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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature


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  • 1. DO 68204 >mCD
  • 5. PEEFACE aim of this book, as designed by the publishers, is toTHE present, in convenient form, information which the ordinaryreader, not only of the literatures of Greece and Rome, but alsoof that large proportion of modern European literature whichteems with classical allusions, may find useful. It endeavours todo two things in the first place to bring together what he may :wish to know about the evolution of classical literature, theprincipal authors, and their chief works in the second place, ;to depict so much of the historical, political, social, and religiousbackground as may help to make the classics understood.Accordingly, for the first of the above purposes, articles inalphabetical arrangement (1) explain the various elements ofclassical literature epic, tragedy, comedy, metre, &c (2) give;an account of the principal authors; and (3) describe thesubjects or contents of their works, either under the name ofthe author, where more convenient, under the title of the or,work itself. Interesting points of connexion between the classicsand medieval and modern English literature are noticed. Ingeneral the book confines itself to the classical period, but someauthors of the decline, such as Plutarch and Lucian, Jerome andAusonius, are included, because of their exceptional interest orimportance. In addition, to effect the second of the above purposes,articles are added: (1) on the principal phases of the history of Greece (more particularly Athens) and Rome, down to the end of the period of their classical literatures, and on their political institutions and economic conditions outstanding histori- ; cal characters, inseparable from literature, such as Pericles and Pompey, are separately mentioned ; (2) on Greek and Roman religion and religious institutions, and the principal schools of philosophy ; (3) on various aspects of the social conditions, under such
  • 6. vi PREFACE headings as Houses, Women (Position of), Slavery, Educa- tion, Food, Clothing, and Games ; the art, industry, com- merce, and agriculture of the Greek and Roman periods are also noticed ; (4) on the more important myths and mythological charac- ters, as an essential element in Greek and Roman litera- ture; (5) on geographical names of importance in a literary connexion, as the birthplaces of authors, or as the scene of events frequently alluded to something is said of the ; topography of Athens and Rome, and further geographical information is furnished by maps and plans ; (6) on the manner in which ancient books were written, and the texts transmitted and studied through the ages ; (7) on such things as Roman camps, roads, and aqueducts, ancient ships and chariot-races, horses and elephants in antiquity, and domestic pets. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that this work doesnot list antiquities as such, but only those antiquities whichconcern the study of classical literature. The compiler of a book such as this is necessarily under aheavy debt to previous writers. It would be impossible, withinthe limits of a preface, to enumerate the works, whether editionsof and commentaries on ancient authors, or treatises on variousaspects of antiquity, which have been consulted in the courseof its preparation. Of such works I may specially mention,rather as an illustrative sample than as giving any indication ofthe extent of my obligations, the works of Werner on JaegerAristotle, of Prof. Gilbert Murray on Aristophanes, of C. M.Bowra on Homer, of Sir J. C. Sandys on Epigraphy and on theHistory of Scholarship, of A. W. Pickard-Cambridge on theevolution of the Greek drama, of F. G. Kenyon and F. W. Hallon ancient books, of W. W. Tarn on Hellenistic Civilization, ofR. C. Jebb on the Attic Orators, and of R. G. Collingwoodon Roman Britain. Apart from this general acknowledgementof my indebtedness, I must confine myself to naming a few
  • 7. PREFACE viiworks from which I have more especially and more frequentlysought; ^guidance, viz,: in the matter of Greek Literature, thehisto^es of the subject by A. and M. Croiset, Prof. GilbertMurray, and Prof. Rose Latin Literature, the works of J. W. ;Mackail, R. Pichon, J. Wight Duff, and Prof. Rose; Greekmythology and religion, Prof. Roses Handbook of GreekMythology and M. P. Nilssons History of Greek Religion;Roman religion, the works of W. Warde Fowler and Cyril Bailey *and Sir J. G. Frazers commentary on Ovids Fasti; Greekand Roman History, the works of G. Glotz, M. Gary, J. B. Bury,M. Rostovtzeff G. Ferrero, and the Cambridge Ancient History. ,On antiquities in general I have obtained much assistance fromthe Cambridge Companions to Greek and Latin Studies, fromthe dictionaries of Darexnberg and Saglio and of Seyffert(Sandys and Nettleship), and from Stuart Joness Companionto Roman History; on points of biography from LiibkersReallexikon and on certain matters from the Real-Encyclo- ; padie of Pauly-Wissowa. I must also acknowledge the helpful suggestions which I havereceived from several people who were concerned with this bookin its various stages: from Dr. Cyril Bailey; Mr. J. B. Poyntonof Winchester College Mr. W. H. Walsh of Merton College, ;Oxford; Mr. A. H. M. Jones of All Souls College, Oxford; Mr.H. A. Murray of Kings College, Aberdeen; Mr. J. M. Wyllie;Mr. S. W. Steadman; and Miss C. M. M. Leask of Aberdeen;alsofrom the staff of the Clarendon Press. Such value as thebook may have is largely due to them. H.P.H. September, 1937.
  • 8. LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS PAGESDetailed description . . . 465-8 PLATES 1. Greek and Roman Houses. 2. Roman and Roman Camp. Villas 3. Greek Armour. 4. Roman Armour. 6. Greek and Roman Theatres. 6. Greek and Roman Temples. MAPS 7. Asia Minor and the East: Routes of Xerxes, Cyrus, Alexander, and the March of the Ten Thousand. 8. Greece and Asia Minor. 9. Roman Empire.10. Italy.11. Gaul.12. Roman Britain.13 (a). Athens. (6). Piraeus.14 (a). Rome under the Republic. (6). Centre of Rome under the Early Empire.
  • 9. GUJNJKKAL. AKTIULESTHE following selected list indicates the headings under which information on general subjects can be found.Administration,Public (Athens, 9 ; Rome, Horses. 12). Houses and Furniture.Agriculture. Hunting.Alphabet. Judicial Procedure.Aqueducts. Law, Roman.Architecture, Greek (for Koman Archi- Libraries. tecture, see Art). Ludi.Army. Lyric Poetry.Art, Roman (for Greek Art Bee Architec- Magic, ture, Painting, Sculpture, Toreutic Art). Maps.Augury and Auspices. Metre.Augustan Age. Migrations and Dialects, Greek.Baths. Mines.Birthplaces of Greek and Roman Money and Coins. authors. Monsters.Books, Ancient. Museums.Burial and Cremation. Music.Byzantine Age of Greek Literature. Mysteries.Calendar. Mythology.Castra. Names.Chariot races. Novel.Ciceronian Age. Omens.Classic. Oracles.Clothing and Toilet. Oratory.Colonization. Ostraca.Comedy. Painting, Greek (for Roman Painting seeCorn Supply. Art).Dancing. Papyri, Discoveries of.Dictionaries. Pets.Didactic poetry. Philosophy.Divination. Pottery.Dogs. Priests.Economic Conditions (Athens, 10 J Prose. Rome, 13). Provinces, Roman.Editions of Collections of the Classics. Religion.Education. Roads.Elegy. Roman Age of Greek Literature.Elephants. Sacrifice.Epio. Satire.Epigraphy. Satyric Drama.Epitaphs. Sculpture, Greek (for Roman SculptureFestivals. see Art).Finances (Athens, II; Rome, 14). Ships.Food and Wine. Slavery.Games. Temples.Gladiators. Texts and Studies.Glass. Theatre.Guilds. Tragedy.Hellenistic Age. Vase-painting.Historians, Ancient, and Modern. Weights and Measures.Homeric Age. Women, Position of. A date chart of Greek and Latin authors and of events contemporary with them is given on pages 455-62.
  • 10. PKELIMINAEY NOTE HEAD-WORDSPROPER names are entered as head -words in the form in which theyare most familiar to ordinary readers, e.g. Ajax, Aristotle,Menelaus, Phidias, Terence. The Greek v appears as y, K as c,.and final -os as -us where these are the more familiar forms. Thecorrect transliteration of Greek names and the full Latin names areadded in brackets where required: e.g. Ajax (Aids), Aristotle(Aristoteles), Menelaus (Meneldos), Phidias (Pheidids), Terence(Publius Terentius Afer) (Less familiar names, not head- words, such .as Asopichos, Pherenikos, are given in transliterated form.) Latin proper names appear under the persons nomen unless he isgenerallyknown by his cognomen e.g. Cicero appears under that ;name, not under Tullius . In a few cases the names are given underthe praenomen, e.g. Appius Claudius, where this is the customarydesignation. QUANTITIES AND PRONUNCIATION The ordinary English pronunciation of names is shown, by stressand quantity marks, in head- words only (i.e. in the words printed inheavy black type at the beginning of each article). Where thequantities in the English pronunciation differ from those in Greek orLatin, the name is repeated in brackets with the Greek or Latinquantities. The quantities shown in all names and common nounsother than head-words are their quantities as Greek or Latin words,and are not necessarily an indication of their accepted pronunciationin English. For instance (1) Catullus, GAIUS VALERIUS, (2) Claudius (Tib&rius Claudius N&ro Qermanicua), (3) a river in Pamphylia,where Catullus and Claudius represent the ordinary Englishpronunciation, while Glfus, VALERIUS, Tiblriua, Nlro, Qermanicus,Pamphylia, show the quantities of the Latin or Greek names. In general only the long vowels are marked, and vowels are to betaken as short unless marked as long but ; (1) a syllable in which the vowel is long (or common) by position,
  • 11. PEELIMINARY NOTEunder the ordinary rules of Greek and Latin prosody, as beingfollowed^by two consonants, is usually not marked; e.g. the firstsyllables in Thersites, Petronius ;< (2) the vowels of Latin case-endings which are long by the ordi-nary rules of Latin prosody, for instance -o, -a, -is of the ablative,-i, -orum, -arum of the genitive, are not marked; e.g. De Amlcitia. (3) short vowels are occasionally marked with the short sign,e.g. for emphasis, as where a vowel which is short in Greek or Latinis usually pronounced long in English ; e.g. Solon (Solon), Titus(Titus). Where a vowel is common (sometimes short, sometimes long) other-wise than under above, this is indicated by the sign -; e.g. (1)Diana. Where, in a name of some importance, a quantity is un-known or uncertain, the fact is stated. The groups of letters AE, AI, Atr, EI, EU, otr, are to be takenas diphthongs unless indicated that the letters are to be pro- it isnounced separately, e.g. Alpheus, Antinous. Where a name which appears as a head-word occurs also elsewherein the course of an article, the quantities are not always again in- *dicated there. For instance, where Socrates occurs in the articleon Plato, it is printed without indication of the quantities. The greatmajority of the names of persons and places mentioned in the courseof articles are given also as head- words, if only for purpose of cross-reference ; and this applies also to Greek and Latin common nounssuch as ecdesia, venationes. Accordingly a reader who desires to knowthe quantities of the syllables of such a name or noun should firstlook for it among the head- words. If it does not appear there andno quantities are marked where it is found in an article, it may beinferred that its syllables are short.
  • 12. ABBREVIATIONSad fin.: adfinem, at or near the end. gen. : genitive.b. : born. Gk.: Greek.c. : century. L. or Lat. Latin. :cc.: centuries. m. married. :c.: circa, about. O.T.: Old confer, compare. q.v. : quod vide, which see.d. : died. qq.v,: quae vide, both which, or alldr.: daughter. which, seq. : et sequentes, and following. understand or supply. sc.: scilicet,fl.i floruit, flourished. The abbreviated names of authors and works, such as Horn. Il/, Virg. Aen., appearing in this book are for the most part sufficientlyfamiliar to need no explanation but the following may be noted: ;Apoph. Keg.: Apophthegmata Re- Phaedr.: Phaednis. gum. Ran. : Ranae (Frogs).Ep.: Epistulae (Epistles). Sep. c. Th. Septem contra Thebas :Epod.: Epodes. (Seven against Thebes).Nub. :Nubes (Clouds). Vesp. : Vespae (Wasps).Phaed.:Phaedo.
  • 13. G0M1PANION TO CLASSICAL LITERATUREAbbreviations denoting certain editions interlocutors were L. Licinius Lucullusof the Classics, etc. (q.v.), Q. Lutatius Catulus, an aristocraticALG. leader (consul in 78 B.C.), Q. Hortensius Anthotogia Lyrica Graeca.Bude. Collection des University de France, (q.v.), and Cicero. The two books of this first edition were called * Catulus and publiee SOILS le patronage de IAssoc. Guillaume Bude. Lucullus after the chief interlocutors.CAF. Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta. Cicero then camo to the conclusion thatCAH. Cambridge Ancient History. these interlocutors could not agree, andCGF. Comicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta. as Varro had asked that a work should beCIE. Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum. dedicated to him, Cicero altered his planGIG. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. and dedicated a new edition to him.CIL. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. He rearranged the work in four books,CLA. Codices Latini Antiquiores. and made the interlocutors Varro, Atticus,Cl.Qu. Classical Quarterly. and Cicero. We have the first book (i.e.Cl.Rev. Classical Review. the first quarter) of the second editionGPL. Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. (sometimes known as Academica Pos-CRP, Comicorum Romanorum Fragmenta. toriora), and the second book (i.e. theFdV. Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. second half, Lucullus) of the first edition (sometimes known as Academica Priora). *FHG. Fragmenta Historicorum Oraecorum.HRR. Historicorum Romanorum Reli- The scene of the conversations is laid at various villas on the shores of the Gulf of quiae.IG. Inscriptiones Graecae (Berlin, 1873- Naples. The date of the conversations, in the first edition, was supposed to be before ).IGA. Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae 60 B.C. in the second, near the time of ; (Berlin, 1882). composition.JHS. Journal of Hellenic Studies. In Book I of the second edition VarroOCT. Oxford Classical Texts. expounds the evolution of the doctrines of the Academy (q.v.), from the dog-PLG. Poetae Lyrici Graeci.RE. Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie. matism of the old school to the scepticismRev. Arc. Revue Archeologique. of Arcesilas and Carneades. In Book IISEG. Supplementum Epigraphicum Grae- of the first edition Lucullus attacks the cum. position of the sceptics. Cicero defendsSVF. Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. the sceptic view and Carneades doctrineTeubner or BT. Dibliotheca scriptorum of probability. Graec. et Lot. Teubneriana.Thes. L.L. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. Acptiemus, see Academy. Academy (Akademeia), a grove of olive-Abdera a Greek city on the trees near Athens, adjoining the Cephlsus, (ra "Afloypa),coast of Thrace, founded in the 7th c. and sacred to the hero Academus (see Dios-refounded in the 6th by lonians (of TeQs in curi), and containing a gymnasium (q.v.).Asia Minor), the birthplace of Protagoras It was in this grove that Plato and hisand Democritus (qq.v.); nevertheless pro- successors taught, and his school of philo-verbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants. sophy was in consequence known as the Academy,Absyrtus (Apsurtos), brother of Medea the olive grove of Academe, ;see Argonauts. Platos retirement, where the Attic bird Trills her thick -warbld notes the summerAbydos (Abudos), see Colonization, 2,and Leander. long. (Milton, P.R. iv. 244 et seq.). Sulla cut down the trees during his siegeAcad&mica* a dialogue by Cicero on the of Athens, but they must have grownphilosophical theories of knowledge, com- again, for Horace, who studied at Athens, *posed in 45 B.C. In its first form the refers to the woods of Academus (Ep. n.treatise consisted of two books, and the ii. 45). Plato was buried near the grove. 4339
  • 14. Acastus Achaean LeagueHis immediate successors as leaders of praetextae (q.v.) (on Decius Mus andthe school were Spousippus, Xenocrates, Brutus the liberator) and works onPolemo, and Crates, and the Academy literature Didascalica, a short history (under these leaders was known as the of Greek and Latin poetry, perhaps inOld Academy. A brief account of the verse and prose, thus anticipating tho general character of the Platonic teaching Menippean Satires of Varro), agriculturewill be found under Plato, 3. Arcesilas of (in verse), and history (annals, of rather aPitane (c. 315-240 B.C.), who introduced mythological and theological character,the doctrines of Pyrrhonian scepticism in verse). He was the first great Latin(see Sceptics) into the teaching of the grammarian of whom tradition tolls. Hisschool and engaged in controversy with tragedies were marked by dignity of stylethe Stoics on the question of the certitude and by the faculty of depicting terror,of knowledge, was the founder of what is pathos, and fortitude. He is perhaps theknown as the Second or Middle Academy. first Latin poet to show some appreciationThis sceptical attitude was further de- of the beauty of nature. His Atreusveloped by Carneades (q.v.) in the 2nd contained the tyrants phrase Oderintc. B.C. Antiochus of Ascalon in the 1st dum metuant, said by Suetonius to havec. B.C. effected a reconciliation with tho been frequently in Caligulas mouth.Stoic school and claimed to restore the Acestes, in the Aeneid, son of theOld Academy. See also Neoplatonism. Sicilian river-god Crimisus and a TrojanAcastus (Akastos), son of Pelias (see woman (Egesta or Segesta). He enter-Argonauts) and father of Laodameia (sec tains Aeneas and his comrades in Sicily.Protesilaus). See also Peleus. Achaea, Achaeans (Achaia, Achaioi).Acca Larentia or LAURENTIA, probably Aohaeans, according to a view widely held by modern students, was the nameoriginally an Italian goddess of the earthto whom the seed was entrusted. She was by which the first Hellenic invaders of Greece were called (see Migrations andworshipped at the Ldrentdlia on Dec. 23.In legend she was the wife of the herdsman Dialects), and Achaea was the name ofFaustulus and the nurse of Romulus and two territories in Greece, the region whereRemus. For a discussion of her possible con- they first settled in tho north (the name wasnexion with tho Lares (q.v.) see Frazer on subsequently restricted to the mountainsOv. Fast. iii. 55. of Phthiii), and a strip along the southern shore of the Corinthian Gulf, which theyAccents, GREEK, were invented by Ari- occupied later. But it is pointed out thatstophanes of Byzantium (q.v.), about tho there is no evidence of any traditionbeginning of the 2nd c. B.C., with a view that tho Achaeans were Invaders, and thatto preserving the correct pronunciation, Herodotus and Pausanias speak of themwhich in the Hellenistic Age was being as autochthonous. Homer xiscs the termcorrupted by the extension of tho Greek in two senses: in a narrower sense of alanguage to many new countries. The people inhabiting the kingdom of Achillesaccents indicated not stress but varia- near the Spercheus in Thessaly, and in ations in the pitch of the voice. The grave wider sense of the Greek army besiegingaccent signified the ordinary tone, the Troy and of the Greeks generally, noacute a rise in tho voice, the circumflex doubt because the Achaeans were aa rise followed by a fall. In tho period of prominent tribe among them.papyrus rolls (see Books) accents are as The Achaeans of the Peloponnese werea rule only occasionally indicated. The tho founders, probably in the 8th c. B.C.,use of them became generalized about of the important group of colonies at thethe 3rd c. A.D. The most important work southern extremity of Italy (includingon accentuation was that of Herodian Sybaris and Croton) which formed the(q.v.). H. W. Chandlers Greek Accentua- greater part of what was known as Mag-tion (2nd ed. 1881, Clarendon Press) is a na Graecia. Much later, Peloponnesianstandard treatise on this subject. Achaea became important in the historyAccius or Arnus, Ltfcrus (170-C.86 of the 3rd c. B.C. as the centre of theB.C.), a Latin poet, probably of Pisaumm Achaean League (q.v.). In a later agein Umbria, of a humble family. He was again Achaia was the name given bya younger contemporary of Pacuvius the Romans to the province, comprising the greater part of Greece, formed by(q.v.), whom he rivalled as a greatRoman tragedian. Cicero records that he Augustus.conversed with him. We have the titles Achaean League, a league of cities ofof some 45 of his tragedies, which dealt Achaea in the Peloponnese which hadwith Greek themes such as Andromeda, detached themselves from the rule ofMedea, Philoctetes. He also wrote two Antigonus Gonatas (see Macedonia, 3)
