Convergence of technologies

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IX Foundation of Information Technology: Convergence of Technology - Evolution of today's Computer.

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Convergence of technologies

  1. 1. Basics of Information Technology<br />Convergence Technologies<br />Computer, Communication and <br /> content technologies.<br />
  2. 2. Development of Computers<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. The Abacus<br />
  5. 5. Long, Long Ago<br />Abacus - 3000 BC<br />beads on rods to count and calculate<br />still widely used in Asia!<br />Used for Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division <br />
  6. 6. The Napier Bones <br />or Slide Rule<br />
  7. 7. Slide Rule or <br />Napier Bone <br /><ul><li>Slide Rule 1630
  8. 8. For Multiplication, Division and Square Roots
  9. 9. Based on Napier’s rules for logarithms
  10. 10. Used until 1970s</li></li></ul><li>Semi Automatic <br />Calculating Devices<br />
  11. 11. Pascal’s Adding Machine<br />Invented By<br />
  12. 12. The "Pascaline",<br />
  13. 13. Pascal’s Adding Machine<br />Developed by Blaise Pascal<br />Originally called a "numerical wheel calculator" <br />Developed on 1642<br />Having 8 movable Dials<br />Wheels numbered from 0 to 9<br />Adds sums upto 8 digit long<br />Draw Back:<br />Limitation of Addition<br />
  14. 14. Leibnitz Machine<br />Invented By<br />
  15. 15. Leibnitz Machine<br />
  16. 16. Leibnitz Machine<br /> He is a German Mathematician and <br /> Philosopher<br /> It’s a improved version of Pascaline<br />It will do Addition Subtraction, Multiplication and Division<br />Used SHIFT mechanism<br />
  17. 17. Jacquard Loom - 1801<br />Invented By<br />Joseph Jacquard<br />
  18. 18. 19th Century<br />Jacquard Loom - 1801<br />first stored program - metal cards<br />first computer manufacturing<br />still in use today in weaving!<br />
  19. 19. Difference Engine<br />Invented By<br />Charles Babbage<br />
  20. 20. Difference Engine<br />built in early 1800’s<br />Special purpose calculator<br />Naval navigation charts<br /> Babbage’s first computer<br />
  21. 21. Analytical Engine<br />Babbage’s <br />Second Computer<br />
  22. 22. Babbage’s second computer<br />analytical engine, 1834<br />Analytical engine<br /> general-purpose<br />used binary system<br />punched cards as input<br />branch on result of previous instruction<br />AdaLovelace (first programmer) <br />machined parts not accurate enough <br />never quite completed<br />
  23. 23. Punched Card<br />Invented By<br />Herman Hollerith (US)<br />
  24. 24. Punched card<br />
  25. 25. Electro Mechanical <br />Calculating Device<br />
  26. 26. MARK I (1937 – 1944)<br />Invented By<br />Howard H. Aiken<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. MARK I (1937 – 1944)<br /> In 1944, the Mark I was "switched" on. <br /> Aiken's colossal machine spanned 51 feet in length and 8 feet in height. <br />500 meters of wiring were required to connect each component.<br /> Referred as Electronic Relay Computer<br />
  29. 29. Electronic Computers<br />
  30. 30. ABC <br />(Atanasoff Berry Computer)<br />
  31. 31. ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer<br />Invented By<br />ATANASOFF BERRY<br />
  32. 32. ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)<br />
  33. 33. ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer)<br />First Fully Electronic Computer<br />Used Electronic Vacuum Tubes<br />It is a special purpose computer<br />Developed at the time of second world war<br />
  34. 34. Z3 Computer<br />
  35. 35. Z3 Computer<br />Invented By<br />KonardZuse<br />
  36. 36. Z3 Computer<br />
  37. 37. Z3 Computer<br />Developed by KonardZuse<br />German Engineer<br />To design Air Planes and missiles <br />
  38. 38. First Generation Computers<br />(1946 – 1958)<br />
  39. 39. ElectricalNumerical IntegratorAnd Computer<br />(ENIAC)<br />
  40. 40. ENIAC<br />Invented By<br />John Presper<br />W. Mauchly<br />
  41. 41. ENIAC<br />
  42. 42. ENIAC<br />An early computer<br />Developed at UPenn<br />Size: 30’ x 50’ room<br />18,000 vacuum tubes<br />1500 relays<br />70, 000 Resistors<br />5 Million Soldered joints<br />Consumed 160 kilowatts<br />1000 times faster than Mark I<br />weighed 30 tons<br />Designers John Mauchly J. Presper Eckert<br />
  43. 43. EDSAC<br />
  44. 44. Electronicdelay storageAutomatic Computer<br />(EdsAC)<br />
  45. 45. EDSAC<br />Invented By<br />Prof. M. Wilkes<br />
  46. 46. EdsAC<br />
  47. 47. EdsAC<br />Program was fed in to Paper Tape<br />Slightly Faster than ENIAC<br />First Stored program electronic computer<br />It was not Binary<br />
