Young people and their particular perspectives on the 2009 elections  Maria José Brites FCT/CIMJ/ULP [email_address]
Blurred frontiers <ul><li>There are changes on news environment and we must be aware of them and learn how to deal with th...
Convergence <ul><li>Referring to convergence as a process instead of a endpoint, Jenkins states that “the emerging converg...
Sustainability <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>That’s why we can see an increase and powerful interlinking of media and media ...
Nomadic audientes, ongoing problematic journalism <ul><li>Audiences are reshaped and “nomadic” , so it is also more compli...
Television reborn  <ul><li>“ Television  remains a significant medium for political communication, has significant consequ...
Methodological guidelines <ul><li>Our analysis is specially centred on 49 semi-structured interviews with young people bet...
News media consumption News media consumption News media consumption in election time
15-18 years old <ul><li>TV is the  only election media, contrary to routine coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>If we look particu...
19-25 years old <ul><li>Unlike the previous group, this young adult age group uses more different media as news source dur...
26-30 years old <ul><li>At election time, this particular age group has a slightly different behaviour, if compared to the...
Conclusions <ul><li>In the particular case of the elections news consumption, we can find a pattern of television options ...
References <ul><li>Bennett, W. Lance (2007). Civic Learning in Changing Democracies: Challenges for Citizenship and Civic ...
<ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Maria José Brites </li></ul><ul><li>FCT/CIMJ/ULP </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </...
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Brites, MJ. Conference

  1. 1. Young people and their particular perspectives on the 2009 elections Maria José Brites FCT/CIMJ/ULP [email_address]
  2. 2. Blurred frontiers <ul><li>There are changes on news environment and we must be aware of them and learn how to deal with them. </li></ul><ul><li>Field of journalism is in transition, the frontiers between different media and the frontiers about what is news content are blurred . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>As new media forms are added to media history, journalism gets more fragmented, as well as more diverse. </li></ul><ul><li>Youth are involved in the richest and fragmented information environment of all time (Bennett, 2007: 68). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Convergence <ul><li>Referring to convergence as a process instead of a endpoint, Jenkins states that “the emerging convergence paradigm assumes that old and new media will interact in ever more complex ways” (2006: 6). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Consumers will be more powerful within convergence culture – but only if they recognize and use that power as both consumers and citizens, as full participants in our culture ” (Dahlgren, 2000: 260). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sustainability <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>That’s why we can see an increase and powerful interlinking of media and media formats, brought on by “digital convergence may lead to an intensification of public connection , as people become more skilful at adapting their media consumption to suit their everyday habits and pressures” (Couldry and Markham, 2006: 256). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Careful assessments of young adults’ news habits are essential. Young people’s interest in news will affect the economic vitality of news organizations and thus their ability to invest in quality journalism ” (Patterson, 2007: 5). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nomadic audientes, ongoing problematic journalism <ul><li>Audiences are reshaped and “nomadic” , so it is also more complicated to give attention to specific groups and uses. This complicates the role of journalism in linking citizens and political life. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Dahlgren (2009b) draws attention to the fact that it’s important that these are connections to the news as </li></ul><ul><li>a pre-condition to be engaged. As he argues, this is a difficult task, especially in regards to traditional journalism and is an ongoing “problematic challenge” (2009b: 150). We mustn’t forget, however, that citizens can and should have an important role in this matter of commitment to news and to the democracy . </li></ul><ul><li>Professional journalists are not the only ones to be engaged in online journalism (2009b: 152), as this is accessible to anyone. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Television reborn <ul><li>“ Television remains a significant medium for political communication, has significant consequences but is situated within a reconfigured media ecology for all of the key actors. It is to the new pressures facing each of these actors that we now turn” (Gurevitch, Coleman, et al., 2009: 172). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Methodological guidelines <ul><li>Our analysis is specially centred on 49 semi-structured interviews with young people between 15 and 30 years old (done between the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Project Digital inclusion and participation. Comparing the trajectories of digital media use by majority and disadvantaged groups in Portugal and the USA (UTAustin|Portugal/CD/016/2008); </li></ul><ul><li>The main objective is to identify their news consumptions, specifically during election periods. Although sometimes we will give some contextual elements on general media consumption, the important and main focus is to observe the youth news consumptions in elections. Whenever we find important, as family references, we also give extra attention to family behaviour contexts, since in the project we also interviewed older family partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the age group 15-30 years old is too vast, we opted to divide it in three main groups: 14 between 15-18 (secondary school level); 26 between 19-25 (university students and young employees and unemployed); and 9 between 26-30 (young adults that are mainly employees). </li></ul>
  8. 8. News media consumption News media consumption News media consumption in election time
