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Convergence of technologies

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IX Foundation of Information Technology: Convergence of Technology - Evolution of today's Computer.

IX Foundation of Information Technology: Convergence of Technology - Evolution of today's Computer.

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  • 1. Basics of Information Technology
    Convergence Technologies
    Computer, Communication and
    content technologies.
  • 2. Development of Computers
  • 3.
  • 4. The Abacus
  • 5. Long, Long Ago
    Abacus - 3000 BC
    beads on rods to count and calculate
    still widely used in Asia!
    Used for Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
  • 6. The Napier Bones
    or Slide Rule
  • 7. Slide Rule or
    Napier Bone
    • Slide Rule 1630
    • 8. For Multiplication, Division and Square Roots
    • 9. Based on Napier’s rules for logarithms
    • 10. Used until 1970s
  • Semi Automatic
    Calculating Devices
  • 11. Pascal’s Adding Machine
    Invented By
  • 12. The "Pascaline",
  • 13. Pascal’s Adding Machine
    Developed by Blaise Pascal
    Originally called a "numerical wheel calculator"
    Developed on 1642
    Having 8 movable Dials
    Wheels numbered from 0 to 9
    Adds sums upto 8 digit long
    Draw Back:
    Limitation of Addition
  • 14. Leibnitz Machine
    Invented By
  • 15. Leibnitz Machine
  • 16. Leibnitz Machine
    He is a German Mathematician and
    Philosopher
    It’s a improved version of Pascaline
    It will do Addition Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
    Used SHIFT mechanism
  • 17. Jacquard Loom - 1801
    Invented By
    Joseph Jacquard
  • 18. 19th Century
    Jacquard Loom - 1801
    first stored program - metal cards
    first computer manufacturing
    still in use today in weaving!
  • 19. Difference Engine
    Invented By
    Charles Babbage
  • 20. Difference Engine
    built in early 1800’s
    Special purpose calculator
    Naval navigation charts
    Babbage’s first computer
  • 21. Analytical Engine
    Babbage’s
    Second Computer
  • 22. Babbage’s second computer
    analytical engine, 1834
    Analytical engine
    general-purpose
    used binary system
    punched cards as input
    branch on result of previous instruction
    AdaLovelace (first programmer)
    machined parts not accurate enough
    never quite completed
  • 23. Punched Card
    Invented By
    Herman Hollerith (US)
  • 24. Punched card
  • 25. Electro Mechanical
    Calculating Device
  • 26. MARK I (1937 – 1944)
    Invented By
    Howard H. Aiken
  • 27.
  • 28. MARK I (1937 – 1944)
    In 1944, the Mark I was "switched" on.
    Aiken's colossal machine spanned 51 feet in length and 8 feet in height.
    500 meters of wiring were required to connect each component.
    Referred as Electronic Relay Computer
  • 29. Electronic Computers
  • 30. ABC
    (Atanasoff Berry Computer)
  • 31. ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer
    Invented By
    ATANASOFF BERRY
  • 32. ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)
  • 33. ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)
    First Fully Electronic Computer
    Used Electronic Vacuum Tubes
    It is a special purpose computer
    Developed at the time of second world war
  • 34. Z3 Computer
  • 35. Z3 Computer
    Invented By
    KonardZuse
  • 36. Z3 Computer
  • 37. Z3 Computer
    Developed by KonardZuse
    German Engineer
    To design Air Planes and missiles
  • 38. First Generation Computers
    (1946 – 1958)
  • 39. ElectricalNumerical IntegratorAnd Computer
    (ENIAC)
  • 40. ENIAC
    Invented By
    John Presper
    W. Mauchly
  • 41. ENIAC
  • 42. ENIAC
    An early computer
    Developed at UPenn
    Size: 30’ x 50’ room
    18,000 vacuum tubes
    1500 relays
    70, 000 Resistors
    5 Million Soldered joints
    Consumed 160 kilowatts
    1000 times faster than Mark I
    weighed 30 tons
    Designers John Mauchly J. Presper Eckert
  • 43. EDSAC
  • 44. Electronicdelay storageAutomatic Computer
    (EdsAC)
  • 45. EDSAC
    Invented By
    Prof. M. Wilkes
  • 46. EdsAC
  • 47. EdsAC
    Program was fed in to Paper Tape
    Slightly Faster than ENIAC
    First Stored program electronic computer