  • 15. Achaemenidae AchilleidIn 275 B.o. Its constitution is interesting Dikaiopolis, an Athenian farmer, sitsbecause the affairs of the League were awaiting the meeting of the Assembly,administered by a Council composed of sighing for the good times of peace. Adelegations from the cities in proportion Demigod appears, sent by the gods toto their population; each delegation was arrange peace with Sparta, but unfortun-chosen by its city, but we do not know by ately lacking the necessary travelling-what method. It was the nearest approach money. This Dikaiopolis provides, butto representative government which we the treaty with Sparta is to be a privatefind in Greece. The power and influence one for himself alone. The Demigodof the League increased under the leader- presently brings the treaty, narrowlyship of Aratus of Sicyon, who from 245 escaping from the chorus of infuriatedwas for thirty years the director of the Acharnians. Dikaiopolis celebrates hisLeagues policy, and in alternate years peace with a procession consisting of hisits general (he wrote his Memoirs, now daughter and servants, and this leadslost, and there is a life of him by Plutarch, to a dispute between Dikaiopolis and theincluding a vivid description of his capture chorus on the question of peace or war,of Corinth). He made the League the in which Lamachus (q.v.), the typicalleading power in the Peloponnese, with general, takes part. Dikaiopolis is allowedCorinth as its chief stronghold. On the to make a speech before being executed asmilitary side the League subsequently a traitor ; and to render this more patheticderived great strength from the ability borrows from Euripides some of the stageof Philopocmen (q.v.), and was finally (in properties that make his tragedies so mov-188) able to overcome Sparta herself. But ing. As a result the chorus are won overits high-handed policy brought it into to the view of Dikaiopolis. After theconflict with Rome. After the defeat of parabasis, in which the poet defends histhe Macedonians at Pydna (168), Rome, position, there is a succession of amusingas a measure of future security, deported scenes illustrative of the benefits of Italy a thousand Achaeans suspected A Megarian (Athens had been trying toof hostility to her cause among these was ; starve out Megara by a blockade) comesPolybius (q.v.). In 148, when the surviving to Dikaiopolis to buy food, offering inexiles (other than Polybius) had returned exchange his little daughters disguised asto Greece, there was again trouble between pigs in sacks. A Boeotian brings eels andthe League and Sparta. Rome intervened other good things, and wants in returnand imposed harsh terms on the League. local produce of Attica; he is given anThe League rebelled and declared war, but Informer tied up in a sack. A yeomanafter a short struggle was completely de- wants peace -salve for his eyes, which hefeated by Mummius hi 146 and dissolved. has cried out for the loss of his oxen ; and so forth. Finally Lamachus has to marchAchaemenidae, the first royal house off through the snow against the Boeo-of Persia, so named from the hero tians, and returns wounded by a vine-Achaemenes (Pers. Hakhdmanis), founder stake on which he has impaled himself,of the family. To this family belonged while Dikaiopolis makes merry with theCyrus, Cambyses, and Darius (see Persian priest of Bacchus.Wars). Achates, in the Aeneid, the faithfulAcharnfans (Acharnes), a comedy by friend and squire of Aeneas, frequentlyAristophanes, produced at the Lenaea in referred to as fldus Achates.425 B.C., his first surviving play. The Athenians had for six years been Acheron (Acheron), in Greek mythology, one of the rivers of the lower world (seesuffering the horrors of the PeloponnesianWar, the devastation of their territory* Hades). The name was that of a river in southern Epirus, which, issuing fromplague in the overcrowded city, and shor-tage of food, but their spirit was unbroken. a deep and gloomy gorge, traversed theThe Acharnians (inhabitants of an Attic Aoherusian swamps, and after recievingdeme lying NVV. of Athens near the foot the waters of the tributary Cdcytus fellof Mt. Parnes), of whom the chorus of into the Thesprotian Gulf.this play is composed, had been among AchillSid (AchilUis), an epic poem inthe chief sufferers, for their territory had hexameters by Statius (q.v.) on the storybeen repeatedly ravaged. The comedy, of Achilles (q.v.), of which only one bookwhich is a plea for peace as the only and part of a second were written. Therational solution, was produced, not in poem describes how Thetis, anxious thatthe name of Aristophanes, who was still a her son shall not take part in the Trojanyouth, but in that of Callistratus, probably War (from which she knows he will notalso a comic poet. It won the first prize, return), removes him from the care of thein spite of the unpopularity of the theme. centaur Chiron (q.v.) to Scyros. It relates
  • 16. Achilles Actlumhis adventures there in the disguise of a 480 B.C.; the walls were rebuilt by Themi-girl, his discovery by Ulysses, and de- stoclcs and Cimon (qq.v.). In the centreparture for Troy. The work was begun in stood a colossal statue of Athene Pro-A,D. 95 and was probably cut short by the machos (the Champion) whose goldenwriters death. spear-point could be seen by marinersAchiltes (Achil(l)eus), son of Peleus and from the sea. On the N. side stood theThetis (qq.v.), the chief hero on the Greek Erectheum, the original temple of theside in the Trojan War (q.v.). When an tutelary deities of Athens, Athene, Posei-infant, he was plunged by his mother don, and Ercchtheus (qq.v.), burnt byin the Styx, and rendered invulnerable the Persians and rebuilt in the latterexcept hi the heel by which she held him. part of the 5th c. hi the Ionic style, withShe later hid him, disguised as a girl, at Caryatides (q.v.) supporting its southernthe court of Lycomodes, King of Scyros, porch. In the age of Pericles were added,hi order that he should not take part in the Parthenon and Propylaea (qq.v.). There also was erected after the peacethe Trojan War; but he was discovered of 421 B.C. (see Peloponnesian War) theby Odysseus (q.v.), who sot arms before beautiful little temple of Athene Nikehim, for Achilles betrayed himself by the ( Victory), which survives reconstructed.fondness with which he handled them. It stood on a bastion adjoining the Pro-(There is a play by Robert Bridges,* Achilles in Scyros). By Deidamia, pylaea and was demolished by the Turks about 1685 to make place for a battery.daughter of Lycomedes, Achilles had a At the siege of Other sanctuaries, such as that of Artemisson, Neoptolemus (q.v.). (q.v.) Brauronia, and many statues andTroy, Achilles was leader of the Myr-midons (see Aeucus). He is represented as altars, stood on various parts of the rock.a man of fierce and implacable temper. There were also a large number of marbleWhen he sulked in his tent in conse- slabs and columns, with inscriptions of decrees, memorials, casualty -lists, treatiesquence of his quarrel with Agamemnon, asrelated hi the Iliad, the Greeks were and alliances, public accounts, inventories, etc. Many of these inscriptions, more ordriven back to their ships and almostoverwhelmed. Then followed the inter- less mutilated, have survived.vention of his friend Patroclus (q.v.) in Actaeon (Actaiori), in Greek mythology,the battle, the death of the latter, and son of Aristae us (q.v.) and Autonoe,the terrible grief of Achilles. After ho had daughter of Cadmus (q.v.). For somebeen reconciled with Agamemnon, he slew offence, either because ho boasted thatHector, and later Penthesilea, queen of the he was a better hunter than Artemis orAmazons, who was fighting on the Trojan because he came upon her bathing, theside. Mourning her for her beauty, ho was goddess changed him into a stag, and hemocked by and killed him Thersitcn (q.v.) was torn to pieces by his own a rage. Soon afterwards he was shotin the heel by Paris (q.v.), or by Apollo, Actium, a promontory in the south ofand killed. Odysseus saw him in Hades JLpirus, at the mouth of the Ambracian off which Octavian defeated the fleets(Od. xi), but it was said later that he Gulf,lived immortal in an island in the Euxine of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C. (see 7). This battle marked the end of(see under Colonization, 2, for his worship Rome,there). After the fall of Troy his ghost the Roman republic and introduced theclaimed Polyxena, daughter of Priam, as Roman empire. Early in 31 Octavian hadhis prize, and she was slain on his tomb. landed an army in Epirus hi the hope of fLandor has an Imaginary Conversation* surprising Antony s fleet in the Ambracianbetween Achilles and Helen on Mt. Ida. Gulf. In this hope ho had been disap-The heel of Achilles is proverbial for a pointed, for Antony had succeeded invulnerable spot. bringing up his army for the defence of the fleet and establishing it at Actium.Achilles Tatius, see Novel. For several months the armies and fleetsAcis (Akis), see Galatea. of the two generals confronted each other. At last, late in August, Antony decided toAcragas (Akrag&s), see Agrigentum. fight a battle at sea; but what preciselyAcrisius (Akrisios), see Danae. were his plans is uncertain. The fightAcre/polls (Upper Town), the citadel, began at dawn on 2 September. At firststanding on high ground, of a Greek town. the heavier ships of Antony appearedThe Acropolis of Athens is a rocky plateau, to be prevailing; but presently the sixtyabout 200 ft. high and about 300 yds. long Egyptian ships forming the contingentby 150 yds. wide. It was surrounded by of Cleopatra were seen to set sail and makewalls, which, with the buildings within off southwards. Antony himself followedthem, were destroyed by the Persians in her in a swift quinquereme. Antonys
  • 17. Ad Herennium Adrastus was destroyed, andfleet his army shortly to die for him. Thefather and mother ofwent over to Octavian. Admetus having refused, his wife Alcestis consented, and accordingly died. JustAd Herennium, Rhetorica, see Rhetoriea. after this, Heracles, on his way to one ofAdelphoe (or Adelphi, The Brothers), his labours, visited the castle of Admetus.a comedy by Terence, adapted from Mcn- The latter, in obedience to the laws ofander and Diphilus (see Comedy, 4), hospitality, concealed the death of hisproduced in 160 B.C. wife, and welcomed the hero. Heracles The two sons of Demea, Aeschinus and presently discovered the truth, went outCtcsipho, are brought up, the former by to intercept Thanatos, the messenger fromhis uncle Micio in the town, the latter by Hades, set upon him and took from himhis father in the country, and the theme whom he restored to her husband. Alcestis,of the comedy is the contrast between For Euripides treatment of the storytheir methods of education. Dcmea makes see Alcestis.himself hated and distrusted by his harsh- Administration, PUBLIC, see Athens,ness and frugality; Micio makes himself 9, Rome, 12.loved and trusted by his indulgence and Adoniaziiscic, see Aeschinus has seducedan Athenian lady of small means, loves Adonic, see Metre, 3.her dearly, and wishes to marry her. in Greek mythology, a beautifulCtesipho, whom his father a J^donia, believes "youth sprung from the unnatural lovemodel of virtue, has fallen hi love with a of Myrrha (or Smyrna) for her fathermusic-girl. Aeschinus, to help his brother, Cinyras (q.v.), king of Cyprus, with whichcarries off the girl from the slave-dealer she had been smitten by Aphrodite for re-to whom she belongs and brings her to fusing to honour the goddess. When Ciny-Micio s house. He thereby incurs the ras, discovering the crime, sought to killsuspicion of carrying on an intrigue with Myrrha, she was changed into a myrtle,this girl at the very moment when the from which Adonis was born. Aphroditelady whom he has seduced has most need (q.v.) fell in love with him and, when heof his sympathy and support. The truth was killed by a boar while hunting, causedbecomes known. Aeschinus is forgiven by the rose or tho anemone to spring fromMicio and his marriage arranged. Demea his blood (or the anemone sprang fromis confounded at discovering the pro- the tears that Aphrodite shed for Adonis).fligacy of Ctesipho. Finding that his Both Aphrodite and Persephone (q.v.)boasted method of education has earned then claimed him, and Zeus decided thathim only hatred, ho suddenly changes his he should spend part of the year withattitude and makes an amusing display each. Tho name Adonis is probably theof geniality forcing his old bachelor Semitic word Adon, lord, and the mythbrother into a reluctant marriage with is symbolical of the course of vegetation*the bride s mother, endowing her relative His death and survival were widely cele-with a farm at, Micio s expense, and brated (in tho East under the name of hisobliging the latter to free his slave and Syrian equivalent, Thamuz, cf. Milton,start him in life showing that even P.L. i. 446-52). As a feature of his wor-geniality can bo overdone. ship, the image of Adonis was surrounded The *Adelphoe was played at the with beds of rapidly withering plants,funeral games of Aemilius Paullus (q.v.). Gardens of Adonis. These are referredAdmetus (Admatos), in Greek mytho- to, e.g., in Spensers Faerie Queene, in. vi. 29, hi Shakespeares 1 Henry VI,logy, son of Pheres and king of Pheraoin Thessaly. When Zeus killed Asclepius i. vi, anjfljba Milton, P.L. ix. 440. The story of the Tore ot~Venus for Adonis is(q.v.) for restoring Hippolytus to life, tho subject of Shakespeare s poem VenusApollo, the father of Asclepius, furious atthis treatment of his son, took vengeance and Adonis.on the Cyclopes (q.v.) who had forged Adrastus (Adrastos), legendary king ofZeuss thunderbolt, and slew them. To Argos at the time of the conflict ofexpiate this crime he was made for a year Polynices and Eteocles for the kingdomthe serf of Admetus, who treated him of Thebes (see Oedipus). Polynices mar-kindly. Apollo, having learnt from the ried his daughter Argeia, Tydeus marriedFates that Admetus was destined to an her sister Deipyle; and Adrastus col-early death, from gratitude to him lected and led the army of the Sevencajoled the Fatss (with the help of wine) against Thebes. When tho expeditioninto granting Admetus longer life, pro- was defeated, Adrastus escaped, thanksvided that at the appointed hour of his to the swiftness of his horse Arion, thedeath he could persuade some one else offspring of Poseidon and Demeter. In
  • 18. Aea 6 Aemilius Paullushis old age ho led the second expedition Aegeus (Aigffus), see Theseus and Medeaagainst Thebes, that of the Epigoni (q.v.) (Euripides tragedy).and died on his way home, after its suc-cessful conclusion, from grief for the loss Aegina (Aigina), (1) a nymph, the mother of Aeacus (q.v.). (2) An island inof his son, who alone had fallen in the the Saronio Gulf which was occupied byattack. tho Dorians (see Migrations). In theAea (Aia), in the story of the Argonauts 6th c. it was a strong naval power and(q.v.), the realm of Aeetes (q.v.), later at enmity with Athens. When Persiaidentified with Colchis. threatened Greece early in the 5th c., itAeacus (Aiakos), in Greek mythology, was feared that the Aeginetans wouldson of Zous and the nymph Aegina. He support tho invaders. By tho interventionwas the father Telamon (father of the of Sparta Aegina was forced to give ofgreater Ajax) and of Peleus (father of Athens hostages for her good conduct,Achilles) (qq.v.). He was a man of great and an indecisive war between Aeginapiety, and when the inhabitants of his and Athens followed, beginning probably in 488. Aegina, as a matter of fact, foughtisland, Aegina, were destroyed by a plague,Zeus, to reward him, created human beings bravely on the Greek side at Salamis.out of ants (murmekes) to repeople it, and After the Persian Wars she opposed thethese were called Myrmidons, the name imperial policy of Athens and was sub-by which the subjects of Peleus and dued in 457-6. During the PeloponnesianAchilles are known in Homer. See also War the inhabitants were expelled and the island was colonized (c. 429) by AthenianMinos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus. * cleruchs (q.v.). The island was an impor-Aeaea (Aiatt), in the Odyssey, tho tant centre of Greek sculpture and con-island of Circe, situated in the stream tained a famous temple of Aphaia (seeOceanus (q.v.). Britomartis), of which the fine pedimentsAediles (Aedues) of the plebs, at Home, survive (at Munich). In mythology Aeginaoriginally two plebeian magistrates (named was the realm of Aeacus (q.v.)aediles* from the aedes or temple of Ceres, Aegisthus (Aigisthos), see Pelops.where they preserved the decrees of thepeople), who bad the charge of temples, Aegospotami (Aigospotamoi, Goatsbuildings, markets, and games. To them Rivers), a small river in the Thracianwere later added two Curule Aediles repre- Chersonese, off the mouth of which Athenssenting the whole people. The aediles suffered her final naval defeat in thewere charged with the corn-supply of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) in 405 B.C.metropolis until this was entrusted to see Aegyptus (Aiguptos), (1) Danaus;special officers (see Annona). (2) see Egypt.Aedon, in Greek mythology, daughter of Aelian (Claudius Aelianus) (fl. c. A.D.Pandareos and wife of Zethus king of 200), author of fourteen books (in Greek)Thebes. She was envious of Niobe (q.v.) of Historical Miscellanies (PoikUe His-her sister-in-law (wife of Amphion brother torid), showing wide but uncritical learn-of Zethus) because she had many children, ing about political and literary celebrities ;and plotted to kill them. By mistake she and of a work On the Characteristics ofslew her own child, Itylus (or Itys), and Animals in seventeen books. Both worksmourned for him so bitterly that the gods (the former partly in epitomized form)changed her into a nightingale. Swinburne survive.has a poem Itylus on this legend. Cf. thestory of Procne (see Philomela). Aelius Aristides, see Aristides.Aeetes (Aieies), in Greek mythology, Aelius Lampridius, see Historia Au-son of Helios (q.v.), king of Colchis, of Circe (q.v.), and father of Aelius Spartianus, see Historia Au-Medea. See Athamas and Argonauts. gusta.Aegates Insulae, islands off Lilybaeum Aemilius Paullus, LCcius (d. 160 B.C.),in Sicily, near which was fought in 242 B.C. son of the Aemilius Paullus who fell atthe naval battle in which Q. Lutatius Cannae (q.v.), was consul for the secondCatulus, the Roman admiral, defeated time in 168 B.C., when the Macedonianthe Punic fleet, thereby terminating the War, owing to the incompetence of theFirst Punic War (see Punic Wars). Roman generals and the indiscipline of theAegean Sea (Aigaios Pontos), the part army, was going ill for Rome. He restoredof the Mediterranean between Greece and discipline and in a single campaignAsia Minor. The etymology of the name is brought the war to a successful end by hisunknown. victory at Pydna. He formed, with the
  • 19. Aeneas 7 Aeneidbooks that had belonged to the Ma- families by representing their ancestorscedonian king (Perseus), the first private in the heroic age, and for recounting,library at Rome. The proceeds of the by the device of prophecy, the historicalbooty gained at Pydna were enormous, triumphs of Rome and of Augustus. Theand were scrupulously paid into the Ro- striking feature of the poem is the con-man treasury. He combined old Roman ception of Italy as a single nation, and ofvirtue with Greek enlightenment. He vas Roman history as a continuous whole fromfather of Scipio Aemilianus (q.v.). There the founding of the city to the full expan-is a life of him by Plutarch. sion of the Empire. The greatness of the theme made a profound impression on theAeneas (Gk. Ainaias), son of Anchiseaand Aphrodite (qq.v.) and a member of Roman people the dignity with which it ; Is set forth is enhanced by the poetsthe younger branch of the royal family tender contemplative spirit, his sympathyof Troy (see genealogy under Troy). In with suffering humanity, and his feelingthe Iliad he is represented as under the for nature. The poem has been criticizeddisfavour of Priam and is a secondary hi certain respects. Its mythology is stifffigure. But it is there stated (xx. 307) that* his might shall reign among the Trojans, and conventional; the Homeric Olympusand his childrens children, who shall bo was discredited in Virgils day (for theborn in the aftertime*. There was an poets treatment of religion see under Virgil). Many of the characters are saidearly tradition that he escaped when Troy to lack force and distinctness. The epis-fell, and went to some place in Italy. ode of Aeneas and Dido has been the sub-Timaeus (q.v.) appears to have been thefirst to make him the originator of the ject of the most frequent censure. It is out of harmony with our ideas of right andfuture Roman State. The tale of Aeneasswanderings to Italy was perhaps told by wrong that Dido, deserted by Aeneas, should perish, while Aeneas goes shabbilyStesichorus (q.v.), and we have it in its fully developed form in the Aeneid (q.v.) away scot-free. It is unlikely that Virgilsof Virgil. That the legend was officially contemporaries would have taken this view. A marriage with Dido, a foreignrecognized in the 3rd c. B.C. is shown bythe fact that after the 1st Punic War the woman, is not one of which they wouldAcarnanians requested the help of Rome have approved; Didos passion had en- tangled Aeneas, but the will of theagainst the Aetolians on the ground thattheir ancestors alone of all the Greeks had gods, they would have said, must prevailnot taken part in the expedition against over human passion; and the incident has many parallels in Greek mythologyTroy. The legend was adopted by l^abiusPictor in his history, and by the poets (Theseus and Ariadne, Jason and Medea, &c.). It is perhaps unintentionally thatNaevius and Ennius. See also Tabula the poet so powerfully enlists our sym-Iliaca. For the reconciliation of the pathy for Dido. Conington says thatlegend with the story of the founding of me by Romulus see Rome, 2. Virgil in this episode struck the chord of modern passions, and it vibrated moreZ" f neid (Aeneis), an epic poem in twelve powerfully than the minstrel himselfbooks of hexameters by Virgil, composed expected .in seclusion in Campania during the last Virgil, in composing the Aeneid, drew oneleven years of his life, 30-19 B.C. (that many sources; primarily on the Iliadis to say, after the battle of Actium had and the Odyssey, combining in hisfinally established the principate of poem the travel -adventures of the latterAugustus). The poem was left unfinished with the warfare of the former, andand Virgil is said, when dying, to have modelling on Homer many episodes (e.g.ordered it to be destroyed. He had read the funeral games in Bk. V, the visit toportions of the work to Augustus and his the nether world in Bk. VI, the descrip-family hi 23 B.C. tion of the shield in Bk. VIII). Virgil The poem is a national epic, designed also drew on the Homeric Hymns andto celebrate the origin and growth of the Cyclic poets, the *Argonautica* of Apol-Roman Empire, The groundwork is the lonius Rhodius, the Greek tragedians,legend that Aeneas (q.v.), after the fall and on his own immediate predecessors,of Troy and long wanderings, founded a Ennius, Lucretius, and others. His pic-Trojan settlement in Latium, the source ture of the lower world appears to be aof the Roman race (see Rome, 2). This poetic treatment of the various opinionsafforded scope for the mythical and about it, popular and philosophical,supernatural element found in Homeric prevalent in his day. The contents ofepic, for recalling the ancient beliefs and the work may be briefly summarized aepractices of magic and religion, for glori- follows :fying the Roman people and their chief Book I. Aeneas, who for seven years
