History<br /><ul><li>Why do people toast bread?</li></ul>To preserve it<br />To makeitcrunchier<br />To makeitsweeter<br />To makeit perfect for spreads<br />
History<br /><ul><li>Before the toaster bread was toasted over an open firewith the help of a variety of simple tools.
1900s: electricity in all householdstherecame a wave of technologicalinnovationsand a demandforhouseholdappliances, one of themthe toaster
First: embeddedheating system</li></li></ul><li>History<br /><ul><li>March1905Nichrome (Albert Marsh)</li></ul>Surface of toast needs to beheatedabove 154°CNeed of a wirethatreaches high temperatures without beingdamaged of starting a fire.<br /> Nichrome(alloy of nickel and chromium)<br />
History<br /><ul><li>Numerous prototype electric toasters and in1909 : firstelectric toaster (Frank Shailorfor General Electrics)</li></ul>This was the firstcommerciallysuccessfulelectric toaster<br />Problems: <br />When is the toast ready?<br />Flippingwithyour handsburns!<br />
History<br /><ul><li>1913 Lloyd and HazelCopeman: ‘‘automatic toaster’’Turning the toast without touchingit</li></ul>Five toaster related<br />patents ontheirnames<br />Manycompaniespaidroyalties to Copemanor<br />findotherways to turn <br />the toast.<br />
History<br />Problem: burnt toast<br />Byincorporatingsprings and a variable timer: pop-up toaster onMay 29, 1919 by Charles Strite<br />PatentedonOctober 18, 1921<br />Manufactured and sold to the Childs restaurant chain<br />Redesign in 1926: “the Toastmaster” available to the public<br />
History<br />Major breakthrough in 1928presliced-loaf and sealed-bagprocessby Otto Frederick Rohwedder<br />1930sliced Wonder Bread<br />1933 more slicedthanunslicedbread<br /> Strite’spop-up made sensenow and became a standard in American households<br />