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'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)
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'The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers' (Dr. Michael Kandiah)

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  • 1. The UK Freedom of Information Act – A Practical Guide for Academic Researchers
    Cambridge
    Wednesday, 16 February 2011
  • 2. Dr M. D. Kandiah
    Director of the Witness Seminar Programme
    Centre for Contemporary British History
    at King's College London
    Institute for Contemporary History
    Michael.Kandiah@kcl.ac.uk
  • 3. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Established a public 'Right to Know'
  • 4. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Established a public 'Right to Know'
    Came fully into force on 1 January 2005
  • 5. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Established a public 'Right to Know'
    Came fully into force on 1 January 2005
    Required that public bodies provide information when queried by members of the public, with certain types of information exempt
  • 6. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Established a public 'Right to Know'
    Came fully into force on 1 January 2005
    Required that public bodies provide information when queried by members of the public, with certain types of information exempt
    Public bodies had to respond within 20 working days, although this deadline could be extended within certain limits
  • 7. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Related legislation (which also came into force on 1 January 2005)
    Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2005
  • 8. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Related legislation (which also came into force on 1 January 2005)
    Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2005
    Environmental Information Regulation 2004
  • 9. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Related legislation (which also came into force on 1 January 2005)
    Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2005
    Environmental Information Regulation 2004
    Environmental Information Regulation (Scotland) 2005
  • 10. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Related legislation (which also came into force on 1 January 2005)
    Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2005
    Environmental Information Regulation 2004
    Environmental Information Regulation (Scotland) 2005
    Amendments to the Data Protection Act 1998
  • 11. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Which bodies are covered:
    Central government departments & agencies & local authorities
  • 12. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Which bodies are covered:
    Central government departments & agencies & local authorities
    NHS bodies (including GPs, etc.)
  • 13. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Which bodies are covered:
    Central government departments & agencies & local authorities
    NHS bodies (including GPs, etc.)
    Schools, colleges & universities
  • 14. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Which bodies are covered:
    Central government departments & agencies & local authorities
    NHS bodies (including GPs, etc.)
    Schools, colleges & universities
    Police & the Armed Forces
  • 15. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Which bodies are covered:
    Central government departments & agencies & local authorities
    NHS bodies (including GPs, etc.)
    Schools, colleges & universities
    Police & the Armed Forces
    Quangos, regulatory and advisory bodies
  • 16. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Which bodies are covered:
    Central government departments & agencies & local authorities
    NHS bodies (including GPs, etc.)
    Schools, colleges & universities
    Police & the Armed Forces
    Quangos, regulatory and advisory bodies
    Parliament & Welsh Assembly (Scottish Parliament)
  • 17. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Required public bodies:
    To produce a 'publication scheme', which includes:
    all information held anywhere within an institution; and
    does not have to be in the form of a specific document or structure, e.g. a database
    To deal with individual requests for non-personal information that public authorities hold, subject to specific exemptions in the Act
  • 18. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Exceptions:
    Absolute Exemptions
  • 19. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Exceptions:
    Absolute Exemptions
    Qualified Exemptions – determined by the 'Public Interest Test'
  • 20. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Absolute Exemptions
    Information accessible by other means
    Information supplied by, or relating to, bodies dealing with security matters
    Court records, and so on
    Parliamentary privilege
    Prejudice to effective conduct of public affairs
    Personal information
    Information provided in confidence
    Prohibitions on disclosure where a disclosure is prohibited by an enactment or would constitute contempt of court
  • 21. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Exemptions subject to 'public interest test' – 1:
    Information intended for future publication
    National security (other than information supplied by or relating to named security organisations, where the duty to consider disclosure in the public interest does not arise)
    Defence
    International relations
    Relations within the United Kingdom
    The economy
    Investigations conducted by public authorities
    Law enforcement
    Audit functions
  • 22. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Exemptions subject to 'public interest test' – 2:
    Formulation of government policy
    Prejudice to effective conduct of public affairs (except information held by the House of Commons or the House of Lords)
    Communications with Her Majesty, etc. and honours
    Health and safety
    Environmental information
    Personal information
    Legal professional privilege
    Commercial interests
  • 23. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Other significant points
    FoI was part of Labour's 1997 Election Manifesto
  • 24. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Other significant points
    FoI was part of Labour's 1997 Election Manifesto
    FoI was NOT designed to facilitate academic research
  • 25. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Other significant points
    FoI was part of Labour's 1997 Election Manifesto
    FoI was NOT designed to facilitate academic research
    FoI was 'resource neutral' – i.e., public authorities were not provided extra resources
  • 26. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    An FoI request:
    Can be made by any individual, anywhere in the world
  • 27. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    An FoI request:
    Can be made by any individual, anywhere in the world
    Does not have to explain why the request for information has been made
  • 28. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Public authorities can:
    Refuse to fulfil requests if deemed 'vexatious'
  • 29. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Public authorities can:
    Refuse to fulfil requests if deemed 'vexatious'
    Refuse to fulfil requests on account of expense
  • 30. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Public authorities can:
    Refuse to fulfil requests if deemed 'vexatious'
    Refuse to fulfil requests on account of expense
    Impose a fee
  • 31. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Individuals can make an appeal to the Information Commissioner's Office, which overseas FoI
    The Information Commissioner is an independent official who is appointed by the Crown
    According to the Information Commissioner's Office academics are the least likely to complain about the FoI process
  • 32. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Why should academic researchers use FoI?