  • 20. Aeneid 8 Aeneidsince the fall of Troy has been pursuing: storm; Dido and Aeneas take refuge inhis way to Latium, has Just left Sicily. a cave and are united by the design ofJuno, knowing that a race of Trojan Juno and Venus. The rumour of theirorigin will in future ages threaten her love reaches the neighbouring larbas, whobeloved city Carthage, incites Aeolus to has been rejected by Dido and who nowlet loose a storm on the Trojan fleet. Some appeals to Jupiter. Jupiter orders Aeneasof the ships are wrecked, and the fleet scat- to leave Carthago. Dido discovers Aeneasstered; but Neptune pacifies the sea and preparations for departure and makes aAeneas reaches the Libyan coast. The piteous plea. Her lovers sorry excusesremaining ships also arrive and the for his desertion call down on him DidosTrojans are kindly received by Dido, withering rejoinder. But Aeneas is stead-qiieen of the newly founded Carthage and fast. Dido, distraught by anguish andwidow of Sychaeus. She has fled from fearful visions, makes a last entreaty forTyre, where her husband had been killed delay, and when this is unavailing pre-by his brother Pygmalion, king of the pares for death. When she sees theland. Venus, though Jupiter has revealed Trojan fleet sailing away, she takes herto her the future destiny of Aeneas and own life, heaping in her frenzy curses onhis race, dreading the hate of Juno and Aeneas and his race.the wiles of the Tyrians, designs that Book V. The Trojans return to Sicily,Dido shall be smitten with love for Aeneas. landing hi the territory of their com- Book JI. At Didos request, Aeneas patriot Acestes (q.v.). The anniversaryrelates the fall of Troy and the subsequent of the death of Anchises is celebrated withevents: the building of the Trojan Horse, sacrifices and games. First, a race between the guile of Sinon, the death of Laocoon four ships. Gyas in Chimaera is leading ;(qq.v.), the firing of the city, the desperate ho heaves his pilot overboard for notresistance of Aeneas himself and his com- hugging close enough the turning point;rades, the death of Priam, and his own ho is passed by Cloanthus in flight by the order of Venus; how Sergestus in Centaur runs aground.ho carries off Anchises his father on his Mnestheus in Pristis presses hard onshoulders and takes his son lulus (As- Cloanthus, but the latter wins. Then acanius) by the hand; his wife Creusa foot-race, in which Nisus, leading, slipsfollows but is lost. Her ghost tells him the and falls and deliberately trips Saliusdestiny that awaita him. so as to give the victory to his friend Book III. (Aeneas continues his narra- Euryalus. A boxing match follows be-tive.) He and his companions build a tween Dares of Troy and Entellus offleet and set out. They touch at Thrace Sicily the former is worsted and Aeneas ;(where Aeneas hears the voice of his stops the fight. Finally a shooting-match,murdered kinsman Polydorus from his and a riding display by thirty -six youthsgrave) and Delos. The Delian oracle led by Ascanius (see Ludus Troiae)* Mean-bids them sock the land that first bore while the Trojan women, incited by Junothe Trojan race. This is wrongly inter- and weary of their long wanderings, firepreted to mean Crete, from which they the ships four are destroyed, but a rain- ;are driven by a pestilence. Aeneas now storm quells the fire. When the Trojanslearns that Italy is meant. On their sail away, Palinurus the helmsman, over-way the Trojans land on the island of come by sleep, falls into the sea and is lost.the Harpies (q.v.) and attack them. Book VI. Aeneas visits the CumaeanThe Harpy Cclacno prophesies that they Sibyl, who foretells his wars in Latium.shall found no city till hunger compels After plucking by her direction the Goldenthem to eat the tables at which they Bough (see Di,ana) he descends with her,feed. At Buthrotum in Chaonia they through the cave of Avernus, to the netherfind Helenus the seer (son of Priam) and world. They reach the Styx and on theAndromache, and the former instructs hither side see the ghosts of the unburiodAeneas in the route he must follow, visiting dead; among them Palinurus (q.r.), whothe Cumaean Sibyl and founding his city recounts his fate and begs for burial. Thewhere by a secluded stream he shall find Golden Bough gains for Aeneas permissiona white sow with a litter of thirty young. from Charon to cross the Styx. CerberusAeneas pursues his way and visits the (q.v.) is pacified with a drugged honeycountry of the Cyclops (q.v.) hi Sicily; cake. Various groups of dead are seen:his father dies at Dropanum. Thence he infants, those unjustly condemned, thosereaches Libya. who have died from love (among whom Book IV. Dido, though bound by a Dido receives in silence the renewed ex-vow to her dead husband, confesses to her cuses of Aeneas), and those who haveBister Anna her passion for Aeneas. A fallen in war. They approach the entrancehunting expedition is interrupted by a to Tartarus, where the worst criminals
  • 21. Aeneid 9 Aeneidsuffer torments; but turn aside to Ely- and urges alliance with the Etruscans.sium, where the blest enjoy a care -free He leads Aeneas through the city and ex-life. Here Aeneas finds and vainly seeks plains the origin of various Roman sitesto embrace Anchises. Ho sees ghosts and names. Vulcan, at the request ofdrinking at the river Lethe (q.v.) and Venus, forges armour for Aeneas. TheAnchises expounds to him the reincarna- shield is described, on which are depictedtion of souls after a long purgation (a various events in the future history ofPythagorean doctrine drawn by Virgil Rome, down to the battle of Actium.perhaps from the Orphic and Eleusinian Book IX. While Aeneas is thus absent,traditions). Among these souls he points Turnus blockades the Trojan camp.out to his son those of men who are in the He sets the Trojan ships on fire, butfuture to be illustrious in Roman history, Neptune turns them into sea-nymphs.from Romulus and the early kings to Nisus and Euryalus pass through thothe great generals of later days, Augustus enemy lines at night to summon Aeneas.himself, and his nephew Marcellus (q.v.), They slay some of the enemy in theirto whose brief life the poet makes touching drunken sleep, but fall hi with a hostileallusion. Aeneas and the Sibyl then leave column and are killed, Nisus gallantlythe lower world through the Ivory Gate, striving to save his friend. The Rutuliansthrough which false dreams are sent to assault the camp ; Ascanius performs hismortals (perhaps a hint that what the first exploit; Turnus is cut off withinpoet has described is no more than a the rampart, but escapes by plunging intodream). This book contains the memor- the lines (851-3) on the destiny of Rome, Book X. The gods debate in Olympus,the central thought of the whole poem : and Aeneas secures tho alliance of Tar-Tu regero imperio populos, Romane, me- chon, king of the Etruscans, and returns mento ; to the scat of war, accompanied by PallasHae tibi crunt artes: pacisque imponere (son of Evander) and Tarchon. Turnus morem, opposes them on the shore, to prevent theParcere subjectis, et debellaro superbos. junction of the Trojan forces. In the Book VII. The Trojans reach the mouth battle Turnus kills Pallas; he pursues aof the Tiber hero the Harpys prophecy ; phantom of Aeneas contrived by Juno(see Bk. Ill above) is fulfilled, for the and is borne away to his city. AeneasTrojans eat cakes of bread which they wounds Mezentius, whose son Lausus trieshave used as platters. Of this land, to save him ; Aeneas reluctantly kills theLatium, Latlnus is the king. His daughter lad. Mezentius addresses his gallant horse,is Lavmia. The goodliest of her wooers Rhaobus, and again faces Aeneas; horseis Turnus, king of the Rutuli; but her and man are killed.father has been divinely warned to marry Book XI. Aeneas celebrates the Trojanher to a stranger who shall come. The victory and laments Pallas. A truce withembassy sent by Aeneas is welcomed by the Latins is arranged. The Italian chiefsLatinus, who offers alliance and the hand debate. Drances proposes that the issueof his daughter. Juno calls out the Fury shallbe settled by single combat betweenAllecto, who stirs Amata (tho mother of Turnus and Aeneas, and Turnus accepts.Lavinia) and Turnus to fierce hostility The debate is interrupted by a report thatagainst the Trojans. Tho wounding of a Aeneas and his army are moving againststag from the royal herds by Ascanius the city. A cavalry engagement followscauses an affray; Latinus is overborne, in which Camilla takes the lead. Tarchonand the Italian tribes gather to expel the plucks Vonulus from his horse and carriesTrojans. Virgil enumerates these and their him off before him on his saddle-bow.leaders; notable among them besides Camilla is killed by Arruns and is avengedTurnus are Mezentius scorner of the by Opis, messenger of Diana.gods, a tyrant hated by his people, Book XII. The Latins are discouraged,Messapus, Virbius (son of Hippolytus, and Turnus decides to meet Aeneas alone.q.v.), and the Volscian warrior-maid, Latinus and Amata try in vain to dis-Camilla (q.v.). suade him. A compact is made for the Book VIII. Aeneas faces war reluc- single combat. But Juturna, sister oftantly, but is encouraged by the god of Turnus, stirs up the Rutulians, and thethe river Tiber, who sends him to seek general fighting is resumed. Aeneas isthe alliance of the Arcadian Evandcr wounded by an unknown hand, but healed(q.v.), the founder of the city on tho by Venus. The Trojans, seeing tho city ofPalatine hill, part of the future Rome. Latinus loft unguarded, attack and fireOn the bank of the Tiber Aeneas sees a it. Amata takes her life. Turnus returnswhite- sow with her litter, as foretold from his pursuit of Trojan stragglers andby Helenus. Evander promises support the opposing forces suspend their struggle
  • 22. Aeolians 10 Aeschineswhile he and Aeneas fight. Aeneas wounds Demosthenes. His parents were in rivalTurnus. Even now he would spare him; modest circumstances (his father Atro-but he sees on his body the spoils of metus was a schoolmaster). As a youngPallas and in fierce anger buries his sword man he won some distinction in militaryin his enemys body. service and then became a tragic actor The Aeneid was edited after Virgils and a public clerk. He first appears indeath by his friends Varius Rufus (q.v.) political life in 348 as an envoy sentand Plotius Tucca. For famous editions by Eubulus (q.v.) to the Peloponnese toand translations see under Virgil. It may organize Hellenic resistance to of interest to recall that the two pas- But, with Eubulus, he soon abandonedsages of the Aeneid which Dr. Johnson this policy and became an advocate ofpicked out for their wonderful quality peace with Macedonia. He formed partwere the descriptions of the tomb of of the embassies sent to Philip for thoPolydonis dripping blood (Hi. 19 et seq.), negotiation of the Peace of Philocratesand of the Trojan ships turned to sea- and in 343 was impeached by Demos-nymphs (ix. 77 et seq.). thenes (q.v.) for his conduct on theseAeolians (Aidleis), see Migrations and occasions. His defence (which we possess)Dialects. was successful and he was acquitted. Demosthenes was to have been associatedAeolis, the northern portion of the coast with one Timarchus in the accusation ofof Asia Minor, from the Troad to the river Aeschines, but Aeschines had retorted byHennus, which was occupied by Aeolian bringing a charge against Timarchus ofGreeks (see Migrations). immoral life. His speech against Timar-Aeolus (Aiolos), (1) described in the chus (345), which was successful, is theOdyssey* as the son of Hippotes and first of the three speeches of Acschinesfriend of the gods, who lives an agree- that have survived. He next came intoable life in the floating island Acolia. He prominence in 340, when, at a sessiongave Odysseus a leather bag in which of the Amphictyonic (q.v.) council, thewere secured the winds adverse to the Locrians of Amphissa, at the instigationlatters voyage, and thus he later came to of Thebes, were to bring an accusationbe regarded as the god of the winds. Virgil of sacrilege against Athens. To forestall(Aen. i. 50-9) depicts him as keeping the this, Aeschines accused the Locrians them-winds imprisoned in a cave. (2) A son of selves of sacrilege (see Sacred Wars).Hellen (see Hellenes and Deucalion) and A Sacred War was decreed against Am-the legendary ancestor of the Aeolian race phissa, and it was this war which pro-(see Migrations) and father of Sisyphus, vided the pretext for the invasion ofAthamas, Salmoneus, Alcyone (qq.v.), Philip of Maccdon (q.v.) that culminatedCalycS (mother of Endymion, q.v.), and in the battle of Chaeronea (q.v.). Thoother children, action of Aeschines on this occasion was made the ground of part of DemosthenesAepytus (Aiputos), see Merope. denunciation of Aeschines in his speechAerarium, the treasury of the Roman On tho Crown*. The rivalry betweenrepublic. It was maintained under tho the two statesmen finally manifestedempire, but distinguished from the fiscus itself when Ctesiphon in 336 proposed that(q.v.) or imperial treasury. Its chief Demosthenes should be publicly crownedsource of income in imperial times was the for his services to the state. Acschinesrevenue of the senatorial provinces, and indicted Ctesiphon for tho alleged illegalityit appears to have borne the cost of main- of this proposal, and in his speech sixtenance of public buildings, of the con- years later, which survives, attacked thestruction of roads, and of State religion; whole career of Demosthenes as injuriousit issued tho copper coinage. Though to Athens. The jury by an overwhelmingnominally under the management of majority acquitted Ctesiphon. Aeschinesthe Senate, the control of the emperors retired into exile and died there.over it increased with time, till the two The speeches of Aeschines reveal histreasuries were in practice almost indis- Ho was Inferiority to his great rival.tinguishable. The aerarium was housed in excessively vain, and deficient in nobilitythe temple of Saturn beside the Capitol. of character and political sagacity, butSee Rome, 14. there is no proof of the corruption of The aerarium mUitare was a pension which Demosthenes accused him. Hisfund for disabled soldiers instituted by speeches are in a lighter, livelier style thanAugustus in A.D. 6. those of Demosthenes; he had had noAeschines (Aischinfe), a famous Athen- special rhetorical training, but his stageian orator, was born about 390 B.C. and experience had given him a good deliverywas thus a few years older than his great and a wide acquaintance with literature.
  • 23. Aeschylus 11 Aesopus Among Landers Imaginary Conversa- ous language and bold metaphors. Histions is one between Aeschines and lyrics, which play a more important partPhocion.(q.v.). in his tragedies than in those of his suc- cessors, reached the highest point in thatAeschylus (Aischulos) (525-456 B.C.), a branch of poetic art. His plays are per-great Greek tragic poet, born at Eleusis, meated with the religious spirit; he ac-near Athens, of a noble family. He took cepts the traditional mythology withoutpart in the Persian Wars; his epitaph criticizing it in the manner of Euripides,(composed, it is said, by himself) represents but tries to reconcile it with morality.him as fighting at Marathon, and his Among the ideas prominent to his playsdescription of Salamis in the Persians are those of destiny or fatality, workingsuggests that he was present at that battle through the divine will and human pas-also. He visited Syracuse at the invitation of sion ; of the heredity of crime, both in theHieron I (see Syracuse, 1) more than once sense that crime provokes vengeance inand died at Gela in Sicily; an anecdote the next generation, and in the sense ofrelates that an eagle dropped a tortoise on the inheritance of a criminal taint; andhis bald head and killed him. He appears of the vengeance of the gods on over-at some time in his life to have been weening pride (hubris). His principalprosecuted on the charge of divulging characters are drawn without complexitythe Elcusinian mysteries, but to have ex- or elaboration, governed by a singleculpated himself. Pericles was his choregus dominating idea, such as vengeance (e.g.(see Chorus) &t some uncertain date; perhaps Clytemnestra in the Agamemnon). Forin the production of the Persians in 472, Aristophanes estimate of Aeschylus, seeor possibly later. Aeschylus was honoured a classic soon after his death and special Quintilian, while commending the sub-privileges were decreed for his plays. limity, dignity, and eloquence of Aeschy-Ho had a son, Euphorion, like himself a lus, thought him at times uncouth andtragic poet. lacking in harmony. Aeschylus wrote some ninety plays Aesculapius, the Latin form of the(including satyric dramas), of which seven Greek name Asclepius (q.v.). The firsthave come down to us: Suppliants, temple to him was founded at Rome inPersians, Seven against Thebes, Pro- 293 B.C., in consequence of a severemetheus Vinctus (qq.v.); and Agamem- The temple, with a sana- pestilence.non, Choephoroe , and Eumenides, torium, stood on the island of the Tiber.forming the Orcsteia (q.v.) trilogy.He also wrote paeans, elegies, and epi- Aeson (Aison), see Argonauts.grams, of which very scanty fragments Aesop (Aisopos), the traditional com-survive. He was the rival in his early poser of Greek fables about animals, isdays of Pratinas, Phrynichus (qq.v.), said by Herodotus to have lived in theand Choerilus (of Athens, /Z. 482), and in reign of Amasis of Egypt (middle of thelater life of Sophocles. He won his first 6th c. B.C.), and to have been a slave ofprize in 484, was successful again with ladmon, a Thracian. Many stories aboutthe Persians in 472, was defeated by animals, adapted to moral or satiricalSophocles in 468, and won his last victory ends, circulated under his name, and wewith the Oresteia* in 458. are told that Socrates, when in prison, Aeschylus generally regarded as the put some of these into verse. A collection isreal founder of Greek tragedy: by the of them was turned into choliambic versointroduction of a second actor ho madetrue dialogue and dramatic action pos- by Babrius (q.v.), and five books of Latin fables after Aesop were published bysible. Though Aristotle says that Sopho- Phaedrus (q.v.). An apocryphal life ofcles introduced scenery, Aeschylus musthave used some primitive spectacular Aesop was written by Maximus Planudes, a 14th c. Byzantine monk. Landor hasdevices, e.g. in the Prometheus. He two Imaginary Conversations betweenalso developed the use of stage dress. His Aesop and his fellow-slave Rhodope (q.v.).plays show rapid progress in dramatictechnique: the Suppliants, an early Aesopus, CLAUDIUS, a celebrated Romanplay, is simple, lacks action, and has no tragic actor hi the 1st c. B.C. Horaceindividual characters; the Oresteia has places him on an equality with Rosciusoutstanding individual characters and a (q.v.), the great comic actor. He was awell developed plot. Aeschylus chose friend of Cicero, and during the latter sthemes of the utmost grandeur, often exile contributed to move popular feelingsuperhuman and terrible, generally from in his favour by allusions to him on themythology (the Persians is an excep- stage. Cicero says that he had great powertion), and delighted in picturesque, sonor- of facial expression and gesture.
  • 24. Aethiopica 12 AganippeAethiopica, (Aithiopika), see Novel. Antiochus III in his war with Rome (see Selcucids) ; and his defeat in 190 broughtAethiopis (Aithiopis), a lost poem of tlie about the Leagues virtual extinction.Epic Cycle (q.v.), ascribed to Arctmus ofMiletus, a sequel to the Iliad. It con- Afranius, Lttcius (b. c. 150 B.C.), atained the story of the coming to Troy of writer of Roman comedies (togatae, q.v.),Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, and of which only fragments survive. He ap-her slaying by Achilles. It told also of pears to have desired to found a nationalthe coming of the Ethiopian Memnon comedy, and his plays depicted Italian(whence the name of the poem), who like- life and characters. He had a long popu-wise was killed by Achilles; and of the larity, and Horace in Ep. 11. i. 57 saysdeath of Achilles himself. that admirers compared him to Menandor Afrani toga convenisse Monan-Aethra (Aithrd), the mother of Thesous (Dicitur dro*). Afranius acknowledges hi5 indebt-(q.v.). edness to Menander, but the extent ofAetna, a Lathi didactic poem in 644 this is unknown.hexameters attributed by its MS. and Donatus ^Vgamedes, see Trophonius. buL Jdoubtfully by to Virgil,probably not by him. It was perhaps by*^ Agamemnon (Agamemnon), in Greekmy-Lucilius, the friend to whom Seneca the thology, son of Atreus, brother of Mene-Philosopher addressed his Letters*. It laus, husband of Clytemnestra (qq.v.), *describes and purports to explain the erup- king of Mycenae, and leader of thetions of Mt. Etna. These are due, not to Greek host in the Trojan War (q.v.).Vulcan or Enceladus (see Giants), but He is represented in the Iliad* as ato the action of wind in cavities of the valiant fighter, a proud and passionateearth on subterranean fires (substantially man, but vacillating in purpose and easilythe same explanation as that of Lu- discouraged.cretius, vi. 680 et seq.). The poem closes When the Greek expedition againstwith an Illustration of the moral character Troy had assembled at Aulis occurred theof the forces of nature. On the occasion incident of the sacrifice of Agamemnonsof a sudden eruption the inhabitants of daughter Iphigenia (q.v.). During thea neighbouring town hastily fled, each siege the most famous event in whichcarrying the property ho thought most Agamemnon was involved was his disas-precious. But they wore overwhelmed. trous quarrel with Achilles (see Iliad).A certain Amphinomus and his brother, When Troy at last was captured, Aga-however, who carried away nothing but memnon returned safely home with histheir aged father and mother and their captive, Cassandra (q.v.). But now thehousehold gods, were spared by the flames. curse of the house of Pclops (q.v.) over- took him. Clytemnestra had never for-Aetolian League, a confederacy of given the sacrifice of her daughter Iphi-cities or districts of Aetolia, developed genia, and during Agamemnons absenceafter the death of Alexander. It was Aegisthus had become her paramourgoverned at first by an Assembly of all (see Pelops). She now received Aga-free Aotolian citizens (including the citi- memnon with a show of welcome, andzens of federated cities adjoining Aetolian then, with Aegisthus, murdered him andterritory) at the head of it was a general ; Cassandra. It was to revenge his deathelected annually. There was also a that his children, Orestes and Electra, laterCouncil, possessing little power, composed killed Clytemncstra and Aegisthus (seeof delegations from the League cities pro- Orcsteia, Orestes, Electra).portionate to their military contingents. a tragedy by Aeschy-When, with the expansion of the League, Agamemnon, (1) Aadministration by the Assembly became lus ; see Qresteia. (2) tragedy by Seneca the Philosopher, perhaps based on theimpossible, a small committee of the of Aeschylus, or moreCouncil was formed which, with the Agamemnon*general, became the real government of probably on some later play. It is far to the tragedy of Aeschylus andthe League; the Assembly, however, re- inferiortained the decision of peace and war. From shows variations of detail. The ghost ofabout 290 the League occupied Delphi, Thyestes is introduced urging Aegisthusand it gradually extended its territory till to the crime, and Aegisthus confirms a weaker Clytemnestra in her 220 it controlled the whole of central Cassandra is not murdered withGreece outside Attica, and became the Aga-chief rival of Macedonia in the peninsula. memnon, but later. Electra appears and effects the escape of her brother Orestes.But the Aetolians were a predatory peopleand the League was not a source of Aganippe, a spring sacred to the MusesHellenic unity and strength. It joined on Mt. Helicon (q.v.). Cf. Hippocrene.
