Training enhances job related skills and also facilitates acquiring of new skills.
Training may be defined as a systematised tailor made program to suit the needs of a particular organisation for developing certain attitudes, actions, skills and abilities in employees irrespective of their functional levels.
An employee is put on the job and is trained to perform the said job thereby helping the employee to acquire the skills for performing the said job in future. Creation of assistant to positions, job rotation and special assignments are different nature and forms of such training.
This is a training through step by step training. Usually steps necessary for a job are identified in order of sequence and an employee is exposed to the different steps of a job by an experienced trainer.
This involves movement of training from one job to another. This helps the person to understand how the organisation functions.
The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organisation perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense of their own career objectives and interests.
Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. There are various methods of off the job training:
This method duplicates on the job situation away from actual worksite with machinery and equipment similar to those used in actual production or operation and is used to help employees to acquire new skill. Usually training is given away from the production center.
Executive development programs help managers to broaden their outlook, look into various problems dispassionately, examine the consequences carefully and discharge their responsibilities taking a holistic view of the entire organisation.
Career Development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career plan.
Career Development and Employee Development are different. Career development looks at the long term career effectiveness of employees whereas employee development focuses on effectiveness of an employee in the immediate future.
The actions for career development may be initiated by the individual himself or by the organisation.
Loyalty to Career: Companies such as WIPRO, NIIT, Infosys (all IT companies, where the turnover ratio is very high) have come out with a lucrative, innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period.
Key Subordinates: Qualified and knowledgeable subordinates, often extend invaluable help that enables their bosses to come up in life.
Expand Ability: Employees who are career conscious must prepare themselves for future opportunities that may come their way internally or externally by taking a series of proactive steps (Eg. Attending a training program, acquiring a degree, updating skills in an area.)
The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving individual career goals and meeting organisational needs. Tools and activities for this purpose are:
Self Assessment Tools: Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life roles, interests, skills and work attitudes and preferences. They identify career goals, develop suitable action plans and point out obstacles that come in the way.
Individual Counselling: Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. It is usually done through face to face meetings between employee and counsellor or coach.
Information Service: Employment opportunities at various levels are made known to employees through information services of various kinds. Records of employee’s skills, knowledge, experience and performance indicate the possible candidates for filling up such vacancies.
For compiling and communicating career related information to employees organisations basically use four methods: Job Posting System, Skills Inventory, Career Ladders and Career Paths and Career Resource Center.
Employee Assessment Programme: Initially a new recruit is informed about career policies and procedures of the company. Formal orientation programmes are used to educate employees on career programmes, career paths and opportunities for advancement within the company.
Several assessment programmes are also used to evaluate the employees’ potential for growth and development in the organisation. They include assessment center, in which a number of performance simulation tests and exercises are used to rate a candidate’s potential, psychological testing, promotability forecasts and succession planning.
Employee Developmental Programme: These consists of skill assessment and training efforts that organisations use to groom their employees for future vacancies. Seminars, workshops, job rotations and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of such developmental activities.
Career Programmes for Special Groups: In recent years there is a growing evidence regarding dual career families and growing tension owing to their inability to reconcile the differences between family roles and work demands. Therefore organisations are providing a place and a procedure for discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. They are coming out with schemes such as part time work, long parental leave, child care centers, flexible working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual career conflicts.
Performance is always measured in terms of results.
Performance Appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour of employees in the workspot, normally including both the qualitative and quantitaive aspects of job performance. It is a systematic and objective way of evaluating both work related behavior and potential of employees. It is a process that involves determining and communicating to an employee how he or she is performing the job and ideally, establishing a plan for improvement.
Performace Appraisal (PA) could be taken for either evaluating the performance of employees or for developing them.
The evaluation is of two types:
Telling the employee where he stands
Using the data for personnel decisions concerning pay, promotions etc.
The developmental objectives focus on finding individual and organisational strengths and weaknesses, developing healthy superior subordinate relationships and offering appropriate counselling for future development of the employee.
Compare actual performance with standards and discuss the appraisal: The assessment of another person’s contribution and ability is not an easy task.
The appraisal has serious emotional overtones as it affects the self esteem of the appraisee.
Taking corrective action, if necessary: It is of two types: Immediate action sets things right and gets things back on track whereas the basic corrective action gets to the source of deviations and seeks to adjust the difference permanently.
Judgement Errors: People often commit mistakes while judging others. There are various types of biases and judgement errors: first impression, Halo, Horn effect, Leniency, Central tendency, Stereotyping, Recency effect.
Poor Appraisal Forms: It may be influenced by following factors:
The rating scale may be quite vague and unclear.
Rating form may ignore important aspects of job performance and contain irrelevant dimensions.
The forms may be too long and complex.
DESIGNING EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM
It should possess the following essential characteristics:
Reliability and Validity, job relatedness, standardisation, practical viability, legal sanction, training to appraiser, open communication, employee access to results.
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN INDIAN ORGANISATIONS
There are three different approaches for carrying out performance appraisal. Employers can be appraised against:
Absolute standards, where employee’s performance is measured against some established criteria.
Relative standards, where the subjects are compared against other individuals.
Objectives, where the employees are evaluated by how well they accomplish a specific set of objectives that have been determined to be critical in the successful completion of their job.