  9. 9. 15-18 years old <ul><li>TV is the only election media, contrary to routine coverage. </li></ul><ul><li>If we look particularly to 5 interviewees who did not flowed the campaign (3 females), we can find some degree of commitment and also disappointment. </li></ul><ul><li>All the family interviewees also preferred television news during elections, even the ones that complained about politics. A grandmother and a grandson have showed this discourse of these discredit on politics and media elements. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Somehow because I was frustrated with it and I avoided news. People choices were not fair” (female, 17 years old, sometimes uses Internet) </li></ul><ul><li>Although we can’t really determine a pattern, we can find a slightly difference of gender commitment to news information during elections . Young females are in larger number saying that they have not followed the campaign and young males are the majority in the number in the group that has followed the news in election period. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 19-25 years old <ul><li>Unlike the previous group, this young adult age group uses more different media as news source during elections, although no one has referred to read magazines and only one person (a journalist) referred to the radio as a source of election news. Nevertheless, television is the main news focus in elections (17 references), followed by Internet (9 references) and print newspapers (7 references). </li></ul><ul><li>“ It was television, especially on election night, because it gives real time information” (male, 19 years old, frequent user of the Internet) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Television, through debates and analysis. And then also the internet and some newspapers. A bit of everything. I try to get information from different places, but the Internet has had a very important role through Twitter. On TV we are accustomed to watching more widespread coverage. But on the Internet, via Twitter , we get information that we can’t find on the internet and in a newspaper. There information sharing between people who use Twitter. Was a very important tool in this election.” (male, 22, frequent user of the Internet) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 26-30 years old <ul><li>At election time, this particular age group has a slightly different behaviour, if compared to the second. </li></ul><ul><li>In this age group, they have not referred Internet, some of them also read newspapers and the great majority uses television. Only one female referred to simultaneous use of newspaper and television. But on election night she only watches TV. </li></ul><ul><li>“ To follow the polls results, were the newspapers, on the night of the elections was the television ” (female, 30, sometimes uses Internet) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>In the particular case of the elections news consumption, we can find a pattern of television options both in young consumers and in their family adults members. But can we really think of television as a media that unites family ? </li></ul><ul><li>Television remains as the most relevant news media . This particular finding is related to the traditional use of television in election days, at home, with family and although we can’t say for sure that there is a real linkage, the parent’s use of television as election news source has influence in these choices. </li></ul><ul><li>But if we look specifically to young boys and girls that also use Internet to get electoral information, we can’t find the same behaviours in their older family interviewees, that still opt for television. In these particular cases we didn’t find a practice of helping the older family members in accessing to the Internet. The digital differences tend to continue to exist, reinforcing a generation gap in the news. </li></ul><ul><li>With the entrance of Internet in to media forms arena, television is no longer the new media that has threatened newspapers and radio. Nowadays it’s also a traditional media, so it’s also understood as a niche of certain credibility . </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is really a forgotten news media . Print newspapers are more important than radio, but of course they can’t compete to television options around elections times. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls showed a higher disinterest in following the campaign and boys have showed a larger preference in following the news in election period. </li></ul>
  13. 13. References <ul><li>Bennett, W. Lance (2007). Civic Learning in Changing Democracies: Challenges for Citizenship and Civic Education. Young Citizens and New Media: Learning for Democratic Participation. Peter Dahlgren. New York, Milton Park, Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterson, Thomas E. (2007). Young People and News. Massachusetts, Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Dahlgren, Peter (2000). Television and the Public Sphere: Citizenship, Democracy and the Media. London, Thousand Oaks e Nova Deli, Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Dahlgren, Peter (2009a). Media and Political Engagement: Citizens, Communication, and Democracy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Dahlgren, Peter (2009b). The Troubling Evolution of Journalism. The Changing Faces of Journalism: Tabloidization, Technology and Truthiness. Zelizer, Barbie. London, New York, Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Dahlgren, Peter and Olsson, Tobias (2008). Facilitating political participation: Young citizens, Internet and civic cultures. The International Handbook of Children, Media and Culture. Drotner, Kristen and Livingstone, Sonia. Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapur, Sage. </li></ul><ul><li>Gurevitch, Michael, Coleman, Stephen, et al. (2009). &quot;Political Communication - Old and New Media Relationships.&quot; The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 625(1): 164-181. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, Henry (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York and London, New York University Press. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Maria José Brites </li></ul><ul><li>FCT/CIMJ/ULP </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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