  • 25. Agathocles 13 AgoraAgathocles (Agathoktts), see Syracuse, up again after Mariuss army reforms.$3. The creation of a professional army meant that some sort of a pension system had toAgathon (AgatMn), an Athenian tragic be devised, and until Augustus pensionspoet, the most important of the successorsof the three great tragedians. His first took the form of grants of public land. Hence the land legislation of Saturninus,Tictory was gained in 416 B.C. It is the Sulla, and Julius Caesar (in his first con-banquet held at his house to celebrate this sulship). The proposed agrarian law ofvictory that forms the setting of Platos Rullus (63) had a different object, becauseSymposium* (q.v.). Later ho wont to the it was really an attempt by Crassus andcourt of Archolaus of Macedonia and diedthere (c. 400). Only fragments of his work Caesar to strengthen their position againstsurvive. Agathon was an innovator: ho Pompey. There seems to have been no serious problem in connexion with thewas the first to construct a tragedy on an ager publicus in the early empire.imaginary subject with imaginary charac-ters; he made the songs of the chorus Ager Romanus, see Rome, 4;mere interludes (embolima) without refer-ence to the subject of the play, thus pre- Agesilaus (Agesildos) (c. 444-361 B.C.), king of Sparta from about 398. He wasparing the way for the division of the chosen king in place of his nephew, whotragedy into acts ; and he also introduced was the direct heir, by the influence ofsome changes hi the character of the Lysander (q.v.). He was lame, and hismusic. His lyrics are satirically described opponents drew attention to the warningby Aristophanes in the Thesmophoria- of an ancient oracle against a lame reignzusae as like the walking of ants. at Sparta. But ho was a man of greatAristophanes also makes fun of Agathons energy and intelligence. His successfuleffeminate appearance. campaigns against the Persians in 396-5Agave (Agauc), the mother of Pentheus and his victory over the Thebans at(see Bacchae). Statins is thought, from a Coronea are related by his friend Xeno-passage in Juvenal (vii, 82 et seq.), to phon in his Hellenica*. He was lesshave written a libretto * Agave for the successful in the wars of Sparta withpantomimic dancer, Paris. Thebes 379-362. Sparta needed money, and in order to earn a subsidy for her,Agenor, In Greek mythology, king of Agesilaus conducted an expedition in aidTyro, and father of Cadmus and Europa of an Egyptian prince against Persia in(qq.v.). 361. In this he met his death. There isAger publicus, land acquired by con- a life of him by Ncpos, and see below. from States conquered by Rome.fiscation Afjcsilaus, one of the minor works ofIn theory it belonged to the Roman Xenophon, an encomium on his friendPeople, in actual practice it was looked Agesilaus (see above). Its authenticity asafter by the Senate and magistrates a work by Xenophon has been questioned,consul, censor, quaestor. There wore two but is generally accepted. Xenophonchief types of tenure. (1) It might be held relates in some detail the campaign ofon lease at a yearly rental, e.g. the fertile Agesilaus against Tissaphernes in 395 andAger Campanus ;the censors wore respon- the march back to Greece through Ma-sible for this rental.(2) It might bo held cedonia and Thessaly, and gives a fullby squatters (posscssores) against a rental, description of the battle of Coronea, wherebut not on lease. They wore therefore at Xenophon may have fought underliberty to go when they liked or liable to Agesilaus against his own expelled at the States pleasure. This The remaining events of his reign arerental was collected by the local govern- touched on more briefly. The author thenments and paid to the censors. There was passes from his deeds to his virtues, anda tendency after the Punic Wars for such illustrates his piety, justice, wisdom, andsquatters to absorb largo tracts of waste and in time to regard it as their own,despite the Licinian (q.v.) laws, which Agon (contest), (1) see Comedy, 2;limited the amount of land which could (2) at Athens, also an action at law ; (3) atbe held. Hence arose the evictions and Rome, an athletic or musical contestdisputes in connexion with the legislation forming part of the public games, seeof the Gracchi, who desired to resume the Ludi, 2.public land in order to create settlements Agora (Agora), in Greece, an assemblyfor distressed citizens. Stability was of the people, as opposed to tho Councilrestored by a law of 111 (for which see (Boule, q.v.). In tho constitution ofE. G. Hardys Roman Laws and Char- Cleisthenes (q.v.) the name was applied toters), but the question of public land came the assembly of the people hi each tribe
  • 26. Agricola 14 Agricultureand dome. It was also the name of the place fifth of the total area of the country waaof assembly, which might serve besides as cultivable, and this in part explains thea market-place. This place was adorned constant search of the Greeks for morewith temples and statues and planted with fertile lands to colonize. The deficiencytrees. In the Athenian agora stood the of rainfall, aggravated by the destructionfamous Stoa (q.v.) Poikile and the Stoa of the forests that at one time clothed theBasilikS, the Council-house of the Five Greek mountains, was made good byHundred, statues of various heroes, certain groat attention to irrigation, and the mis-temples, and a row of Hermae (q.v.), in- appropriation of water was punished bycluding a statue of Hermes Agoraios (* of ancient laws. Agriculture was regardedthe Market-place). Here in the open as an honourable occupation for freemenspace the peasants sold their produce, fish- (except at Sparta) from Homeric times,mongers and bakers had their stalls, and when old Laertes busied himself in hisbankers and money-changers their tables. garden, to those of Philopoemen, whoIt was a general place of meeting and used to work along with his vine-dressersconversation. Of. Forum. and ploughmen. Xenophon in the Oeoonomicus* praises agriculture as theAgricola, a laudatory monograph byTacitus on the life of his father-in-law, most honoured and the most beneficent of the arts. It retained its prestige atCn. Julius Agricola, published aboutA.D. 98; Agricola had died in A.D. 93. Athens even when that city had become Tacitus recounts Agricolas distin- a rich commercial and industrial centre, partly, no doubt, because foreigners woreguished ancestry and early military ser-vice in Britain in the troubled times when excluded from it as being incapable ofSuetonius Paulinus was governor (the days owning land.of Boadicea), his advancement to the In certain aristocratic States, such asquaestorship and the praetorship, to the Thcssaly, the system of large estates tilledcommand of the 20th Legion in Britain, to by serfs prevailed. In democratic Statesthe governorship of Aquitania (A.D. 74-6), land was held in smaller lots. Attica wasto the consulate, and finally to the a country of small estates, of which thegovernorship of Britain (A.D. 77 or 78). average size tended to diminish with theThen follows an account of Britain and its breaking up of properties on inheritance. In order to be a Zeugites (see Athens, 2)tribes, the continual rain and cloud, the an Athenian had to own some 50 acres oflong days and short nights of summer.Tacitus is very hazy about its geography, corn-land (assuming that it yielded theand even seems to regard the earth as moderate amount of eight bushels the acre and was fallowed alternate years)flat. He briefly narrates the history of or a much smaller acreage of vineyard.the successive stages of the conquestof Britain by the Romans, culminating in Seventy-five acres of corn-land wouldthe achievements of Agricola, who in 80 provide the qualification of a knight, while 125 acres would bring the owneror 81 secures the country as far north into the richest class. The son of Aristidesas the line Clota-Bodotria (the Clyde and received as a grant from the Statethe Forth). In 82 or 83 he passes beyondthis line and invades Caledonia, winning a property of 45 acres; Demosthenesin 83 OP 84 the decisive battle of Mt. thought this a relatively large area. TheGraupius, the site of which remains un- average value of eight properties referred to in speeches of Attic orators in thecertain. Readers of Scotts The Anti- 4th c. is under 7,230 drs. (Glotz) or sayquary* will remember that Monkbarns 250. The process of subdivision of estatesclaimed to have found the scene of thebattle on his land in Forfarshire. It is each lot was too small to support tillin the speech of a chieftain before the the owner led to the indebtedness of thebattle that Tacitus places the well-known peasantry, and facilitated in turn a pro- cess of concentration of land in the handssaying omne ignotum pro magniflco. of wealthy purchasers, who lived in theThe narrative passes to Agricolas returnto Rome and to the prudent conduct by city and had overseers to manage theirwhich he disarmed Domitians jealousy. property.It ends with his death and an eloquent Agriculture gradually became more scientific during the 5th and 4th c., andapostrophe a to great Roman. SQQ Britain. a three-year rotation of crops on corn landAgriculture. was adopted. The vine, the fig, and the 1. In Greece olive were especially suited to the stony The territory of Greece was in large soil, and Athens paid great attention to thepart mountainous and sterile, and fertile production of a good quality of olive oil.plains were few. Where possible the hill- The destruction of vines and olive-trees bysides were terraced, but only about one- the Spartans in the Peloponnesian War
  • 27. Agriculture 15 Agrippawas a severe blow to Attica. Vegetables most exclusively agricultural countriesand even flowers (which were in demand (Rostovtzeff). Moreover agriculture wasfor religious ceremonies) were cultivated in extended in regions where it had pre-the neighbourhood of Athens. Oxen were viously hardly existed. The tendency to-scarce, but pigs were plentiful. The sheep wards the concentration of land in theof Attica produced an exceptionally fine hands of absentee proprietors and of thewool. State was general throughout the empire. For the system of land tenure at Sparta The tillage of corn land was improved,see Sparta, 2. and attention was increasingly given to the vine and the olive, vegetables and fruit, 2. Italy stock-breeding and poultry. Agriculture in Roman territory was at The importance attached to agriculturefirst domestic and elementary, carried on in the early Roman community is attestedby the family of the landowner on a small by the large number of religious festivalsscale and by primitive methods, and de- connected with it, such as the Cerealiavoted mainly to the production of grain. (see Ceres), the Vinalia, the Fordicidia, theItwas tho only respectable vocation for a Robigalia (qq.v.). That it continued inRoman citizen. When the Volscian and high estimation is shown by the treatisesSabine hills were brought into tho Roman devoted to the subject, from the *Deterritory in the 4th c., they provided Agri Cultura* of Cato, to Varros De Resummer pasture during the months when Rustica, Virgils Georgics, and thethe grass was dried up in the plains. works of Columella and Palladius (qq.v.).Sheep- and cattle-breeding then becameprofitable, at least for the rich farmer Agrigentum, the Roman name of Ac-possessed of capital. The Punic Wars ragas (modern Girgenti, recently changed tobrought contact with the more scientific Agrigonto), a city on the S. coast of Sicily founded by Gela (a Rhodian and Cretanagriculture of Carthage and introducedtho age of great farms and slave gangs colony, also hi tho S. of Sicily) about 580 The small B.C. It attained great wealth and splen-working under overseers. dour under Theron (q.v.). Its prosperitypeasant-proprietors tended to disappear;many were ruined by compulsory service was cut short by the Carthaginians, whoin the frequent wars and sold their farms, sacked it hi 406 ; and although it was re-and many emigrated. They surged, how- founded by Timoleon (see Syracuse, 3), it never regained the position it held inever, in reduced numbers in most parts of the 5th c. The ruins of several beautifulItaly. On the other hand slaves were abun-dant, and there were wealthy capitalists temples are still to be seen there. Acragaswilling to take up large areas and work was the birthplace of Empedocles (q.v.).them with slave labour. Another tendency Agrippa, Marcos Julius. See Herod (2).was to substitute, in suitable districts ofItaly, the more remunerative culture of tho Agrippa, MARCUS VIPSANIUS (c. 62-12 a friend of Octavian in his youth, B.C.),vine and olive for the production of grain.The latter could bo obtained cheaply from and the holder of important military commands under him in the Civil War.Sicily and, after the destruction of Car- He was one of Octavian s principalthago, from Africa. Ranches for cattle and advisers, especially in military matters,sheep became very common in S. Italy. when the latter reached the principate.Frequent attempts were made to restore He carried out some notable publicthe small cultivator, but without success. works at Rome and in the provinces (seeThe Gracchi failed to solve the problem; also Maps). By his first marriage, withthe settlement of Sulla did more harmthan good owing to the confiscations it Pomponia, daughter of Atticus (q.v.), he had a daughter Vipsania Agrippina, whominvolved. In imperial times cultivation by Tiberius married. Among the childrenslave labour gradually gave place to the of his third marriage, with Julia, daugh-system of coloni, tenants who paid part ter of Augustus, were the elder Agrippinaof their produce as rent. This was perhaps (q.v.), wife of Germanicus, and Gaiusbecause slave labour was found not to be and Lucius Caesar, who were adopted byeconomical, or because it needed closer Augustus but died young. See the ge-supervision and was more troublesome.But the coloni sank into mere serfs, and nealogy under Julio-Claudian Family. He wrote an autobiography which is lost.this system proved little more satisfactorythan that of cultivation by slaves. Agrippa, POSTUMUS (12 B.C.-A.D. 14), son Nevertheless, agriculture was of capital of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (see above)Importance in the economic life of the and Julia. He was passed over by Augus-early empire. It is no exaggeration to tus for the throne because of his boorishsay that most of the provinces were al- ways, and put to death, possibly by
  • 28. Agrippina 16 Albinovanus Pedoorder of Tiberius, soon after the old em- Ajax (Aids), TBLAMONIAN, sometimesperors death in 14. called the Greater Ajax, son of Telamon (q.v.) and leader of the Salaminians at theAgrippina. (1) VIPSANIA AGRIPPINA,daughter of Agrrippa (q.v.) and Pompo- siege of Troy, depicted by Homer as a man obstinate in his bravery to the point ofnia, and wife of Tiberius. (2) AGRIPPINATHE ELDER, daughter of Agrippa (q.v.) stupidity. After the death of Achilles,and Julia, and wife of Gormanicus (see Ajax and Odysseus contended for theGermanicus Julius Caesar). She was pre- heros arms. When these were awardedsent at his death -bed in Syria and to Odysseus, Ajax, maddened with resent-brought back his ashes to Home. Tacitus ment, slaughtered a flock of sheep hi thehas a moving description of the arrival belief that they wore his enemies, andat Brundisiurn and the general grief afterwards from shame took his own life.(Ann. iii. 1-2). The bitter hostility to Ajax (Aids), son of Oilelis, and captain ofTiberius that she subsequently showed led the Locrians at the siege of Troy, ato her exile and her death by starvation, man, according to Homer, *far less* thanA.D. 29. She was mother of the emperor Telamonian Ajax (q.v.). He was ship-Caligula. (3) AGRIPPINA THE YOUNGER, wrecked on his way home, but swimmingdaughter of (2), wife first of Cn. Domi- ashore with Poseidon s help, boasted thattius Ahenobarbus, by whom she was he had escaped in spite of the gods.mother of Nero, secondly of the emperor Whereupon Poseidon threw down thoClaudius, who adopted Nero. She is said rock on which he stood, and Ajax wasto have poisoned Claudius, but this is drowned. (See also Cassandra).improbable. She was a haughty, imperious (Aids), a tragedy by Sophocles, ofwoman and opposed her sons inclination Ajax uncertain date, perhaps the first of hisfirst for the freedwoman Acte, then for surviving plays.Poppaea Sabina, whom Nero proposed to Ajax, the son of Telainon (see above),marry by divorcing Octavia. To remove demented by resentment because thethis opposition Nero had Agrippina mur- arms of Achilles have been awarded todered. An attempt to scuttle the ship in Odysseus, has vented his wrath bywhich she was returning from a visit to slaughtering a flock of sheep, taking themNero having failed (for she swain ashore), for his enemies. Ho is first seen inshe was killed by assassins in the villa his madness, then after hia recovery,where she had taken refuge (A.D. 5 .)). stricken with ( grief and shame, while hisThe memoirs that she left were used by slave, Tecmessa, and the chorus of Sala-Tacitus as a source for his Annals. minian sailors try to soothe him. He For all the above, see the genealogy calls for his son ICurysaces, gives him hisunder Julio-Claudian Family. shield, and leaves his last injunctions forAhenobarbus (later AENOBARBUS), his brother Toucer. He then takes hisred-beard, the name of a distinguished sword, to bury it, as he says, and goes toRoman family of the Domitian gens. purge himself of his guilt by the sea.Legend related that the Dioscuri (q.v.) had Teucer has now returned from a foray andannounced to an early member of the has learnt from tho seer Calchas that, tofamily the victory of Lake Regillus avert calamity, Ajax, who has angered tho(496 B.C.), and to prove their supernatural gods by his arrogance, must be kept withinpowers had stroked his black beard, which his tent for that day. But it is too late.had immediately turned red. Cn. Domi- Ajax is found transfixed by his own sword.tius Ahenobarbus, after fighting against Mcnolaus forbids his burial, as an enemyCaesar at Pharsalus (48) and being subse- to the Greeks, and Agamemnon confirmsquently pardoned by him, was one of the tho edict, but is persuaded by Odysseusrepublican leaders after Caesars death. to relent, and Ajax is carried to his grave.He was later reconciled to Antony, ac- A Latin version of this tragedy wascompanied him in his expedition against played at Cambridge before Queen Eliza-the Parthians, and was with him hi beth in 15G4.Egypt. He finally joined the cause of Albinovanus Pdo, a Roman poet ofOctavian. Ho figures in Shakespeares the time of Augustus and Tiberius, and a* Antony and Cleopatra. friend of Ovid. Seneca tho Rhetorician Another, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, has preserved a passage from what ap-consul in A.D. 32, married Agrippina pears to be an epic by him on the Roman(q.v. (3)), daughter of Germanicus, and wars against the Germans, describing awas father of the emperor Nero (see Julio- storm which the Roman fleet encounteredClaudian Family). in the North Sea. The majority of Ger-Aides, Aiddneus, variant forms of man authorities are of opinion thatHades (q.v.). the epic dealt with the expeditions into
  • 29. Alcaeus 17 AlcibiadesGermany of Germanicus (A 2 In the perhaps even more concerned, in a prac-article Germanicus and Drusus) to whom tical way, for the future of her children.Albinovanus Pedo was praefectus equitum Heracles is an attractive character, relax-in A.D. 15. Some authorities regard the ing between the labours that form theextant fragment as referring to the first main business of his life, to revel a littlenaval expedition in the North Sea, com- and do a good turn for a friend.manded by Drusus the Elder (A 1 in the This is the play that Balaustion recites,above-mentioned article). An epic on the hi II. Brownings * Balaustion s Adven-sons achievements would not preclude ture.mention of similar exploits by the father.Tacitus (Ann. ii. 23) has described a storm Alcibiades (Alkiblades), an Athenian ofwhich shattered the fleet of the son. noble family, born shortly before 450 B.C.,Albinovanus also wrote a Theseid, epi- a man of remarkable beauty and talent,grams, and elegies, which have not sur- but arrogant, unscrupulous, and dissolute.vived. He was educated by Pericles, and was aAlcaeus (Alkaios), (1) a lyric poet of the friend of Socrates. He became a dexterous7th-6th c. B.C., born at Mytilono in Lesbos, politician and joined the democratic party.a contemporary of Sappho. He took an His experience in the army at Potidaeaactive part in the war with Athens which and Delium led to his election as strategus in 420. His influence contributed to thefollowed the seizure by the latter of theLesbian fortress of Sigeum at the entrance renewal of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) after the Peace of Nicias, and to theof the Hellespont, and in the local When Pittacus launching of the Sicilian Expedition, ofstruggles against tyrants.was given dictatorial power, he went into which ho was appointed one of the three leaders. The mutilation of the Hermaeexile. His poems, of which only fragments (q.v.) just before its departure was laidremain, dealt vividly with political as well at the door of Alcibiades and his accom-as personal themes, wine, love, his suffer- plices. It was nevertheless decided thatings and hatreds. Where public affairs are he should embark and be tried later.concerned he shows a passionate energy.One of his odes, of which the opening When summoned back to Athens for thissurvives, was addressed to Sappho. Wo purpose, ho escaped, and was condemned to death in his absence and his propertyalso possess a fragment of what may bo confiscated. Alcibiades went to Sparta,her reply. He also wrote hyrnns to various where he urged vigorous measures againstgods. His name is especially associatedwith the Alcaic stanza (see Metre, the Athenians, the sending of a Spartan 3),which he invented or adopted and fre- general to aid the Syracusans, and the occupation of Decolea in Attica as aquently used. Horace (Od. iv. ix. 7-8)speaks of his minaces Camonac, and permanent threat to Athens. In 412 heuses his metre more frequently than any went to Ionia and with a Spartan squad-other. ron supported the Ionian revolt against (2) In Greek mythology, a son of Athens, but an intrigue with the wife ofPerseus and father of Amphitryon (qq.v.). the Spartan king Agis and his dealingsSee also Alcides. with Tissaphornes, the Persian satrap, made him suspect at Sparta. In 407 theAlcaic, see Metre, 3 and 5. restored democracy at Athens recalledAlcestis (Alkcstis), a drama by Euri- Alcibiades, hoping to find hi him a cap-pides. It was the fourth play in a tetralogy able commander and a means of allianceproduced in 438 B.C. and accordingly con- with the Persians, but the defeat oftains a certain burlesque element (see Notium (407) lost him his prestige. HeSatyric drama), provided by the character retired to the Chersonese, where the goodof the genial Heracles and by Euripides advice he gave to the Athenian comman-general treatment of the subject. ders before Aegospotami was disregarded. For the story which forms the subject Ho was finally assassinated by Persianof the play, see Admetiis. Admetus, the order hi Phrygla (404).husband of Alcestis, is presented at first The chief authority for the career ofas an ingenuous egoist, fond of his wife, Alcibiades is Thucydidcs. Alcibiadesdeeply grieved to lose her, and indignant figures in the dialogue of Plato (q.v.)with his father for refusing to make the that bears his name and also in his Sym-required sacrifice in her place. But Ad- posium (q.v.), and there are lives ofmetus returns from his wifes burial com- him by Nopos and Plutarch. There is an pletely changed, having learnt his lesson. interesting reference to him hi Aristo-Alcestis is a simple, unromantic woman, phanes Frogs (1009 etseq.): Euripidesdevoted to her husband, and accepting as condemns the man who is slow to helpnatural the duty of dying for him, but and quick to injure his country, while 4339