  48. 48. EDVAC<br />
  49. 49. ElectronicdiscretevariableAutomatic Computer<br />(EdVAC)<br />
  50. 50. EDVAC<br />Invented By<br />Von Neuman<br />
  51. 51. EdVAC<br />
  52. 52. EdVAC<br />Had memory to hold both a Stored Program & Data<br />Key Element – Control Processing Unit<br />All Functions ------ Coordinated through Single source<br />
  53. 53. UNIVAC<br />
  54. 54. UNIVersalAutomatic Computer - I<br /> (UNIVAC I)<br />
  55. 55. UNIVAC<br />Invented By<br />Remington Rand<br />
  56. 56. UNIVAC<br />
  57. 57. UNIVAC<br />First Commercially available computers<br />Owned by US Census Bureau & the General Electrics<br />
  58. 58. Grace Hopper<br />Programmed UNIVAC<br />Recipient of Computer Science’s first “Man of the Year Award”<br />
  59. 59. First Generation – Sum Up<br />Used Vacuum tubes and Magnetic drum for storage<br />Instructions only for Specific task<br />Each computer had different binary coded program (Machine language)<br />
  60. 60. Magnetic <br />Drum<br />
  61. 61. Second Generation 1965-1963<br />
  62. 62. Second Generation <br /><ul><li>1956 – Computers began to incorporate Transistors
  63. 63. Replaced vacuum tubes with Transistors
  64. 64. Replaced Machine language (Binary Codes) with Assembly Language
  65. 65. Used Components are :</li></ul> Printers , Tape Storage, Memory, Operating System, and stored Programs<br /><ul><li>EX Computer languages: FORTRAN COBOL
  66. 66. Ex Second Generation Computers</li></ul>UNIVAC III, 400 and 800 Series, B 5000, CDC 1604<br />
  67. 67. First Transistor<br />Uses Silicon<br />developed in 1948<br />won a Nobel prize<br />on-off switch<br />Second Generation Computers used Transistors, starting in 1956<br />
  68. 68. Third Generation – 1964-1971<br />1964-1971<br />Integrated Circuit<br />Operating System<br />Getting smaller, cheaper<br />
  69. 69. Integrated Circuits<br />
  70. 70. <ul><li>Third Generation Computers used Integrated Circuits (chips).
  71. 71. Integrated Circuits are transistors, resistors, and capacitors integrated together into a single “chip”</li></li></ul><li>Operating System<br />Software – Instructions for Computer<br />Operating system is set of instructions loaded each time a computer is started<br />Program is instructions loaded when needed<br />
  72. 72. The First Microprocessor – 1971<br />Intel 4004 Microprocessor<br />The 4004 had 2,250 transistors<br />four-bit chunks (four 1’s or 0’s)<br />108Khz<br />Called “Microchip”<br />
  73. 73. 4th Generation – 1971-present<br />MICROCHIPS!<br />Getting smaller and smaller, but we are still using microchip technology<br />
  74. 74. What is a Microchip?<br />Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit (VLSIC)<br />Transistors, resistors, and capacitors<br />4004 had 2,250 transistors<br />Pentium IV has 42 MILLION transistors<br />Each transistor 0.13 microns (10-6 meters)<br />
  75. 75. Birth of Personal Computers - 1975<br />256 byte memory (not Kilobytes or Megabytes)<br />2 MHz Intel 8080 chips<br />Just a box with flashing lights<br />cost $395 kit, $495 assembled.<br />
  76. 76. Generations of Electronic Computers<br />
  77. 77. Evolution of Electronics<br />Microchip (VLSIC)<br />Integrated Circuit<br />Transistor<br />Vacuum Tube<br />
  78. 78. IBM PC - 1981<br />IBM-Intel-Microsoft joint venture<br />First wide-selling personal computer used in business<br />8088 Microchip - 29,000 transistors<br />4.77 Mhz processing speed<br />256 K RAM (Random Access Memory) standard<br />One or two floppy disk drives<br />
  79. 79. Apple Computers<br />Founded 1977<br />Apple II released 1977<br />widely used in schools<br />Macintosh (left)<br />released in 1984, Motorola 68000 Microchip processor<br />first commercial computer with graphical user interface (GUI) and pointing device (mouse)<br />
  80. 80. Computers Progress<br />
  81. 81. 1990s: Pentiums and Power Macs<br />Early 1990s began penetration of computers into every niche: every desk, most homes, etc.<br />Faster, less expensive computers paved way for this<br />Windows 95 was first decent GUI for “PCs”<br />Macs became more PC compatible - easy file transfers<br />Prices have plummeted <br />$2000 for entry level to $500<br />$6000 for top of line to $1500<br />
  82. 82. 21st Century Computing<br />Great increases in speed, storage, and memory<br />Increased networking, speed in Internet<br />Widespread use of CD-RW<br />PDAs<br />Cell Phone/PDA<br />WIRELESS!!!<br />
  83. 83. Evolution of Dr. U’s Computer<br />
  84. 84. -By<br />E. Indhumathi MCA., M.Phil<br />Dept. of computer science<br />Chettinad VidyaMandir<br />KArur<br />

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