.in)  National Innovation Foundation Agro. Innovations (http://www.nif.org.in/bd/product_catalog/cv)  FAO Statistical Yearbook 2013 (http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3107e/i3107e00.htm )  Report of Expert Committee on Food Security Bill (http://eac.gov.in/reports/rep_NFSB.pdf)  Pros and Cons of food security bill (http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2013/05/08/qa-pros-and-cons-of-the-food-security- bill/)  http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-09-09/news/33713635_1_agriculture-sector-gross-capital-formation- cent References / Citations 12 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution
  • 13. Annexure 13 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution Contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP Average size (ha) of holdings as per different Agriculture Census Source: Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Agriculture Census Division, Ministry of Agriculture Source: CSO
  • 14. Annexure 14 Feasibility & ChallengesImpact & Implementation MechanismAgricultural Sector in India Proposed Solution India among Leading producers of vegetables and pulses in the world India among Leading producers of cereals in the world