  • 30. Alcibiades 18 Alexander of PheraeAeschylus thinks it wiser not to rear a self tyrant. He was besieged by Megacles,lions whelp, but if you do, you must but escaped, with his brother, to Megara.accept its ways. Two speeches of Lysias His associates took refuge at the altar ofand one of Isocrates (against the son of Athene Polias. They were lured away onAlcibiades) refer to the fathers career. promise of their lives, and slaughtered.Alcibiades, a dialogue by Plato (q.v., 2). The Megarlans, urged by Cylon, made war on Athens, occupied Salamis and deva-Alcides (Alkeides), (1) in Greek mytho- stated Attica. This reverse was attributedlogy, meaning descendant of Alcaous , a * to the sacrilege committed against Athene,name used to designate Heracles, whose and the Alcmaeonids were banished. Theystepfather, Amphitryon (q.v.), was son of returned under Solon (q.v.), withdrewAlcaous. (2) A Spartan admiral In the again during the tyranny of Pisistratusearly part of the Peloponnesian War. (q.v.), and returned once more after theAlcin6us (Alkinoos), in the Odyssey fall ofHippias. Among famous Alcmaeo-(q.v.), the king of the Phaeacians. nids were Cleisthenes the law-giver, and Pericles and Alcibiades, who both throughAlciphron (Alkiphrdn) (c. A.D. 200), aGreek writer, author of fictitious letters their mothers belonged to the family. At(of which we have about a hundred) pur- the beginning of the Peloponnesian War,porting to bo by Athenians of various Sparta called upon Athens to expel theclasses of society, depicting Athenian life Alcmaeonids, having Pericles particularlyin the 4th c. B.C. in view. For their reconstruction of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, see Delphi.Alcmaeon or Alcmeon (Alkmaion orAlkmeon), in Greek mythology, son of Alcman (AlJcmdn), a Greek lyric poet ofAmphiaraus (q.v.). In accordance with the second half of the 7th c. B.C., born athis fathers command he took part in the Sardis, who came to Sparta and thereexpedition of the Epigoni (q.v.) against composed choral lyrics for the festivals.Thebes. On his return, in further execu- Of these his parthenia (q.v.) were espe-tion of his fathers commands, he avenged cially celebrated. He was an innovator inhim by slaying his own mother Eriphyle. metre, generally abandoning the hexa-For this murder he was (like Orestes) pur- meter for various systems of a lighter,sued from place to place by the Furies. tripping character. Only fragments ofAt PsSphis hi Arcadia he received partial his work survive, one of them part of apurification from Phegeus, and married parthenion.his daughter Arsinoe. To her he gave the Alcmena (Alkmene), see Amphitryon.necklace of Harmonia (see Cadmus (1)).But the crops of the country began to Alcuin, see Texts and Studies,, and Alcmaeon set out again to dis- Alcyone (Alkuone), in Greek mythology,cover a land on which the sun had not (1) a daughter of Aeolus (q.v. (2)) and wifeshone when he murdered his mother. of Ccyx (Keux), son of the Morning Star.This he found in an island newly thrown They were changed into birds, she into theup at the mouth of the river Achelous halcyon (kingfisher), he into the bird of(between Acarnania and Actolia). Here his name (perhaps a tern or gannet), eitherhe married Callirhoo, a daughter of because he was drowned at sea and herOencFQs (see Meleager) king of Calydon. despair was so great that the gods re-She in turn begged for the necklace of united them, or because of their impiety.Harmonia, and Alcmaeon obtained it Halcyon days were fourteen days of calmfrom Phegeus on a false pretence. When weather supposed by the ancients to occurPhegeus discovered that he had been about the winter solstice when the hal-cheated, he caused his sons to waylay cyon was brooding.Alcmaeon and kill him. The sons of (2) One of the Pleiades (q.v.).Alcmaeon, Acarnan and Amphoteros, Aldine Classics, see Editions.avenged their father by killing Phegousand his sons; and the fatal necklace was Alecto, soeAllecto.dedicated to Apollo at Delphi. A later Alexander of Aphrodisias (ft. c. A.D.story tells that it was stolen by a Phocian 200), the most important of the earlyat the time of the war with Philip of commentators on Aristotle. Of his com-Macedon, and brought ill luck on the thief. mentaries (in Greek) a few survive, andAlcmaeonidae (Alkmeonidai), a noble his works are largely quoted by laterfamily at Athens, which came into promi- writers.nence in 632 B.C. when Megacles, an Ale- Alexander of Pherae, nephew of Jasonmaeonid, was archon. A young aristocrat, (q.v.) of Pherae and tyrant of Pherae inCylon, with a band of supporters, seized Thessaly from 369 B.C. He allied himselfthe Acropolis with a view to making him- with Athens to oppose Theban expansion,
  • 31. Alexander the Great 19 Alexander the Greatand when Pelopldas (q.v.) visited him on The whole of the above campaigns hadone of his expeditions, detained him as a occupied little more than a year (336-5).hostage until ho was rescued by a Thebanexpedition in 368. In 364 Pelopidas march- 2. Invasion of Asia: the Granicus (334)ed against him and defeated him at Cynos- Alexander now devoted himself to thecephalae, but was himself killed. Later, conquest of Persia (See PI. 7), ruled at thatAlexander became the ally of the Thebans, time by Darius Codomanus, a mild, ami-defeated the Athenians at sea and raided able prince, unequal to the struggle beforethe Piraeus (362). It was this humiliation him. Though overwhelmingly strongerthat caused the Athenians to sentence than Alexander in men, ships, and wealth,Callistratus (q.v.) to death. Alexander his forces lacked efficient leadership andwas assassinated in 358. military science. In 334 Alexander crossedAlexander (Alexandras) the Great, to the Troad, where the MacedonianAlexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.), general, Parmenio, had maintained ason of Philip II and Olympias. footing. By his victory on the Granicus Alexander first showed the superiority of 1. Education, accession, and campaigns the Macedonian over the Persian army. in Europe He next subdued Sardis and such Greek Alexander had Aristotle for instructor, cities of the coast as did not open theirand learnt military science in his fathers gates to him. After the seige and destruc-school, being present at the ago of eighteen tion of Halicarnassus, he subdued Lycia,at the battle of Chaeronea, where ho com- and marching north through Pamphyliamanded the cavalry. He was an enthusias- arid Pisidia, reached Gordium, the capital *tic admirer of Homers Iliad, of which of Phrygia. It was hero that ho is said tohe carried a copy on his campaigns in a have cut the *Gordian knot (q.v.) andcasket taken from the spoils of Darius. applied the legend about it to himself;His fathers marriage with Cleopatra (see but the story is poorly attested.Philip, 3) imperilled his own succession,and his position on his fathers death (336) 3. Campaign of 333 : battle of Issuewas full of dangers. But Cleopatra, her In the spring of 333 Alexander marchedchild, and her father were before long south through Cappadocia to the Cilicianmurdered, the first two by Olympias, the Gates and reached Tarsus. The King oflast by Alexanders order. The numerous Persia was now advancing to meet him,attempts at revolt among the peoples but Alexander, before facing him, subduedwhom his father had subjugated were Western Cilicia. Darius attributed thepromptly crushed. Alexander first dealt delay of Alexander to fear, and instead ofwith Greece and rapidly brought it to awaiting him in the broad expanses oforder. The Congress at Corinth appointed Syria, which would have favoured hishim, though without enthusiasm, to his larger army, crossed Mt. Amanus andfathers place as leader of the Greek was brought to battle (333) in the narrowfederation. (It was while ho was at Corinth plain of Issus. While the event was stillthat Alexander, according to an anecdote, undecided, the flight of Darius himselfsaw Diogenes lying in the sun. Alexander started a panic and caused the rout ofasked what he could do for him. Dont * the Persian host. The mother, wife, andkeep the sun off me, was the reply. If children of Darius were captured andI were not Alexander, I should wish to humanely Diogenes, Alexander remarked.) Alex-ander next turned to the north and with 4. Conquest of Syria and Egyptamazing speed subdued the tribes that (332-331)were threatening his N. and NW. frontiers. Before undertaking the final destructionOn a report that Alexander had been of the Persian king, Alexander proceededkilled in Thrace, Thebes revolted and to the conquest of Syria and Egypt, so asblockaded the Macedonian garrison in its not to leave these Persian territories, andcitadel. With the same astonishing rapid- particularly the bases of the Phoenicianity Alexander was upon the insurgents fleet, unsubdued in his rear. Tyre, anand captured their city. The Congress at apparently impregnable fortress on anCorinth decided that Thebes should be island half a mile from the shore, offeredrazed to the ground (the house of Pindar a prolonged resistance, and its capturebeing spared by Alexanders order). From called forall theingenuityand perseveranceAthens, which had given Thebes some of Alexander. A mole was constructedsupport, Alexander required the surrender across to the island and the stronghold fell,of Demosthenes and of others who had after a six months siege, in the summer ofbeen obstinate in their hostility to Mace- 332. After its capture and that of Gaza,donia, but did not persist in his demand. the occupation of Egypt was an easy
  • 32. Alexander the Great 20 Alexander the Greatmatter. Its most notable incident was the parable to Hannibals crossing of thefoundation (331) of the city of Alexandria Alps.<q.v.). The new city was designed to be Meanwhile a change had come abouta Greek, as distinct from a Phoenician, in tho policy and position of Alexandercommercial centre in the eastern Medi- himself. He had set out to subjugate theterranean. While in Egypt, Alexander barbarians to the Greeks. But althoughvisited the temple of Ammon (q.v.). There ho had from the first shown tolerance tohe was recognized by the oracle as son the religions and institutions of the for-of Ammon. (Among Landors Imaginary mer, he had before long gone farther, andConversations* is one between Alexander begun to treat his European and Asiaticand the priest of Ammon.) It may have subjects on a more equal footing, hadbeen before this that Darius sent an em- received Persian noblemen into his con-bassy to Alexander offering as a basis of fidence, and had adopted the dress andpeace to surrender all his territory west customs of an Oriental court. (Alexanderof the Euphrates, to give him his daughter recognized the importance of the co-for wife, and to pay a great ransom for operation of tho Iranian element in thethe members of his family. Parmenio, the organization of his empire. The failurestory goes, said that if he were Alexander to secure this later on contributed to thehe would accept the terms. So should I, empires dissolution). This change ofif I were Parmenio, Alexander replied. attitude had caused deep dissatisfaction 5. Victory ofOaugamela (331) and among his Macedonians, and tho smoul- death of Darius (330) dering resentment broke out in 327, when at a banquet Cleitus, one of his friends and In 331 Alexander started for the heart the brother of his foster-mother, tauntedof the Persian empire. He crossed the Alexander, and the latter killed him withEuphrates and the Tigris high up, at a spear. Deep remorse followed theThapsacus and Bezabde, and turned drunken act. Before this, Philotas, sonsouth towards Babylon. Darius, with an of Parmenio, had been executed for con-even larger host than at Issus, met him spiracy against Alexander, and Parmenioat Gaugamcla (near Arbela, from which himself, by a questionable act of author-the battle is sometimes named). Once ity, had been put to death. In 327 theremore Darius fled, and the Persian army were further executions of noble Mace-was routed. Darius escaped N. to donians for plotting against the kingsEcbatana in Media, but Alexander pur- life; and also of Callisthenes (nephew ofsued his way to Babylon and Susa, and Aristotlo), who was following the cam-in the palaces of the Persian kings at paigns as their historian, as being privyPersepolis found an immense treasure. to tho plot. In the same year also Alex-During his sojourn there it is said that ander marriedafter a carouse, at the suggestion of the Roxana, daughter of Oxy- artes, a Sogdian chief.Greek courtesan Thais, he set on fire anddestroyed the palace of Xerxes. In the 7. The conquest of India and thelate spring of 330 he resumed his pursuit return (327-325)of Darius to Ecbatana and eastwards, but Alexander now undertook the invasionwhen Darius wished to stand, his followers of India, a country of whoso configurationturned against him. Bessus, his kinsman extent little was known. His followersand satrap of Bactria, with other con- and saw in the adventure a repetition of thespirators seized and bound him, and when of India by DionysusAlexander drew near, stabbed the king legendary conquest (q.v.). He again crossed the Hindu-Kushand made off. Alexander found Darius in the late summer of 327, and whiledead. Hephaestion with part of the army took 6. Campaigns of 330-327. Alexanders the Khyber Pass, ho himself entered tho policy rugged country to the N. and engaged the The campaigns of tho years 330-327 fierce tribes of the hills. His greatestresulted in the submission of the vast achievement in this advance was theregions of Hyrcania, Areia, Drangiana, capture of the rock of Aornus on the rightBactria, and Sogdiana, and the capture bank of the Indus, above the junctionand execution of Bessus. Candahar is with the Cabul river. In 326 he crossedperhaps a corruption of Alexandria, the the Indus and reached the Hydaspescapital that Alexander founded in Ara- ( Jhelum). There by skilful dispositions hechosia. He reached Maracanda (Samar- defeated Porus, king of the land betweencand), and on the Jaxartos founded the Hydaspes and the Acesines (Chenab),Alexandria Ultima (Eschate"), Khodjend. a courageous ruler at the head of a largeOn his way he crossed in early spring army, rendered more formidable by athe Hindu-Kush mountains, a feat com- contingent of elephants. His advance
  • 33. Alexander the Great 21 Alexandriathrough the remainder of the Punjab their independence, and with it the specialwas a comparatively easy matter; but atmosphere in which their literary master-when he arrived at the Hyphasis (Beas) pieces had been produced. Hellenic civi-and contemplated proceeding to the lization, as it extended to new regions,Ganges and thus reaching what he con- became exposed to new influences, andceived to be the extremity of the earth, the Hellenistic Age (q.v.) came into being.his weary Macedonians at last turned 10. The literature concerning Alexanderagainst him and refused to go farther. The principal authority for tho historyAlexander was forced to yield and aban- of Alexanders Arriandon his hope of bringing the whole earth campaigns is (q.v.), who drew on the narratives of Aristobulusfrom the western to the eastern ocean and Ptolemy, companions of Alexander.under his sway. The Macedonians, sotting Authentic materials were also availabletheir faces westward, descended the in Alexanders official journals, on whichHydaspes in a fleet of transports com- Ptolemy drew. There was also the historymanded by Nearchus, while Onesicritus, of Callisthenes (see above, 6). A fabulouswho wrote an account of the expedition, element was introduced by another writer,had charge of Alexanders ship. Having- Cleitarchus (probably c. 300 B.C.), andreached Patala at the head of the deltaof the Indus at midsummer 325, Alexan- many further legends grew up in the East round the name of the conqueror. Theseder started on a land-march homewards, crystallized, probably in the 3rd c. A.D.,leaving Nearcmis to explore the sea-route in a Greek narrative falsely attributed toup the Persian Gulf. Callisthenes. There were also later Ar- 8. Alexanders last measures and his menian, Syriac, Ethiopia, and Arabic ver- death (325-323) sions (the Syrians made Alexander a At Susa, where the army arrived in the Christian). Of the narrative attributedwinter of 325-4 after suffering terrible to Callisthenes several Latin versions werehardships in the deserts of Gedrosia, made, and the legends thence passed intoAlexander set about punishing the many tho French poetry of tho llth and 12th cc.satraps and other officers who had failed (see Julius Valerius). One of these Frenchin their duty. Harpalus, his treasurer, poems, written in twelve-syllabled lines,had appropriated a large sum and with- perhaps gave its name to the Alexandrine,drawn to Tarsus. He now fled to Greece, the French heroic verse of six feet. Therewhere his intrigues involved Demosthenes are also two Old English works of the(q.v.) in a discreditable affair. Alexander llth c. based on tho Latin legend, a Let- also extended his policy of fusing the ter from Alexander to Aristotle and TheEuropean and Asiatic portions of his Wonders of the East. From the Frenchempire, by colonization, by mixed mar- poems tho Alexander-saga passed into theriages (he himself married Statira, daugh- English metrical romances of the Middleter of Darius, and his friend Hephaestion English period (1200-1500), notably themarried her sister), and by unification alliterative poem King Alisaunder , and toof the military services. (This policy of them may be traced tho frequency of theequalizing the Greek and Eastern races, Christian name * Alexander (Sandy) init may be noted, was censured by Aris- Scotland. It may be noted that Fluellen,the *totle). He also cherished schemes for the Welsh officer in Shakespeares Henry V/development of a commercial sea-route is represented as having a fairly detailedbetween the Indus, the Euphrates and knowledge of the history of Alexander. SeeTigris, and the Gulf of Suez. As Nearchus also Curtius Rufus. There is a succinctwas about to set out on a voyage of ex- and striking summary of the reign ofploration to further this scheme, Alexan- Alexander and of the struggles of hisder, who had been saddened by the death successors over his inheritance, writtenof his intimate comrade, Hephaestion, in from the Jewish standpoint, m the first324, himself died of fever at Babylon in nine verses of the First Book of thethe summer of 323. He was only 32 years Maccabees.old. Alexandra, see Lycophron (2). 9. Alexanders achievement Alexandria (Alexandria, L. Alexandria We owe to Alexander, a man of genius or Alexandria), a city on the N. coast ofat the head of a military monarchy, what Egypt, near the Canopic or western mouthno Greek city-state would have been able of the Nile, founded by Alexander theto achieve, the extension of Greek civi- Great in 331 B.C., the capital of thelisation over the East. As a result of his Ptolemies and famous as one of the chiefconquests the character of that civiliza- intellectual centres of the Hellenistic world.tion itself was changed. Greece sank into It was laid out on tho sandy neck of landa secondary position; her city-states lost that runs E. and W., separating Lake