  • 33. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Why should academic researchers use FoI?
    To obtain information not available from open sources
  • 34. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Why should academic researchers use FoI?
    To obtain information not available from open sources
    To obtain official government material in advance of the 30 Year Rule (soon to be the 20 Year Rule), which guides the orderly release of documents
  • 35. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Why should academic researchers use FoI?
    To obtain information not available from open sources
    To obtain official government material in advance of the 30 Year Rule (soon to be the 20 Year Rule), which guides the orderly release of documents
    To obtain material from sources not previously covered
  • 36. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    It recommended that an FoI request from an academic should:
    Indicate the purpose of the study
  • 37. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    It recommended that an FoI request from an academic should:
    Indicate the purpose of the study
    Email using a university email account
  • 38. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    The National Archive's records
    Check website for how to make an FoI request
  • 39. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Nearly all public authorities have webpages that give instructions to whom an FoI request should be directed
    If this information is not obviously available, make request to individual most likely dealing with FoI
  • 40. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    An FoI request MUST:
    Be made in writing – includes email
  • 41. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    An FoI request MUST:
    Be made in writing – includes email
    Be as specific as possible
    Requests may be refused if too broad
    Describe what kind of information wanted:
    E.g., minutes, correspondences, etc.
  • 42. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    An FoI request MUST:
    Be made in writing – includes email
    Be as specific as possible
    Requests may be refused if too broad
    Describe what kind of information wanted:
    E.g., minutes, correspondences, etc.
    An FoI request CAN
    Ask for help in framing the request
  • 43. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    It recommended that an FoI request from an academic should:
    Indicate the purpose of the study
  • 44. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    It recommended that an FoI request from an academic should:
    Indicate the purpose of the study
    Indicate the broad outlines of study
  • 45. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 1:
    Clearly identify the parameters of your research
  • 46. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 1:
    Clearly identify the parameters of your research
    Have a plan how to space out FoI requests
  • 47. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 1:
    Clearly identify the parameters of your research
    Have a plan how to space out FoI requests
    Have a plan to develop further FoI requests once you have received your first batch of released material
  • 48. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 2:
    Form relationship with person dealing with request
  • 49. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 2:
    Form relationship with person dealing with request
    Expect delays – make request as soon as possible
  • 50. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 2:
    Form relationship with person dealing with request
    Expect delays – make request as soon as possible
    Ask for file structure or list of files available to get a sense of what is available
  • 51. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Strategies for academic requests – 2:
    Form relationship with person dealing with request
    Expect delays – make request as soon as possible
    Ask for file structure or list of files available to get a sense of what is available
    Use oral interviews to refine FoI requests
  • 52. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Issues
    Citation
  • 53. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Issues
    Citation
    Checkability
  • 54. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Issues
    Citation
    Checkability
    Place of the records obtained in broader archival context
  • 55. Freedom of Information Act 2000
    Issues
    Citation
    Checkability
    Place of the records obtained in broader archival context
    Longterm preservation of records & integrity of records
  • 56. Dr M. D. KandiahMichael.Kandiah@kcl.ac.uk
    Director, Witness Seminar Programme
    Centre for Contemporary British History at King's College London
    Institute for Contemporary History

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