    It was not Binary
  • 48. EDVAC
  • 49. ElectronicdiscretevariableAutomatic Computer
    (EdVAC)
  • 50. EDVAC
    Invented By
    Von Neuman
  • 51. EdVAC
  • 52. EdVAC
    Had memory to hold both a Stored Program & Data
    Key Element – Control Processing Unit
    All Functions ------ Coordinated through Single source
  • 53. UNIVAC
  • 54. UNIVersalAutomatic Computer - I
    (UNIVAC I)
  • 55. UNIVAC
    Invented By
    Remington Rand
  • 56. UNIVAC
  • 57. UNIVAC
    First Commercially available computers
    Owned by US Census Bureau & the General Electrics
  • 58. Grace Hopper
    Programmed UNIVAC
    Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award”
  • 59. First Generation – Sum Up
    Used Vacuum tubes and Magnetic drum for storage
    Instructions only for Specific task
    Each computer had different binary coded program (Machine language)
  • 60. Magnetic
    Drum
  • 61. Second Generation 1965-1963
  • 62. Second Generation
    • 1956 – Computers began to incorporate Transistors
    • 63. Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors
    • 64. Replaced Machine language (Binary Codes) with Assembly Language
    • 65. Used Components are :
    Printers , Tape Storage, Memory, Operating System, and stored Programs
    • EX Computer languages: FORTRAN COBOL
    • 66. Ex Second Generation Computers
    UNIVAC III, 400 and 800 Series, B 5000, CDC 1604
  • 67. First Transistor
    Uses Silicon
    developed in 1948
    won a Nobel prize
    on-off switch
    Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956
  • 68. Third Generation – 1964-1971
    1964-1971
    Integrated Circuit
    Operating System
    Getting smaller, cheaper
  • 69. Integrated Circuits
  • 70.
    • Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips).
    • 71. Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”
  • Operating System
    Software – Instructions for Computer
    Operating system is set of instructions loaded each time a computer is started
    Program is instructions loaded when needed
  • 72. The First Microprocessor – 1971
    Intel 4004 Microprocessor
    The 4004 had 2,250 transistors
    four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)
    108Khz
    Called “Microchip”
  • 73. 4th Generation – 1971-present
    MICROCHIPS!
    Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology
  • 74. What is a Microchip?
    Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)
    Transistors, resistors, and capacitors
    4004 had 2,250 transistors
    Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors
    Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)
  • 75. Birth of Personal Computers - 1975
    256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes)
    2 MHz Intel 8080 chips
    Just a box with flashing lights
    cost $395 kit, $495 assembled.
  • 76. Generations of Electronic Computers
  • 77. Evolution of Electronics
    Microchip (VLSIC)
    Integrated Circuit
    Transistor
    Vacuum Tube
  • 78. IBM PC - 1981
    IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture
    First wide-selling personal computer used in business
    8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors
    4.77 Mhz processing speed
    256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard
    One or two floppy disk drives
  • 79. Apple Computers
    Founded 1977
    Apple II released 1977
    widely used in schools
    Macintosh (left)
    released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor
    first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)
  • 80. Computers Progress
  • 81. 1990s: Pentiums and Power Macs
    Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk, most homes, etc.
    Faster, less expensive computers paved way for this
    Windows 95 was first decent GUI for “PCs”
    Macs became more PC compatible - easy file transfers
    Prices have plummeted
    $2000 for entry level to $500
    $6000 for top of line to $1500
  • 82. 21st Century Computing
    Great increases in speed, storage, and memory
    Increased networking, speed in Internet
    Widespread use of CD-RW
    PDAs
    Cell Phone/PDA
    WIRELESS!!!
  • 83. Evolution of Dr. U’s Computer
  • 84. -By
    E. Indhumathi MCA., M.Phil
    Dept. of computer science
    Chettinad VidyaMandir
    KArur