  • 34. Alexandrian 22 AlphabetMareotis from the sea. A broad street ran 47 B.C. when Caesar was in Alexandria,E. and W. through the centre of it and was some 40,000 volumes which were storedcrossed by another running N. and S. On near the Arsenal, perhaps with a view tothe island of Pharos, which Alexander their shipment to Rome, were accidentallyconnected with the mainland by a mole burnt. It is improbable that the librarynearly a milo long, Ptolemy II erected a itself was destroyed. The story that itlighthouse, said to be the first of its kind, was finally burnt in A.D. 642 by Amrou,to guide mariners to the greater of the two general of the Caliph Omar, is now dis-sea-harbours, that lying on the eastern credited.side of the mole. Another harbour on The first great librarians of AlexandriaLake Mareotis received the traffic from were Zenodotus (fl. c. 285 B.C.), Erato-the Nile. Near the eastern sea-harbour sthenes (fl. c. 234), Aristophanes of By-lay the quarter known as Brucheion zantium (fl. c. 195), and Aristarchus (fl. which stood tho royal palace, the 180) (qq.v.). Callimachus and ApolloniusMuseum and the great Library, and the Rhodius (qq.v.) are sometimes mention-spondid tomb to which Alexanders body ed as among the librarians, but there arewas brought from Asia by Ptolemy II. chronological difficulties in the way ofTo the SW. of this, in the quarter called admitting them.Rhakotis and near what is to-day known Alcxandrianism or ALEXANDRINISM,as Pompeys Pillar, stood the Serapeum a term used of tho influence of the Alex-(the great temple of Serapis). Here, andrian school of Greek poets (see Hel-and extending beyond tho walls, was the lenistic Age) on Roman poetry. Tho chiefnative quarter. A canal brought fresh features of the school were artificiality, anwater from tho Nile. By 200 B.C. Alex- excessive display of mythological learning,andria was the largest city in the world and beauty and elaboration of form. The(later it was surpassed by Rome). The influence seen, for instance, in some of ispopulation, apart from the native Egyp- the of Catullus (e.g. Attis % * Pelcus poemstians, was divided into politeumata or and Coma Berenices), in Pro- Thetis*,corporations based on nationality, of port ius, and, in a less degree, in Virgil andwhich the Greek was the most important ; Ovid.and the whole city was under Ptolemys Alexipharmaca, see Nicander,governor. Intermarriage between Greeksand Egyptians began in tho 2nd c. B.C. Alexis, see Comedy, 4.and the mixed population (with the excep-tion of the Jews and some of tho Greeks) Al(l)ecto (Gk.Allektd), see Furies.gradually blended into a more or less homo- Allegory, the presentation of a subjectgeneous whole. See Alexandrian Library, (in narrative or other form) under theMuseum, Hellenistic Age, Ptolemies. guise of another suggestively similar ; e.g. Horaces Ode I. xiv (O navis, referent inAlexandrian or HELLENISTIC AGE of mare te novi fluctus), where the RomanGreek literature see Hellenistic Age. ; State is presented under the guise of aAlexandrian Library, THE, was founded storm-tossed Ptolemy I (see Ptolemies) and greatly in- Allia, a small tributary of the Tiber,creased by Ptolemy II. It was housed in a near which the Romans suffered a memor-building in the Brucheion or royal quarter, able defeat by the Gauls in 390 B.C.supplemented by a subsidiary building tho beginning with thenear the Sorapeum (see Alexandria). In Alliteration,the time of Callimachus (q.v.) the larger same letter of two or more words in close connexion. It was a constant device inlibrary is said to have contained 400,000 Saturnian (q.v.) verse, and was adoptedvolumes, and in the 1st c. 700,000. It is thence by later Roman poets includingsaid that Ptolemy II purchased the library Ennius and Virgil as where Ennius writes :that Aristotle had formed; and (by ; Fraxinu* frangitur atque abies conster-Galen) that Ptolemy III (Euergetes) ap- nitur alta.propriated the official copy of the text of Pinus proceras pervortunt.Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides (see It is carried to grotesque excess by EnniusLycurgus), forfeiting the large deposit he in the lino,had paid when borrowing it from theAthenians. Galen also states that vessels O Tito tute Tati tibi tanta tiranne tulieti.entering the harbour of Alexandria were Almarje&t, see Ptolemy.required to surrender any manuscripts Aldidae (Aloeidai), see Otus.that they had on board. There was keenrivalry between the kings of Alexandria Alphabet, (I) GREEK. The Greek alpha-and Pergamum in the enlargement of their bet was probably derived from some formrespective libraries (see Books, 5). In of the Phoenician alphabet, with additions
  • 35. Alpheus 2 I Ambrosesuch as distinctive symbols for the vowel in War, and the Trojan their queen,sounds, and certain letters such as </>, t tfi Ponthesilea, was killed by Achilles. Onefrom other sources (perhaps the Cretan of the Labours of Heracles (q.v.) was toscript). (Alpha is the equivalent of the secure the girdle of Hippolyte, queen ofPhoenician aleph, meaning *ox% the name the Amazons. According to Athenianof one of the Phoenician breaths.) At * legend, Attica once suffered an invasionfirst there was no single alphabet common of Amazons, which Theseus (q.v.) repelled,to all the Greek States the local varities ; capturing the Amazon queen, Hippolytehad elements in common but differed in (or AntiopS).certain respects. Finally, about the end of Ambarvalia, at Rome, a solemn annualthe 5th c. B.C. the Ionic type prevailed and purification of the fields by the severalwas generally adopted. See also Digamma. farmers, while a purification of the boun- (2) LATIN. The Italian alphabet was daries of the State was performed byprobably derived from that of the Greek special priests, the Arval (q.v.) Brethren.inhabitants of Italy and Sicily, with cer- The ceremony included the leading oftain modifications, such as the rejection victims round the boundaries of the fieldsof the symbols for </>, %, i/i, and the early that were to be purified ; hence the name.abandonment of the symbol for C, ono . The victims sacrificed were the principalof the forms of the Greek gamma, was agricultural animals, pig, sheep, and oxemployed for the sounds of both G and K, (suovctauriiia). In the ancient hymn of theand when intended to represent the sound Arval priests, Mars is invoked as an agri-of gamma was modified into G. The old cultural deity. In later republican daysspelling of the abbreviations C. and On. the deity concerned is Ceres, and hi im-for Gaius and Gnaeus was retained when perial times the earth deity, Dea Dia.this new form G was introduced. The The celebration of the Ambarvalia isletters Y and Z were not adopted until depicted hi the first chapter of Patersthe last century of the Roman republic, Marius the Epicurean.when they were required for the transcrip-tion of Greek words such as Zephyrus*. Ambiorix, leader of the Gaulish tribe of the Eburones in their revolt against the As to the direction in which letters were Romans in 54-53 B.C. See Commentarieswritten, from right to left or left to right,etc., see Epigraphy, 2. (Gallic War, Bks. V and VI). Ambrose, ST., (Aurttius Ambrosius)Algheus (Alpheios), ono of the largest A.D. 340-397) was born of a Christianriverierin" Greece, rising in Arcadia, and (c.after receiving many tributaries (including Roman family ; his father was Prefect of Gallia Narbonensis. He was educated atthe Erymanthus and the Ladon), flowingthrough Blis. The plain of Olympia (q.v.) Rome and entered on an official career,is situated by the side of it. See also and at an early age was made governor ofArethusa. It is referred to by Milton in Milan with the title of consul. On the * death of Auxentms, the Anaii bishop ofLycidas: Return, Alpheus; the dreadvoice is past That shrunk thy streams. Milan, Ambrose was chosen to replace him by popular acclamation, and actuallyAlthaea (Althaitf), in Greek mythology, received baptism and the priesthood aftermother of Meleager (q.v.). his appointment. Ho had a high concep-Amalthea (AmaUheia), in Greek mytho- tion of the importance of his now func-logy, the goat that suckled the infant tions, and showed himself not only aZeus (q.v.) in Crete; or a nymph (accord- patriotic Roman, but a wise and resolute,ing to one version the daughter of Melis- if kindly, ccelesiastic. His greatestsus, king of Crete) who fed Zeus with the achievements were in the practical field,milk of a goat. Zeus gave her the horn of notably in the affair of the Altar of Victorythe goat ; it had the power of producing (see Symmachus) in which his advocacywhatever itspossessor wished, and was of the Christian cause (Ep. xvii and xviii)known (hi Latin) as the cornucopias (horn was ono of the final blows to the paganof plenty). religion. Ambrose did not shrink from reproving the emperor TheodOeius inAmata, in the Aeneid, the wife of church, and even from imposing penanceLatinus and mother of Lavinia (qq.v.). on him (after a punitive massacre orderedAmazons (Amdzones), a legendary nation by Theodosius at Thessalonica). Amongof women-warriors, supposed to have lived his important writings is a treatise on theIn heroic times in the neighbourhood of duties of priests ( De Officiis Ministrorum)the Euxine. The name means breastlcss , modelled on the De Offlciis of Cicero.and it was said that they removed their He also published explanatory commen-right breasts in order the better to handle taries on many parts of the scriptures, dogmatic treatises ( Do Fide, De Spirltu the bow. They were allies of the Trojans
  • 36. Ammianus Marcellinus 24 AmphlctyonySancto ), and minor treatises on the ascetic moods, from that of the simple, constantlife. Many of his works had first taken the lover to that of Don Juan. They are arti-form of sermons and show an oratorical ficial, literary, the product of fancy ratherstyle. We also have a large number of his than of passion. Corinna* is a prominentletters, mostly on church matters. The figure in them, but if she had real exis-influence of his Roman education is tence, she was probably one of many loves.evident in many quotations from, and Some of the poems throw an interestingreminiscences of, the great Roman and light on contemporary life a scene at theGreek authors. Of the hymns attributed Circus, or a festival of Juno ; one of themto him, a few are certainly authentic, (in. ix) is a beautiful lament for the deathbut he was not the author of the Te of Tibullus.Deum, as tradition relates. The Ambrosian in GreekLibrary at Milan (founded in 1609) is Amphiaraus (Amphiaraos), mythology, an Argive hero and seer, whonamed after him. took part in the Calydonian boar-huntAmmianus Marcellinus, born at (see Meleager) and the expedition of theAntloch about A.D. 330, wrote in Latin at Argonauts (q.v.). Ho married Eriphyle,Rome about A.D. 390 a continuation of the whom Polynices bribed, by the gift ofhistory of Tacitus, in 31 books, of which the fatal necklace of his ancestress Har-we possess Bks. xiv-xxxi. These cover monia (see Cadmus (1)), to persuade Am-the period A.D. 353-378, from Constantius phiaraus to take part in the expeditionto the death of Valcns. Ainmianus was of the Seven against Thebes (see Oedipus),a patriotic Roman and a philosophic his- though the scor knew that none of the Seventorian, with a high conception of the role except Adrastus would return from it alivo.of history, and ho aimed at truthfulness He set out reluctantly, but before startingand accuracy. He himself served under laid on his children the charge that theyJulian against the Persians and his ex- should avenge his death by killing theirperience lends vividness to some of the mother, and by making a second expedi-campaigns he describes. There are inter- tion against Thebes. Amphiaraus perished,esting digressions on a variety of subjects, as he foresaw, at Thebes (he was swallowedsuch as the Egyptian obelisks and their up in the earth as he retreated), and was inhieroglyphics, earthquakes, lions in Meso- due course avenged by his son Alcmaeonpotamia, the artillery of his time; and (q.v.). A shrine was erected to him nearimpartial judgements on the various Oropus, where oracles were given bynations dealt with, on the Christians (he means of dreams. The fee for consultingwas a pagan but opposed to the persecu- the oncle was nine obols (say, one shil-tion of Christians), and on the emperors ling). Sulla, in fulfilment of a vow madethemselves. Latin was not his native during his campaign in Greece, conse-tongue, and his stylo is marred by clumsi- crated to the god Amphiaraus the reven-ness, Graecisins, and bombast. ues derived from Oropus by the Romans. But later the Roman tax-gatherers con-Amrnon (Ammdn or Hammon), an Egyp- tested this diversion of the revenue, ontian god, represented sometimes as a ram, the ground that Amphiaraus was no god.sometimes as a man with rams head and The question was tried before the consulscurved horns. He had a famous oracle in in 73 B.C. (Cicero was one of their asses-an oasis (Siwah) in the Libyan desert, sors) and the ordinance of Sulla waswhich was visited by Alexander the Great upheld.(q.v., 4). The Greeks identified Ammonwith Zeus. Amphictyon (Amphiktuon), see Amphic* tyony.Amoebean verses (amoibaia melc, fromGk. amoibe, change), verses sung alter- Amphictyony (Amphiktuoneia), a reli- gious association of Greeks worshipping atnately by two persons hi competition, a the shrine of the same god (from amphi-form of contest in use among Sicilian ctiones, dwellers around). The most im-shepherds hi antiquity. It was developedby Theocritus (q.v.) in some of his Idylls, portant Amphictyony was that of Delphi,and by Virgil in some of his Eclogues. whose sanctuaries were the temples of Apollo at Delphi and of Demeter at Ther-Am&res, love poems by Ovid in elegiacs, mopylae. Many of the principal peoplessome of them being among his earliest of Greece, including Thessalians, Dorians,works. There were two editions of the and lonians, belonged to it. The assem-Amores, the first in five books, the blies of this Amphictyonic League metsecond in three ; it is the second that has twice a year, alternately at Delphi andsurvived. Thermopylae. Though it might have been The poems, for the most part, are a source of union among Greek States, itstudies or sketches of love in different exercised little Influence in this direction;
  • 37. Amphion 25 Anabasisbut see Sacred Wars. Both Jason of who was held to be the son of Zeus. ThePherae and Philip of Macedon (qq.v.) legend has been made the subject ofattached importance to it as a means of amusing plays by Plautus, Moliere, andadvancing their schemes of Greek hege- Dryden. Amphitryons association withmony. The foundation of the Amphic- gastronomy is purely modern and arisestyony was attributed to one Amphictyon, from a line in Molieres play. The servanta legendary person, son of Deucalion of Amphitryon, perplexed by the resem-(q.v.) and brother of Hellen (the ancestor blance of the two who both claim to boof the Greeks). his master, hears Zeuo invite some friends to dinner, and is thereby convinced he isAmphion (Amphlon), see Antiope. the genuine Amphitryon Le v6ritableAmphitheatre, a circular or elliptical Amphitryon est 1Amphitryon oft Tontheatre, in which the seats of the spec- dine.tators completely surrounded the arena.The earliest built at Rome were wooden Amulius, see Rome, 2.structures; a stone amphitheatre was Amycus (Amukos), in Greek mythology,erected in 29 B.C. but was destroyed in a son of Poseidon and king of the Beb-the flre of Rome during Nero s reign. The ryces (a people of BIthynia), a mightygreat Flavian Amphitheatre, known as boxer. When the Argonauts came to histhe Colosseum, whose enormous ruins country, Pollux accepted his challengesurvive, was built by Vespasian and his and knocked him out. The Bebrycessuccessors to take its place. It stood at broke into the ring to avenge their king,the foot of the Esquiline Hill, oast of the but were routed by the Argonauts. TheForum (see PI. 14). Displays of wild beasts episode is treated by Apollonius Rhodiusand gladiatorial shows wore held there; and by Theocritus (xxiii).and the arena could be flooded for mimicsea-fights (naumachiae, q.v.). Amymone (Amttmone), in Greek mytho- logy* one of the fifty daughters of DanausAmphitrite, a Nereid (see Nereus), wife (q.v.), rescued from a satyr by Poseidonof Poseidon (q.v.). and loved by him. Milton (P.R. ii. 185 ct seq.) includes her among the heroinesAmphitruo, a comedy by Plautus, per- of legend thus loved by the gods :haps an adaptation of a play by Philemon to waylay(see Comedy, 4), on the legend of Zeustaking the appearance of Amphitryon to Some beauty rare, Calisto, Clymene,visit the latter s wife, Alcmena (see Am- Daphne or Semelo, Antiopa,phitryon). Plautus designates the play a Or Amymone, Syrinx, many more . . .tragico-comoedia because of the unusual Anabasis (Kurou Anabasis), a proseblend of contrasting elements, the charac- narrative in seven books, by Xenophon,ter of the chaste and dignified Alcmena of the expedition (lit. going up from theon the one hand, and the burlesque situa- sea-coast to the interior) of the youngertion on the other. The gross and irrever- Cyrus, son of Darius II, against his brother,ent presentation of Jupiter and Mercury ia Artaxerxes II, king of Persia. The worknoteworthy. Moliero and Dryden followed was published as by Themistogenes ofPlautuss play in their comedies on the Syracuse, for motives which can only besame subject. conjectured.Amphitryon (Amphitruon), Greek in Cyrus, who was satrap of Lydia, wasmythology, son of Alcaeus and grandson disappointed that ho was not chosen toof Perseus (q.v.), and nephew of Eloctryon, succeed his father, partly as the favouriteking of Mycenae, to whose daughter, Alc- son, partly as having been born aftermene, he was betrothed. Having had the his fathers accession to the throne. Hismisfortune to kill Electryon by accident, resentment against his brother was in-Amphitryon took refuge at Thebes, creased, according to Xenophon, by thewhore he was followed by Alcmene. By fact that shortly after his accessionher wish he set out to war with the Artaxcrxes arrested him on a false accusa-Teleboans, in order to avenge her brothers, tion of conspiracy. Cyrus thereafter madewho had been killed in a quarrel with careful preparations to attack Artaxerxes,them. On the night of his return, Zeus, recruiting an auxiliary force of ten thou-who had been captivated by the charms sand Greeks for the purpose. Xenophonof Alcmene, introduced himself to her describes the long march of the expedi-disguised as the victorious Amphitryon, tionary force in 401 B.C. from Sardis toand was shortly followed by Amphitryon the neighbourhood of Babylon; he accom-himself. Alcmene gave birth to twin chil- panied it in a private capacity at the in-dren, Iphicles who was regarded as vitation of his friend Proxenus, one of theAmphitryons son, and Heracles (q.v.) Greek generals. The march was interrupted
  • 38. Anacharsis 26 Anaxagorasby the reluctance of some of the troops quidem poetae prodidenmt (nam apudto proceed when the true object of the Homerum . . . talis de Ulixe nulla suspicioexpedition, which had been concealed est),sed insimulant cum tragoediae simu-from them, became known. However, the latione insaniae militiam subterfugeregreat bulk of the force was induced to go voluisse (Cicero, De Off. in. 26. 97).on, and was present at the battle of Anacreon (Anakredn) (6th c. B.C.), aCunaxa near Babylon, where Cyrus him- lyric poet born at Teoa in Ionia, whenceself was killed, and his Asiatic troops ho migrated to the Tcian colony of Abdera ;took flight. but he spent most of his life elsewhere, first This disaster reduced the Greeks to at the court of Polycrates (q.v.) of Samos,great perplexity and distress, but there and later at Athens under Hipparchus.was no yielding to the attempts of There are grounds for thinking he endedArtaxerxes to induce them to surrender. his days in Thessaly, but the date andThe perplexity increased when Tissa- place of his death are unknown. Hisphernes, who had been conducting the poems, of which wo have only shortnegotiations on the Persian side, lured fragments, were chiefly light and playfulthe Greek generals into his quarters, songs of love and wine, without depth ofwhere they were seized and beheaded. passion ; some of them were mocking andAt this point Xenophon came forward, satirical. They are written with perfectinduced the remaining officers to reor- clearness of expression and rhythm, inganize the force and take the measures various metres, but he avoids the alcaicnecessary for its safo retreat. Thereafter and the sapphic. Anacrcon also wroteCheirisophus commanded the van and iambics, elegies, and epigrams. He wasXenophon the rear, the most dangerous much imitated in all periods, and wepost. By his advice on the choice of route, possess a collection of some sixty of theseby his resourcefulness, and by the example imitations, known as Anacroontea*.of his courage, he enabled the Greek Among Landers Imaginary Conversa- army, after great hardships and severe tions* is one between Anacreon and Poly-fighting in the mountains of Armenia, to crates.reach the Euxine. His description of thescene when the Greeks, climbing Mt. Anacrusis, see Metre, 2 and 3.Theches, at last beheld the sea and cried Anagndrisis, see Tragedy, 3.*Thalassa, tnalassa! is famous (iv. 7. Priora and Posteriora, Analytica20-6). They now reached Trapezus treatises on by Aristotle (q.v., 3). logic(Trebizond), a Greek colony on the coast,and were comparatively safe; but diffi- Anapaest, see Metre, 1.culties had to be surmounted, and still repetition of a word or Anaphora, thegrave dissensions arose among the troops phrase in several successive clauses; abefore they reached Byzantium. After a rhetorical device frequent in oratory, e.g.winter spent hi the service of the treach- Verres calumniatores apponebat, Verreserous Seuthes, a Thracian, Xenophon adcsso jubcbat, Verres cognoscobat . . .handed over the remnant of the Ten (Cicero, Verr. n. 2, 10.) The rhetoricianThousand to the Spartan Thimbron, for Demetrius quotes as an example of ana-the war against Persia. Xenophon s piety phora the beautiful lines of Sappho :is a noticeable feature in the narrative;ho takes no important decision without "EaTTp irdvra <f>pajv oaa (frauoXis eWe- Sacr* AVOJS,sacrificing to the gods and being guidedby the omens. <t>pis oiv, (f)pis afya, <f>epis O.TTV pdrepi, TrcuSa.Anacharsis, a Scythian sage, who, Anaxagoras (Anaxagords) of Clazomenaeaccording to Herodotus, visited manycountries in the 6th c. B.C. to study their in Ionia, a Greek philosopher born about 500 B.C. Ho went to Athens about thecustoms, and endeavoured to introducethese into Scythia, but was put to death year 460, spent some thirty years there, and became the friend of Pericles (q.v.).by the Scythian king. According toPlutarch, he made at Athens the acquain- Fragments survive of his book Ontance of Solon, and Lucian has a dialogue Nature 1 , written in the Ionian dialect, between the two. He is and in a simple, sober style. According(* Anacharsis) to his explanation of the universe, thesaid to have invented, among other things,the potters wheel and the true anchor permanent elements of which it is con-with arms. stituted are unlimited in number, and are combined In bodies in changing propor-Anacoluthon (Gk. not following), a tions, as the result of a system of circula-change of construction in the course of a tion (Trepixwpyais) directed by Spirit orsentence, e.g. Utile videbatur Ulixi, ut Intelligence (Novs), a supreme independent
