Harsh narain jizyah and the spread of islam Presentation Transcript
JIZYAH ANDTHE SPREAD OF ISLAMPresentation based on a book by Harsh Narain
Tariq, after landing on the shores of Spain.HAR MULK MULK-I MA’ST KI MULK-IKHUDA-I MA’ST(“ALL LAND BELONGS TO US, BECAUSE ITBELONGS TO OUR ALLAH”)
QURANIC COMMANDS TO THEMUSLIMS AS PERCEIVED, PREACHED,AND PRACTISED BY THE PROPHET, HISCOMPANIONS AND FOLLOWERS
• 1. Try to convert the Kafirs to Islam.• 2. If any of them resist, – (i) try to consign them to the grave before God consigns them to the hell-fire, plunder and loot their property movable and immovable, enslave them, menfolk and womenfolk and children alike.
– (ii) or, where imposition of Jizyah is permissible, let the Kafirs escape death and compound their offence of Kufr by disgracefully paying Jizyah, abjectly surrendering to the brute force of Islam, and suffering all sorts of indignities and humiliations as Dhimmf-s;– (iii) or, again, if you find yourselves too weak to deal with the Kafirs as above, take recourse to hejira (hijrah) and bide your time.
Four arms of Jihad• Jihad by heart (Jihad bi I-qalb)• Jihad by tongue (Jihiid bi I-lisan)• Jihad by hand (Jihad bi I-yad)• Jihad by sword (Jihiid bi s-sayf)
Prophet Mohammed 631 A.D.FIGHT AGAINST SUCH OF THOSE WHO HAVE BEEN GIVENTHE SCRIPTURE AS BELIEVE NOT IN ALLAH NOR THE LASTDAY, AND FORBID NOT THAT WHICH ALLAH HATHFORBIDDEN BY HIS MESSENGER, AND FOLLOW NOT THERELIGION OF TRUTH, UNTIL THEY PAY THE TRIBUTEREADILY, BEING BROUGHT LOW.
Motives for imposition of jizyah
IT IS MEANT TO BE AN ALTERNATIVE TO KILLING,PLUNDER, ENSLAVEMENT, RANSOM, FORCIBLECONVERSION, AS WELL AS TO BE A PENALTY FORKUFR. IT IS FISCAL JIHÂD, SO TO SPEAK.
IT IS A BADGE OF HUMILIATION FOR BEING A NON-MUSLIM, OF UTTER SERVILITY TO ISLAMDOM, OF ABJECTSURRENDER TO THE BRUTE FORCE OF ISLAM. ISLAM ISABSOLUTE SURRENDER TO THE WILL OF GOD; LIABILITY TOPAY JIZYAH, ABJECT SURRENDER TO THE WILL OFISLAMDOM. THE AMOUNT OF JIZYAH DOES NOT MATTER
THE LONG-TERM POLICY BEHIND IT APPEARS TO BE TOCOMPEL OR MOTIVATE THE DHIMMÎ-S SLOWLY TO TURN TOISLAM AND EMBRACE IT. THEY WERE LET LIVE IN THE HOPEOF THEIR CONVERSION IN COURSE OF TIME. IT IS THEREBY ACAMOUFLAGED ENGINE OF REPRESSION.
IT OPENS THE DOOR TO LEVY OF OTHER HUMILIATING TAXESON THE DHIMMÎ-S, SUCH FOR EXAMPLE AS PILGRIMAGE TAX,FOR PETTY CONCESSION TO THEM IN THE OBSERVANCE OFTHEIR RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES ETC.
How did jizyah came to be introduced
• Najran, district of Yemen was the greatest centre of civilization in the Arabian peninsula.• Najranites were esteemed as the wealthiest and noblest of the Arabs.
• Prophet began to send squads of missionaries to spread Islam.• One squad reached Najran, in 629 A.D.• Najranite Christians began to question the validity of Quran.• Which the Illiterate missionaries of Islam failed to reply.• Mughirah bin Shubah reported the matter to prophet.
Prophet Mohammed to the Najranite Christians.WE ARE APPEARING BEFORE YOU INSUCH A WAY THAT EVEN THE EMBRYO INOUR CAMELS WOMB IS FEELINGRESTLESS. HIS RELIGION IS OPPOSED TO
• Prophet invited them to embrace Islam.• Upon their refusal he asked them to accept his suzerainty and pay Jizyah.• They have to pay annual jizyah of 2,000 garments 40 dirhams with each garment for their protection.• These non-Muslims under the Muslim rule were called “dhimmis.”
• Umar, the second Caliph wanted to fulfill prophet’s will that there should be no kafirs in Arabia.• Umar banished all non-Muslims from Arabia.• They had to disperse and seek asylum in Syria and Kufah.
This was how the finest civilization of the Arabian peninsula was uprooted by what is flaunted as the “religion of peace”
• Dhimmis were neither the first class citizens nor the second class citizens.• They were miserable subjects of the Muslim state, with no political and fundamental rights.• Dhimmis were just a tolerated mass managing their own affairs according to a schedule imposed upon them against their will.
Jizyah in India
• Muhammed bin Qasim conquered Sindh, the north-western frontier of India in 712 A.D.• He imposed jizyah on the Hindus and Buddhists unwilling to embrace Islam.• During the 12 centuries intervening between the invasion of Mohammed bin Qasim and the death of Aurangzeb jizyah remain a force in India.
THOSE AMONG YOU WHO BECOME MUSSALMANS ANDCOME WITHIN THE FOLD OF ISLAM SHALL HAVE THEIRTRIBUTE REMITTED, BUT THOSE WHO ARE STILLINCLINED TO BE OF THEIR OWN FAITH, MUST PUT UPWITH INJURIES (GAZAND) AND TRIBUTE (JIZIA) TORETAIN THE RELIGION OF THEIR FATHERS ANDGRANDFATHERS.Mohammed Bin Qasim
Qadi Mughith ad-Din advised Sultan Alaud-Din KhaljiIF THE JIZYAH-COLLECTOR ASK A HINDU FOR SILVER,THE LATTER SHOULD OFFER GOLD IN ALL HUMILITY.IF THE COLLECTOR WISHES TO SPIT INTO HISMOUTH, THE LATTER SHOULD OPEN HIS MOUTHWITHOUT DEMUR, SO AS TO ENABLE THE FORMER
The so called “majority” community inIndia is still paying something as good or bad in effect as jizyah. The part of the taxes paid by themajority which is used exclusively in the interests of the so-called minorities.