  • 39. Anaximander 27 Andriaforce. This last was a conception destined mutilation of the Hermae (seeto revolutionize Greek philosophy. It is nesian War), and having with his fatherthe ultimate origin of what is now known and several of his relatives been denouncedas dualism, the doctrine that mind and and imprisoned, he was persuaded to tellmatter exist as two distinct entities. all he knew in order to save these andAnaxagoras was also a scientist; he was other innocent victims. He acknowledgedthe first to explain solar eclipses. his own guilt (but subsequently repudiatedAnaximander (Anaximandros) of Mile- the confession) and named certain othertus, a practical scientist and philosopher participants in the outrage. A decree of tifimia (disgrace), virtually equivalent toof the early part of the 6th c. B.C., con- was passed on him. Wetemporary of Thales (q.v.). He is said banishment, of histo have constructed a sun-dial and a possess three speeches, the first,map of the world. He sought the basis of On his Return, delivered in the Ecclesia, *the universe in an indefinite, unlimited probably in 410, when ho unsuccessfullysubstance other than the forms of matter sought permission to return to Athens; the second, On the Mysteries*, made inusually recognized, but capable of being 399 when, having been readmitted in 403transformed into them. Ho left a writtenaccount of his philosophical opinions, to his city, he was accused of impiety (forwhich has perished. He is said to have having contrary to the decree of atimiabeen the first Greek author to write in attended the Mysteries); the third, a political discourse urging peace withprose. Sparta in 390, the fourth year of theAnaximenes of Miletus, a philosopher of Corinthian War. The date of his death isthe 6th c. B.C., later than Anaximander unknown. Andocides was not, like the(q.v.). He found iu air the primary basis other orators, a trained or professionalof the universe and thought that this, by rhetorician, but a man of ability and ;condensation and rarefaction, gave rise to shrewdness, who excelled rather in aother forms of matter. natural and persuasive eloquence than inAnchlses, a member of the royal house style, clearness, or fire.of Troy (see genealogy under Troy), withwhom Aphrodite fell in love. The child Andria (The Woman of Andros), aof their union was Aeneas (q.v.). Anchises comedy by Terence, the earliest of hisboasted of the goddesss favour and was plays, produced in 166 B.C., adapted fromBtruck blind or paralysed by the thunder- two plays by Menander.bolt of Zeus. We are told in the Aencid Pamphilus, a young gentleman ofthat he was carried out of burning Troy Athens, has seduced Glycerium, supposedon his sons shoulders, and accompanied to be the sister of a courtesan fromhim in his wanderings, dying hi Sicily, Andros, and is devoted to her. His father,where he was buried on Mt. Eryx. Simo, has arranged a match for him with the daughter of his friend Chromes. ButAncilia. A shield (anclle) was said to Chremes has heard of the relations of Pam-have fallen from heaven at Rome in the philus and Glycerium and withdraws hisreign of Numa, and an oracle declared consent to the match. Simo conceals this,that the seat of empire would lie wherever pretends to go on with the preparationsthat shield should be. Thereupon Numa for an immediate marriage, and hopes bycaused eleven other shields to be made this means to put an end to the it, so that, if a traitor should wish to Pamphilus, learning from his cunningremove it, the genuine shield could not be slave, Davus, that the intended marriagedistinguished. These shields were pro- is a pretence, temporizes and offers noserved in the Temple of Mars in the cus- objection. Simo now persuades Chremcstody of the Salii (q.v.), and were carried to withdraw his objection; and Pam-round the city yearly in solemn procession philus is reduced to despair. At this stagein the month of March. On a declaration Glycoriurn bears a son to Pamphilus,of war, the Roman general moved the and Davus * arranges that the fact shallshields, with the words, Awake, Mars ! become known to Chromes, who nowAncus Marcius, one of the legendary finally breaks off the match. An acquain-kings of Rome (see JRome, 2). tance just arrived from Andros reveals to Chremes that Glycerium as a child wasAncyranum Monumentum, see Monu- shipwrecked at Andros in circumstancesmentum Ancyranum. which show that she is a daughter ofAndocides (Andokidls) (b. c. 440 B.C.), Chremes. Chremes and Simo consent toa member of a distinguished Athenian the marriage of Pamphilus and Glycerium,family, and one of the earlier Attic orators. and all ends happily.He was implicated in the affair of the The play contains the often-quoted
  • 40. Andromache Annalsphrases, nine illae and aman- was entrusted by him to Lavinia. But lacrlmae*tium irae amoris integratiost*. It was Lavinia was jealous of her, and Anna fledtranslated into English and printed early to the river Numicius and was taken by theIn the 16th o. Steeles The Conscious river-god into his care.Lovers is largely based on it. Anna Comnena (b. 1083), daughter of theAndromache, in mythology, Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, a Greekdaughter of Eetldn (king of Thebe in learned and ambitious woman. She mar-Cilicia), wife of Hector (q.v.), and mother ried Nicephorus Bryennius, and after herof Aetyanax. In the Iliad she is the fathers death conspired to place him ontype of the true wife and mother, noble the throne hi place of her brother. Thein misfortune, smiling in her tears. After conspiracy was defeated and she wasthe capture of Troy she fell to the lot of banished. In her exile she wrote a life ofNeoptolemus (q.v.). Her separation from her father, the Alexiad, in fifteen books,her child, whom the Greeks ordered to be the first Greek historical work written bykilled, forms the most tragic incident in a woman. It includes an account of thothe Trojan Women* (q.v.) of Euripides, First Crusade (1095-9).Later she married the Trojan seer Hclenus, Anna Perenna, an ancient Roman deitya son of Priam. of the whoso festival was celebrated year,Andromache, a tragedy by Euripides, of March. This was a feast at on the Idesprobably produced about the beginning the full moon in what was then the firstof the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.). month of the year. She was probably a The play deals with that period in the moon-goddess, but her attributes are notlife of Andromache (see previous article) clear. Of the six explanations of her givenwhen she was living as the thrall of by Ovid, quia mensibus impleat annum*Neoptolemus in Thcssaly. She had borne (Fast. iii. 657) is regarded as the mosthim a son, Molossus, and after ten years probable, and it is thought likely that sheNeoptolemus had married Hermione, was Anna ac Pcrenna, she who beginsdaughter of Monelaus. Hermione re- and ends tho year.mained childless, and suspected as the Annales. The Annales Ponlificum OPcause of this the arts of her hated rival, Annalcs Maximi were records of impor-Andromache. Aided by the contemptible tant events kept by the Pontifcx Maximus,Menelaus, Hcrmione takes advantage of who displayed annually a white table onthe absence of Neoptolemus on a journey to which these and the names of the magi-Delphi to draw Andromache, by the threat strates for the year were set out. Theof the murder of Molossus, from the shrine early records are said to have beenof Thetis where she has taken refuge, in destroyed in tho fire of 390 B.C. Muciusorder to kill both mother and child. They Scaevola (consul in 133 and Pontifexare saved by the intervention of the agod Maximus in 130) collected such of thePeleus, the grandfather of NeoptolcumH. Annales Pontiflcum as were available andOrestes (q.v.), who has contrived the published them hi 130 B.C., accordingmurder of Neoptolemus at Delphi and who to Servius in eighty books.arrives unexpectedly, carries off Hermione, Early Roman historians, sometimesto whom, before her marriage to Neopto- spoken of as annalists, includo Fabiuslemus, he was betrothed. The death of Pictor (q.v.) who wrote in Greek, M.Neoptolemus is announced. Thetis appears Porcius Cato (q.v.), L. Calpurnius Pisoand arranges matters. The odious charac- Frugl (consul 133 B.C.), L. Caelius Anti-ter which the poet attributes to Monelaus pater (late 2nd c. B.C.), Q. Claudiusis in accord with the feeling against Sparta Quadrigarius (1st c. B.C.), and C. Liciniusthat prevailed at this time at Athens. Macer (q.v.).Andromeda (Andromedt), see Perseus. Annales, (1) of Ennms, see Ennius; (2) ofAndronicus, Ltrcius LIvius, see Livius Tacitus, see Annals; (3) of Fencstella, seeAndronicus. Fenestella.Androtion (Androtion), Against, a Annals (Annales or Ab Excessu Divispeech in a public prosecution by Demos- Augusti), a history of the reigns ofthenes. See Demosthenes (2), 3 (a). Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, by * Tacitus, written after the HistoriesAnecddta see Procopius. (q.v.). There evidence that Tacitus isAnimdlium, Historia, a treatise by was writing the work c. A.D. 115-17. TheAristotle (q.v., 3). surviving portions are Books I-IV, partsAnna, sister of Dido (q.v.). According of V and VI, and XI-XVI (incompleteto Ovid, Anna, after Aeneas had estab- at the beginning and end). The work islished himself in Italy, came there, and notable for its style, concise to the point
  • 41. Annals 29 Annalsof obscurity (in strong contrast to the of Agrippina his mother (33). The <Ciceronian amplitude), its sustained less bloodshed at Rome, by executions anddignity and vividness, its epigrammatic suicides. The death of Tiberius (37), andsayings memorable for their irony or a summary of his life.melancholy. The record of these reigns Bk. XI (A.D. 47-49), resumes the narra-is in the main a gloomy and depressing tive after the hiatus, in the seventh yearone, and although Tacitus bears witness of Claudius (A.D. 47). The principal sub-here and there to the efficient civil admini- jects of tho book are tho excesses ofstration of the empire, the emphasis seems Messallna, her marriage with Silius, thoto bo rather on the crimes, tho syco- perturbation of tho emperor, and thephancy, the delations, and the oppression, execution (48) of Silius and Messalina atthat marked this period at Rome. Though the instance of the frccdman Narcissus.Tacitus claims to write without partiality Bk. XII (A.D. 49-54). Claudius marriesand prejudice, to aim at saving worthy (49) his niece, Agrippina (daughter ofactions from oblivion while holding up Germanicus). Through her influence herevil deeds to the reprobation of posterity son (the future emperor Nero) is adopted(iii. 65), he is in fact influenced by a re- by Claudius, preferred to his own son,publican bias. It is generally recognized Britannicus, and married to Octaviathat the impression he gives of Tiberius is (daughter of Claudius). Silanus, to whomunduly dark, and that in particular the Octavia had been betrothed, is broughtlife of debauchery imputed to him in his to ruin and death (49) by Agrippina.last years at Capri is inherently improbable. Seneca is recalled from exile to be NerosThe matters of most interest or impor- tutor. The insurrection in Britain and thetance hi the several books are as follows : defeat (50)of Caratacus, king of tho Bk. I (A.D. 14-15), after a rapid review Silures, who is brought to Rome andof the reign of Augustus, passes to the pardoned. Claudius is poisoned by Agrip-reign of Tiberius, relating the suppression pina. Accession of Nero (54).by Germanicus of the mutiny of the Bk. XIII (A.D. 55-58). The promisinglegions in Pannonia and Germany (A.D. beginning of the reign of Nero, who is14), and his first two campaigns (14-15) restrained by Seneca and Burrus (prefectagainst the Germans. There is a notable of the praetorians). Cn. Domitius CorbulOdescription of the visit of tho Roman is sent to the East to resist Parthian ag-army to the scene of the disaster of Varus. gression (54). Agrippina, whoso influence Bk. II (A.D. 16-19). The third cam- is weakened, takes up the cause of Bri-paign of Germanicus (16), in which he tannicus. Nero has Britannicus poisoneddefeats Arminius. His expedition to the 55) and Agrippina removed from theEast with Cn. Piso (17), and his death (19), palace. Nero in love with Poppaea Sabina.suspected to have been duo to Piso. Bk. XIV (A.D. 59-62). Tho attempted Bk. Ill (A.D. 20-22). The return of destruction of Agrippina by scuttling herAgrippina, the widow of Germanicus, to ship, followed by her brutal murder (61).Italy, and tho trial (20) and suicide of The great rising (61) in Britain underPiso. The growth of luxury and syco- Boudicca (Boadicea), and its suppression.phancy at Rome. London is mentioned as much frequented Bk. IV (A.D. 23-28). Sejanus, his charac- by merchants and trading vessels. Armeniater and career. In league with Livia, the is recovered from tho Parthians by thewife of Drusus (son of Tiberius), he causes Romans under Corbulo. The death of Bur-Drusus to be poisoned (23), and plots rus (62) and retirement of Seneca. Neroagainst the children of Germanicus. Tho marries Poppaea his former wife, the vir- ;proposal of his marriage with Livia is put tuous Octavia, is banished to Pandatariaaside by Tiberius. Tiberius withdraws to and there murdered.Capri (26). The increase in tho activity Bk. XV (A.D. 62-65). Ignominious de-of informers and in judicial murders: the feat of Caesennius Paetus in Armenia,case, for instance, of Cremutius Cordus, followed by tho reduction of the countryaccused of having in a history praised by a Roman army under Corbulo to aBrutus and Cassius. dependency of the empire (63). Tho great Bk. V (A.D. 29). The death of Julia flre of Rome (64) which devastated tenAugusta or Livia (29), mother of Tiberius. out of its fourteen districts; the rebuild-The story of the conspiracy and fall of ing of tho city on an improved plan. TheSe janus (31), which formed part of this persecution of the Christians, to whombook, is lost. Nero attributes the flre. The conspiracy Bk. VI (A.D. 31-37). Tiberius at Capri, of C. Calpurnius PIsS and putting to deathhis vicious life, anguish of soul, and of Seneca and Lucan (65).ferocity. The death of Drusus (son of Bk. XVI (A.D. 65-66). The extrava-Germanicus) by starvation in prison, and gances of Nero, who appears in public as
  • 42. Annona 30 Anthologiesa singer. The death of Poppaea (65). Antaeus (Antaios), son of Poseidon andThe suicide of the Stoic Thrasca and the Ge (qq.v.), a giant with whom Heraclesbanishment of his son-in-law, Helvidius (q.v.) wrestled. Whenever ho was thrown,(66). In one of tho last surviving chapters he arose stronger than before from contactof the book (10) Tacitus laments the with his mother Earth. Heracles, per-melancholy and monotony of the record ceiving this, lifted him in tho air andof bloodshed. The portion of tho Annals crushed him to death.relating to tho last two years of Neros Anteia, see Betterophon.reign is lost. Antenor, one of the elders of Troy duringAnnona, at Homo, tho corn supply, tho siege. He was in favour of restoringalways a source of solicitude to the Helen to tho Greeks, since sho had beenauthorities owing to tho fluctuation of taken by treachery. It was said that tho his fairness, sparedprices and the danger of famine from the Greeks, recognizingfailure of crops and the uncertainty of him and his family when the city wascommunications. From the 5th o. B.C. the captured. Later legend made him out agovernment appears to have occupied it- traitor to the Trojans.self with procuring supplies of wheat from Anthesteria, see Festivals, 4.overseas and selling it to tho people, theaediles of tho plebs being charged with Anthologies.this duty. Tho details of tho legislation 1, Greek Anthologieson the subject at various later dates are The ancient Greek anthologies were col-still a vexed question, and tho following lections of Greek Epigrams *, i.e. short ele- *statements only indicate the more recent giac poems, of from one to four distichsviews on the subject. O. Gracchus caused on various subjects and by various au-a certain quantity of corn to be sold at a thors. Mcleager of Gadara (1st c, B.C.) com-moderate price, probably to each adult piled such an anthology from tho workscitizen who applied for it; the price of forty-six poets. It is now lost, butappears to have been 6J asses per modius served, with other similar compilations,(nearly two gallons), but what relation as the basis of tho famous collectionthis bore to the open-market price we do of Coiistantinus Cephalas (c. A.D. 917).not know. This special price may have This is known as the Palatine Anthology,been reduced by the law of Saturninus because it was discovered (by the great(q.v.) of 100 B.C. Sulla seems to have French scholar Salmasius at the age of 19)abolished corn distributions, but immedi- in the Palatine Library of Heidelbergately after his death Lepidus reintroduced in the 17th c. It includes poems by 320them, at tho rate of five modii a month authors. Tho Antholorjia Planudea wasgratis. By the lex Terentia Cassia of 73 B.C. made by the monk Maximus Planudcscorn was supplied to a restricted number in the 14th c. it was an abridgement (with ;40,000 gratis. In 63 B.C. the Gracchan a few additions) of the anthology oflaw was revised and some charge was Cephalas. The modern Greek Anthology again made. Clodius (q.v.) in 58 B.C. gave is composed of tho Palatine Anthology, corn free of charge to the proletariat. with the additional poems supplied byJulius Caesar appointed two Aedilcs that of Planudes, and further epigramsCerialcs specially to look after the dis- found in other Greek authors or in in-tribution; tho recipients, greatly reduced scriptions. It contains over six thousandin number, were entered on a register. epigrams, many of them poems of greatBetween A.D. (> and 14 Augustus ap- charm, ranging in time over seventeenpointed a ipracfectus annonae who regula- centuries, from the 7th c. B.C. to the 10thted the price and distribution. He had c. A.D., and over a great variety of sub-In 22 B.C. taken over tho cilra annonae, jects. There are epitaphs (including theand from that date it was under imperial famous epitaphs attributed to Simonides),control. The expense, which was con- dedications, reflections on life and deathsiderable, had hitherto been met by the and fate, poems on love, on family life,aerarium or State treasury. It was now on great poets and artists and their works,met by tho imperial revenues, but the and on the beauties of nature. A certainaerarium may also have contributed. The proportion are humorous or satirical,harbour built at Ostia by Claudius was to making fun of doctors, rhetoricians, ath-enable tho corn ships to have direct com- letes, &c., or of personal peculiarities, suchmunication with Rome instead of unload- as Nicons long at Puteoli, whence tho corn had to be The dedicatory poems form perhaps theconveyed overland a distance of 138 miles. group that throws most light on ancientFurther harbour improvements were car- Greek life there are dedications not only :ried out by Trajan. of arms, but of many kinds of implements
  • 43. Anticlea 31 Antiopeof daily use. A maiden about to wed poems in elegiacs, collected title under theoffers up her and toys, a traveller Lyde, which were to some extent the dollshis old hat, a small gift, but given in forerunners of poems of the Alexandrianpiety. school. The Anthologia Latina 2. Antinous (Gk. Antinoos), (1) in the The Anthologia Latina is a collection Odyssey (q.v.), the most arrogant ofof some 380 short Latin poems, most of the wooers of Penelope. He is the first ofthem of very late date, compiled in the these that Odysseus kills. (2) A BithynianVandal kingdom of Africa in the first half youth of great beauty and a favouriteof the 6th c. A.D. It includes the Pervi- of the emperor Hadrian. He drownedgilium Veneris* (q.v.) and some poems by himself in the Nile in A.D. 130. HadrianSeneca the Philosopher. founded the city of Antinoopolis on the Nile and erected temples in his memory.Anticlea (Antikleia), in Greek mytho- Antinous was frequently represented inlogy, the wife of Laertes and mother of sculpture, and some of these representa-Odysseus (q.v.). tions survive.Anticlimax, see Climax. Antioch (Antiocheia), on the Orontes,Antidosis. A wealthy Athenian was the capital of Syria, founded by Seleucus Irequired to undertake certain public ser- (see Seleucids) about 300 B.C., and namedvices (see Liturgy). To avoid one of these, after his father. Antiochus the Greathe might challenge some other citizen, (223-187 B.C.) adorned it with works ofwhose means he thought greater than his art, a theatre, and a library. It was aown, either to undertake the service or trade centre and a pleasure city, never ato make an exchange (antidosis) of pro- centre of learning, though Aratus of Soliperties. This might lead to a lawsuit, if lived for a time at the court of Antiochus I,the other citizen refused. and Euphorion was appointed librarianAntidosis, On the, see Isocrates. of the public library. Antiochus IV Epi-Antigone (Antigone), see Oedipus. phanes, an ardent Hellenist, made Antioch for a time a centre of Greek art. ManyAntigone, a tragedy by Sophocles, of other cities, besides the capital, foundedunknown date, probably an early work. Creon, ruler of Thebes, has forbidden on by the Seleucids bore the name Antioch.pain of death the burial of the body of Antiochus (Anttochos), (1) the name ofPolynices (see Oedipus). Antigone resolves several of the Scleucid kings of Asia; seeto defy the outrageous edict and perform Scleucids. (2) of Ascalon, see Academy,the funeral rites for her brother. She is ad fin.caught doing this and brought before the in Greek mytho-infuriated king. She justifies her act as Antiope (Antiope) (1)In accordance with the overriding laws logy, daughter of Nycteus, son ofof the gods. Creon, unrelenting, condemns Chthonios, one of the Spartoi (see Cad-her to be immured alive in a cave. Her mus) of Thebes. Antiope was loved by who has refused to share inZeus and became the mother of the twinsister, Ismene,her defiant act, now claims a share hi her brothers, Amphion and Zethus. To avoid her fathers anger she fled to Sicyon.guilt and in her penalty, but is treated byCreon as demented. Haemon, Creon s son, Nycteus in despair killed himself, but first charged his brother, Lycus, who wasbetrothed to Antigone, pleads in vain withCreon. He goes out, warning his father king of Thebes during the minority ofthat he will die with her. The seer Tiresias Laius (q.v.), to punish Antiope. Lycusthreatens Creon with the fearful conse- captured Sicyon and imprisoned Antiope ; her treatment was made more cruel byquences of his defiance of the divine laws. the jealousy of Dirce, the wife of Lycus.Creon, at last moved, sets out hurriedlyfor the cave where Antigone has been At last Antiopo escaped and joined herimmured. He finds Haemon clasping her sons, now grown to maturity. Thesedead body, for Antigone has hanged her- revenged her by tying Dirce to the horns of a bull, so that she was dragged toself. Haemon thrusts at Creon with his death ; and they killed or deposed Lycus.sword, but misses him, and then killshimself. Creon returns to the palace, to Amphion and Zethus now became rulersfind that Eurydice, his wife, in despair has of Thebes and built its walls. Amphiontaken her own life. was a harper of such skill that the stones were drawn into their places by his music.Antigonus and Antigonids, see Ma- He married Niobe (q.v.). Zethus marriedcedonia, 2 and 3. the nymph Thebe, whence was derivedAntimachus (Antimachos) of Colophon, the name of Thebes.see Epic, 1. He also wrote short love (2) See Hippolyte.
  • 44. Antipater 32 AntonyAntipater (Antipatros), a Macedonian Italian bourgeois of the senatorial class,general, left by Alexander the Great who had no intellectual tendencies, but(q.v.) as regent of Macedonia during his a sound common sense, and a gift ofeastern campaigns. See under Macedonia, humour* (Rostovtzeff). Ho was father of 2, and also Athens, 7. Faustina (q.v.). It was in his reign (in 142) that the wall of turf known as theAntipater (Antipatros) of Sidon (fl. c. Wall of Antoninus was built by his lieuten-100 B.C.), a Greek writer of elegiac poetry, ant Lollius Urbicus between the Forth andsome of which is preserved in the Palatine tho Clyde (see Britain, 2).Anthology (q.v.). AntSnius, MARCUS, (1) (143-87 B.C.), oneAntiphanes, see Comedy, 4. of tho greatest orators of his day, consulAntiphon (c. 480-411), the first of the in 99, a member of the party of Sulla, andAttic orators whoso speeches in part sur- put to death by the Marians. Ho wasvive, a representative of the older and grandfather of Antony the triumvir. Hemore austere form of pleading. He was is one of the chief interlocutors in Cicerosthe first professional writer of speeches to De Oratore* (q.v.). (2) See spoken by the actual litigants (logo- Antonomasia, a rhetorical figure, ingraphos, in the second sense of the word, which a descriptive term or phrase is sub-q.v.). Ho was also a teacher of rhetoric, stituted for a proper name, e.g. Tydidcsand Thucydides is said to have been his for Diomcdes, or Divum pater forpupil. Though living in obscurity, he was Jupiter. Cf. Metonymy.the soul of the oligarchic conspiracy whichin 411 established the rule of the Four Antony, MARK (Marcus Antdnius) (c. 82- 30 B.C.), grandson of M. Antonius (q.v.)Hundred (see Athens, 5). When thesewere overthrown, Antiphon was tried, the orator. After serving under Gabiniusfound guilty of treason, and put to death, in the East and under Caesar in Gaul, hoin spite of a plea for his life which Thucy- was one of tho tribunes in 49, when hodides declares unequalled down to his supported Caesars cause, joined himtime. Antiphon is said to have been un- before tho crossing of the Rubicon, and held a command in the ensuing campaignspopular owing to a repute for cleverness.He excelled as a pleader in cases of in Italy and Epirus. After Pharsalus (48) he remained in Italy as Caesars Master ofhomicide, and his dignified style wasbetter suited to the Areopagus than to tho Horse and held tho chief power therethe Ecclesia. Wo have three of his during tho lawless period of Caesars absence. He was consul at tho time ofspeeches for murder trials, and also throeTetralogies, exercises in which the author Caesars Assassination and his eloquencegives two speeches for the accuser and won over the populace to his side andtwo for tho defendant in imaginary cases made him ruler of Rome. Civil war brokeof homicide one, for instance, where a boy ; out. It was at this time that Cicero de- livered his Philippics against Antony,practising with the javelin kills anotherboy who runs between htm and the target. and powerfully contributed to raise the republican opposition to him. AntonyAntiquitdtZs RSrum Humtfnarum ct was defeated at the battle of Mutina (43).Dfvfwarum, see Varro (M. T.). Octavian had attached himself to theAntisthenes, see Cynic. republican party, but after Mutina theAntistius Labeo, MARCUS, see Labco. differences between him and Antony were composed, and Octavian, Antony, andAntithesis (placing opposite*), such Lcpidus formed the Triumvirate. Pro-choice or arrangement of words as em- scriptions followed, in which Cicero andphasizes a contrast; e.g. Dominetur in his brother were sacrificed to Antonyscontionibus, jaccat in judiciis* (Cic., Pro desire for vengeance. After Philippi (42),Cluent. 2, 5). where Antony shared the command withAntdninus Pius (Titus Aurclius Fulvus Octavian, a division of tho Roman worldBoionius Arrius Antoninus, after adop- was made, hi which tho East was assignedtion Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus) to Antony. But hostilities soon broke out(A.D. 86-161), Roman emperor A.D. 138- between him and Octavian, temporarily161 in succession to Hadrian, by whom he composed by the treaty of Brundisium inhad been adopted as heir. Ho belonged 40, and tho marriage of Antony withto a Roman family which had settled in Octavians sister Octavia (Antonys firstGaul his father had been consul suffectus. wife Fulvia, q.v., had died in 40). Antony ;Antoninus maintained good relations with now fell under the influence of Cleopatrathe Senate and his reign was peaceful and (q.v.), queen of Egypt, whom he had metorderly, without striking incident. He when he visited Cilicia in 41. Both stoodwas diligent, tolerant, frugal, a good to profit by close alliance Antony would ;
  • 45. Anubis 33 Apiciushave at his disposal the resources of Egypt him. See Painting. To Apelles is attri-to further his scheme of obtaining com- buted by Pliny a saying which has becomeplete power over the East; Cleopatra proverbial. A cobbler had criticized thewould be confirmed in her rule over drawing of a sandal in a picture byEgypt, which was none too secure. But Apelles; Apelles altered the sandal asthe campaign which Antony undertook desired. Next day the cobbler wentagainst the Parthians hi 36 was unsuccess- further and criticized the drawing of theful. After subduing Armenia in 34 he leg. To this Apelles replied, no sutorreturned to Alexandria, where he lived supra crepidam*, the origin of our alike an oriental ruler. He made donations cobbler should stick to his last*.of large parts of the Eastern provinces to Apellcs figures in Lylys Alexander and form kingdoms for Cleopatra, Caesarion Campaspe (1584).(q.v.), and his three children by Cleopatra.In 32 he divorced Octavia, and war broke Aphaia, see Britomartis.out once more between Octavian on the Aphobus (Aphobos), Against, speechesone side and Antony and Cleopatra on the by Demosthenes against his fraudulentother, and was decided by Octavians guardian. See* Demosthenes (2), 2.victory at Actium (31), when Cleopatrassixty ships sailed away, followed by Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, identified by the Romans with VenusAntony himself. In 30 Octavian invaded (q.v.). Homer makes her the daughter ofEgypt, and Antony, after defeat, took Zeus and Diono (q.v.). According tohis own life. Antonys fatal entangle-ment with Cleopatra is the subject of Hesiod she sprang from the foam (aphros) of the sea that gathered about the severedShakespeares historical play Antonyand Cleopatra*. (This play is based on member of Uranus when Cronos (q.v.) mutilated him. Her name Cypris (thePlutarchs life of Antony, which may Cyprian, see Cyprus) and many of hergive a romantic and distorted view of the attributes indicate her partially orientalfacts.) origin and her kinship to the Asian god-Anubis, in Egyptian religion, the dog- dess Astarto. This is borne out by theheaded god who conducted the souls of legend that she first landed either atthe dead to the region of immortal life; Paphos in Cyprus or at Cythera (an islandidentified by the Greeks with Hermes. off the Laconian coast), whence herAonia. The Aonians were, according to title Cytherean*. She was the wifelegend, ancient inhabitants of Boeotia, of Hephaestus (q.v.), but was unfaithfulwhom Cadmus (q.v.) allowed to remain to him; her amorous intrigue with Aresin the country along with the immigrant (q.v.) was discovered, and the pair werePhoenicians. Aonia is sometimes used by caught in a net by Hephaestus and ex-learned poets for Boeotia, and Aonian posed to the ridicule of the assembledfor Boeotian (a name which carried with gods. In later literature she is the motherit a shade of contempt). of Eros (q.v.). For other legends about her see Adonis, Anchises, Paris (JudgementApaturia (Apatouria), see Phratriai. of). She was worshipped in Greece bothApella (Apelld), the assembly of the as Aphrodite Crania, goddess of thepeople at Sparta (q.v., 2). sky, and as Aphrodite Pandemos, god- dess of all the people* (a goddess ofApelles, the greatest painter of anti-quity, born at Colophon in Ionia in the marriage and family life). Later the dis- tinction acquired a new meaning: Aph-first half of the 4th c. B.C. He studied rodite Urania became the goddess ofunder the Ephesian painter Ephorusand the Sicyonian Pamphilus, and later higher, purer love Aphrodite Pandemos ;worked at Corinth, Athens, and at the the goddess of sensual lust. Aphrodite hadMacedonian court. The distinctive quality a famous sanctuary on Mt. Eryx on theof his work was grace and charm, coupled NW. coast of Sicily. This the Romans espe-with ease of execution. He painted mainly honoured, because Aphrodite, as the cially mother of Aeneas (see Anchises), passedportraits, but his most famous picture wasthat of Aphrodite Anadyomene, wringing for their ancestress. The title of Venusfrom her hair the water of the sea from Erycma, who had a temple at Rome out- side the Colline Gate, was derived from thewhich she has just risen. This pictureAugustus acquired for 100 talents. Apelles sanctuary on Mt. Eryx.was the favourite painter of Alexander the Apicius, QUINTUS (?) GJLvius, a gourmetGreat, of whom he painted several por- of the reign of Tiberius. His culinarytraits, generally in some allegorical situa- receipts were written down; but thetion, e.g. wielding a thunderbolt, or riding work on cookery which bears the namein triumph, with War a captive behind of Caelius Apicius is thought to be a 4339 D
  • 46. Apocolocyntosis Apollonius Dyscoluscompilation of a much later date. It is Marpessa, Marsyas, Niobe, Pan, Sibyl,sometimes entitled * Do opsSniis et condl- Tityus.mentis sive de re culmaria libri decom. Apollo, though a younger ImmigrantPerhaps the name Apicius was added to among the Greek gods, held a prominentensure a ready sale. place among thorn and was widely wor- The chief centres of his cult wereApocolocyntosis, a work bearing in the shipped.MSS. the title Ludus de Morte Claudii, Delphi, the island of Delos, and, for theascribed traditionally to Seneca the Philo- Greeks of Asia, Didyma near Miletus. Ho was regarded as a type of moral excellence,sopher, who according to Dio Cassiuswroto an apocolocyntosis or pumpkini- and his influence, as propagated fromfication* (a parody of Apotheosis) of Delphi (see Delphic Oracle), was a benefi-Claudius after his death. It is a tasteless cent and elevating one; for it prescribedif amusing lampoon, in the form of a purification and penance for the expiation of crime, and discouraged vengeance (itMenippean satire (a medley of verso and is, e.g., Apollo who defends Orestes againstprose), on the recently deceased emperor the Furies). The Homeric Hymns to theClaudius, describing the proceedings inheaven on his death; his arrival there, Delian and the Pythian Apollo relate thethe difficulty of ascertaining who ho is story of his birth and of the founding of hia In modern literature seeowing to his inarticulate speech, the Pythian temple.debate whether he shall be made a god, Shelleys Hymn of Apollo. See also Paean.and Augustuss motion that ho shall 2. In Roman religionbo deported from heaven for the murders Apollo, or Phoebus Apollo, was adoptedhe has committed. Claudius is haled offto the lower regions, where ho meets his among the Roman gods from Greek sources, according to tradition by Serviusvictims, and is brought before Aeacus for or at any rate at a very earlytrial. Aeacus (following Claudiuss own Tullius, date. He was known to the Etrurians,system) hears the case against him, but and the Romans hadrefuses to hear the other side, and sen- early dealings with Delphi. He was first introduced as a godtences him. Claudius is finally made law- of healing, but soon became prominentclerk to one of his own freodmen. as a god of oracles and prophecy. InApollinaris Sidonius, see Sidonius. Virgil ho figures in both these characters, but especially as the giver of oracles ; theApo115 (Gk. Apollon). Cumaean Sibyl was his priestess. In the % I. In Greek Mythology Eclogues Apollo appears also as the patron Apollo was the son of Zeus and Loto of poetry and music. The oldest temple(q.v.), and brother of Artemis; the god to him in Rome was erected in 432 B.C.of medicine, music (especially the lyre), Games (Ludi Apollinares) were institutedarchery* and prophecy; the god also of in his honour in 212 B.C. after Hannibalslight (whence his epithet Phoebus, the capture of Tarentum, and later were madebright) and youth; sometimes identified annual on 13 July in consequence of awith the sun. He was also associated with pestilence. His cult was further developedthe care of flocks and herds, whence the by Augustus, who took him as his specialepithet nomios (of the pastures). The patron and erected to him a great templesense of the frequent title Lyceius (lukeios) on the disputed it may mean Lycian, or have ; (Apolloddros) of Athens (c.some reference to wolves. Apollo Smiri Apollodorus 140 B.C.) was author of a long treatise intheus, referred to in Horn. II. i. 39, was Greek prose On the Gods, and of aso called either from the name of a place Chronicle (Chronike Suntaxis), a chrono-in the Troad whore he was worshipped, logical work of some importance, writtenor from sminihos, a mouse, as the Mouse- in iambic trimeters, covering the periodkiller, the god who protected farmers from the fall of Troy. Only fragmentsagainst mice. of these survive. The BibliothekS , a Apollos first feat was the seizure of valuable extant compilation of myths,Delphi (q.v.) for his abode, and the de- wrongly attributed to him, dates prob-struction of its guardian, the dragon ably from the time of the Roman Empire.Python, personifying the dark forces ofthe underworld; an act which Apollo ApollSnius (Apollonios) Dyscolus (Dus-had to expiate by exile and purification. kolos, crabbed) (2nd c. A.D.) was theThis myth was celebrated in pantomime author of Greek treatises which first placedat the Delphic festival of the Stcpteria, Greek grammar on a scientific basis. Heand explains his title Pythian . For other lived in poverty at Alexandria and wrotelegends of Apollo see Admetus, Aristaeus, numerous works, most of which are lost,Aactepius, Cassandra, Daphne, Hyacinthus, on the parts of speech and on syntax. His
  • 47. Apollonlus of Tyana 35 Appianwritings were much used by Prlscian in obedience to the divine voice, to preach(q.v.). He was father of Aelius llerodianus the necessity of virtue. If they kill him,(q.v.), who wrote on Greek accents. they will be injuring themselves, for he is the gadfly sent by the god to stirApolldnius of Tyana in Cappadocia (b. Athens to life.c.4 a B.C.), wandering Pythagorean philo- Socrates is convicted and the deathsopher and mystic who attained so great penalty is proposed. His speech assumesa fame by his protended wonder-working a more lofty tone. Why should ho proposepowers that divine honours were paid to an alternative penalty ? As a benefactorhim. Ho wrote a life of Pythagoras and of Athens ho ought to bo rewarded. Im-other works, of which hardly anything has prisonment, exile, a fine, would bo certainsurvived. His own life waa written by evils, whereas of death ho docs not knowPhilostratus (q.v.). whether it is an evil or a good. However,Apollonius of Tyre, see Novel. he suggests a fine of thirty minae, for which his friends will offer surety, for heApoll5nius RhSdius (Rhddius) (c. 295- himself has no money. He is sentenced215 B.C.), a native of Alexandria who spent to death. In his final words he prophesiespart of his life at Khodcs, is said by Suidas thatto havo succeeded Eratosthenes as head many will arise after his death to condemn his judges. Ho comforts hisof the Alexandrian Library ; but this pre- friends with regard to his own fate, forsents chronological difficulties. Ho wrote death is either a dreamless sleep or a Argonautica* in four books, a Greek epio journey to a place of true justice, where,on tho story of Jason and tho Argo- moreover, ho will be able to converse withnauts, which survives. It lacks the epio Hesiod and Homer and tho heroes of, but contains a beautiful descrip- Nothing evil can happen to a good mantion of the love oi Jason and Medea if ; he is to die, it is because it is better for(imitated by Virgil in tho story of Dido him. He forgives his accusers and tho 4th Aeneid) and some other goodepisodes. Thoso of the loss of Hylae and Apology (Apologia Sokratous), an accountthe fight of Pollux with Amycus (q.v.) were by Xcnophon of Socrates defence hi hisrehandled by Theocritus as short, separate trial on the charge of impiety. Xcnophonpoems. For tho quarrel between Apollonius at tho time was taking part in tho expedi-and Callimachus, see under Callimachus. tion of Cyrus (see Anabasis) and he relies on the authority of Hermogencs, a friendApology (Apologia) of Socrates, the of Socrates, mentioned hi Platos Phaedo* speech made by Socrates, as related by as present at the execution. It is designedPlato, in answer to the charge of impiety to bring out especially that Socrates wasthat was brought against him. How farit represents the words actually used by willing to die, not for tho spiritual reasons * hi Platos Apology, but in orderSocrates is unknown. (Plato, it appears, given to escape tho disabilities of old age. Hiswas present at the trial.) are stated with lees elaboration than Socrates distinguishes between the old, pleasvague accusations (that he speculated by Plato.about physical questions and made the Aposiopesis, a rhetorical artifice, inworse cause appear tho better) and the which tho speaker comes to a sudden haltspecific charge of impiety now brought by in the middle of a sentence, as if unableMeletus, and, answering the former first, or unwilling to proceed. The best-knownexplains that he is neither a sophist nor a instance is Virgil, Aen. i. 133-5:natural philosopher; his only wisdom con- lam caelum torramque meo sine numine,sists in knowing that he knows nothing. Venti,Instigated by an oracle, ho has sought Miscere et tantas audctis tollere moles ?constantly to find a wiser man than him- Quos ego Scd motos pracstat compo- !self, but has found none. He has gone nere those who had a reputation for wis- (Gk. apostrophS, turning-dom, and finding they had none, he has ApostrophS away), a rhetorical figure by which thetried to convince them of this, thereby speaker interrupts the thread of his dis-provoking their enmity and giving rise coUrse to address pointedly some personto these vague charges. He next turns present, or supposed to be present e.g. ;to Meletus and cross-examines him on his [Extulit] haeo Decios, Marios, magnosqueaccusations, using a sophistical form of Camillos,argument which seems to us unsatisfac- Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maximetory. He then addresses the judges and Caesar. (Virg. Georg. ii. 169-70) declares himself unrepentant. Ho will persist in the practices complained of, for Appian (Appidnos) of Alexandria (fl.he must remain at his post and continue, c. A.D. 160), who practised as a lawyer ha
  • 48. Appius Claudius 36 ApuleiusHome, was a compiler of narratives in Platonic doctrine of God and the daemonsGreek of the various Roman wars from (De Deo Socratis); a free translationthe earliest times to the accession of Ves- (De Mundo) of the Uepl Koopov at-pasian, in 24 books. Of these, 10 books tributed falsely to Aristotle ; and a certainand portions of others survive, including number of verses. His philosophical writ-those dealing with the Punic Wars and ings show a bent to religious mysticism.the Civil Wars (from Marius and Sulla to But the work for which lie is famous is34 B.C.). his Metamorphoses or Golden Ass, a Latin romance in eleven books. The plotAppius Claudius, consul in 451 B.C.and one of the decemvirs appointed at was based on an extant Greek work,Rome in that year to draw up a code of AOVKIOS TI ovos doubtfully attributed tolaws. The decemvirs, led by Appius Lucian, or an earlier lost work which was the common basis of both. This originalClaudius, appear, when reappointod fora second year, to have become oppressive. was remodelled by Apuleius and enlargedThe attempted outrage by Appius on by many incidental talcs.Virginia (q.v.) is said to have led to their The romance takes the form of a narra-overthrow (Livy iii. c. 33). tive by one Lucius, a Greek, of his adven- tures, beginning with a visit to Thessaly,Appius Claudius Caecus, a famous the reputed home of sorceries and enchant-Roman censor (312-308 B.C.), a man of ments. There, while staying at the houseoriginal and broad views, proud and of one Milo, ho sees the wife of his host,obstinate, who endeavoured to renovate a sorceress, turn herself by means of anthe governing class by admitting rich ointment into an owl, and, desirous ofplebeians and oven freodmen to the imitating her, induces the maid to procureSenate. As censor, while war with the him the ointment. But the maid givesSamnites was in progress, he built the first him the wrong ointment, a,nd Lucius isof the great Roman roads, the Via Appia ; turned by it into an ass, falls into thealso the first of the aqueducts bringing hands of robbers, and becomes an un-water to Rome. In his old age, when willing and much beaten partaker in theirblind, he resolutely opposed the proposals exploits. Some of the robber stories areof Pyrrhus (q.v.) for peace (280 B.C.). excellent, as that of the robber chiefHe composed aphorisms in Saturnian Lamachus, who, thrusting his hand{q.v.) verno, of which a few have been through a hole in the door of a housepreserved. Cicero says that he was a ho is going to rob, has it seized and nailednotable orator, and that even in his day to the doorpost by the house -owner, sosome of Appiuss funeral orations were that his companions have to cut off hisextant. arm to secure hie escape and the romantic ;Apuleius (J[puleius the quantity of the tale of the young man Tlcpolcmus, who, ;second syllable appears to bo doubtful), pretending to be the renowned thiefLOCTU8 (fl. c. A.D. 155), was born at Haemus the Thracian, gets himself madeMadaura, on the borders of Nuinidia captain of the robber band in order toand Gaetulia. On a journey to Alexan- rescue his betrothed, whom the banditsdria, when a young man, he fell ill, was have carried off. But the most beautifulnursed by a rich widow named Aemilia and famous of the talcs recounted is thePudentilla, and married her. Iler rela- fairy etory of Cupid and Psycho (seetives brought an action against him on Psyche). After many vicissitudes, in thethe charge of having won her by the course of which ho serves one of theuse of magic. His Apologia or speech strange bands of wandering priests offor the defence survives. From this wo Cybelo, and becomes a famous performinglearn that he had inherited a considerable ass, Lucius is transformed back intofortune but had wasted it, that ho was human shape by the favour of the goddessdeeply interested in natural science, and Isis, and appears to become Apuleiusthat the accusation of magic was founded the author himself. The last portion ofon trivial grounds. That Apuleius was in the work refers to his initiation into thefact much interested in magic appears mysteries of Isis and Osiris and bearsfrom many passages of his Metamor- witness to his interest in oriental religions,phoses (see below). He subsequently at this time the object of popular favour.settled at Carthago and travelled among In the whole story some see an allegorythe African towns, lecturing in Latin on of human life (the sensual abasement ofphilosophy. We possess a collection made the soul and its recovery), and in theby himself of purple passages from these fable of Cupid and Psyche an allegory oflectures, under the name Florida; also the soul in relation to love. The style ofa treatise on the philosophy of Plato ( Do Apuleius is lively, picturesque, and highlyPlatone et ejus dogmate) and one on the polished. The many realistic details that
  • 49. Aquarius 37 Aqueductshe gives vividly illuminate the popular fine bridge of Ponte Lupo, and for thelife of his time. last 61 miles of its course to the city was The Golden Ass* was translated into carried on arches, the ruins of which areEnglish m the 16th c. by W. Adlington. still visible. It entered the city at theFor translations of the fable of Cupid and Porta Praenestma (now the Porta Mag-Psyche, see Psyche. and terminated near the Viminal, giore) with branches thence in various direc-Aquarius, the Water-bearer*, in Greek tions. In spite of a warning in theHydrochoos, one of the sigros of the zodiac, Sibylline Books, Marcius carried a branchvariously thought by the ancients to have to the Capitol, probably by means of abeen Ganymede transported to the sky,or Deucalion. The sun entered Aquarius siphon. The water of the Marcia wasin January (Simul inversum contristat exceptionally cold and sparkling. ThisAquarius annum, Hor. Sat. I. i. 36). aqueduct and the Anio Vetus each had the large capacity, as calculated from theAqueducts (Aquae). The aqueducts of figures of Frontinus, of some 40 millionRome were among the most important of gallons hi 24 hours.the States public works. For our know- Agrippa (q.v.), probably in 40 B.C.,ledge of their history we are chiefly in- constructed the aqueduct called JULIA,debted to Frontinus (q.v.); in a less degree having its source hi the Alban Hills nearto notices in other authors, to inscriptions, the Via Latina, and a length of 15 i miles,and to modern archaeological research. 6^ of which were on the same arches asThey supplied Rome with water, whoso the Marcia. Agrippa also, in 19 B.C., builtpurity was praised by Galen (q.v.), by the AQUA VIRGO, drawing on springs at themeans of conduits in some cases as much eighth milestone of the Via 60 miles in length, hewn in the rock or It had a length of 12 miles, mostly under-carried over arches. The total supply ground. It was called Virgo, Frontinusprovided by the aqueducts under the early states, because a little girl pointed out theempire cannot be stated with any cer- springs to soldiers seeking water. Thetainty, but it has been deduced from the aqueduct supplied the baths of Agrippafigures of Frontinus that the system was in the Campus Martius. Ovid in his exilecapable of delivering no less than 222 mil- recalls with regret the view of the greenlion gallons in 24 hours (Ashby, The Campus with the Aqua Virgo (Ex Pont,Aqueducts of Ancient Rome, Clarendon I. viii. 33-8).Press, 1935). At the present time a supply Augustus built the ALSIETINA (alsoof 40 million gallons a day would be con- called AUGUSTA) to supply his Naumachiasidered sufficient for a city of a million (q.v.) on the right bank of the Tiber. Itsinhabitants. water, drawn from the Lacus Alsietinus The of the aqueducts was the first (Lake Martignano), 20 miles from Rome,APPIA, built in 312 B.C., during the Sam- was unwholesome and not intended fornite Wars, by the censor Appius Claudius private consumers. This was the lowestCaecus (q.v.). Its source is stated by of the aqueducts and its course has neverFrontinus to have been near the Via been determined.Praenestlna between the seventh and Gaius (Caligula) began two further aque-eighth milestones, but it has not been ducts, which were completed by Claudius,identified. The conduit was almost en- the CLAUDIA and the ANIO Novus. Thetirely underground, was eleven miles long, former drew its supply from springs nearand terminated near the Porta Trigemina the source of the Marcia, and had a course(between the Aventine and the Tiber). of 46 miles. For a distance of 9 miles it Forty years later, in 272-269 B.C., the was carried on fine arches, great stretchesANIO (or as it was later known, the ANIO of which survive. It entered the city nearVETUS) was constructed by the censors the modern Porta Ma#giore (where thereout of the booty captured from Pyrrhus. is an inscription of Claudius recording itsThe source was the river Anio above Tibur construction and that of the Anio Novus)(Tivoli), and its conduit was 43 miles long, and had its distributing station close by.almost entirely underground. This and The Anio Novus had its source origi-the Appia were low-level aqueducts. nally in the Anio at Sublaco later, as the ; A larger water-supply having become result of an improvement carried out bynecessary, a now aqueduct, the MARCIA, Trajan, its water was drawn from a lakewas built in 144-143 B.C. by the praetor, above Subiaco formed by a dam acrossQ. Marcius Rex. This was a high-level the Anio built by Nero near his villa. Itaqueduct. It had its source in springs in was 59 miles long, being carried in thethe Anio valley and a length of over latter part of its course on the same arches60 miles, of which some 7 miles were as the Claudia, but above it. These twoabove ground. It crossed a valley by the had the highest level of all the aqueducts,
  • 50. Aqueducts 38 Aratusand their capacity, on the basis of the their land. Pliny the Elder (N.H. 31. 42)figures of Frontinus, has been calculated also tells of the Roman aqueducts, givingat over 40 million gallons a day each. much praise to the Marcia water, and Further aqueducts were built at Rome deploring the loss of the Marcia and Virgoby Trajan, Caracalla, and Alexander Se- to the city, because private persons hadYerus. There were also important aque- diverted the supplies to their villas andducts in the provinces. The most striking suburban residences.survival of these is that known as the Aquilo, the north wind (Gk. Boreas).Pont du Gard, near Nlmes in southernFranco. Aquinas, THOMAS, see Texts and Studies, The channel (specus) of a Roman aque- 8.duct, where it ran underground, was tun- Ara Maxima, the altar of Hercules (q.v.)nelled by means of shafts (putei) sunk at at Rome, stood in the Forum Boariumshort intervals. Above ground it was (q.v.). It was here that, as related bybuilt of stone slabs keyed together, Virgil (Aen. viii. 102 et seq.), Aeneasor of concrete faced in brick or stone, found Evander sacrificing. The spot wasand was lined with fine cement; it connected with the legend of Herculeswas roofed against rain and sun. The and Cacus (q.v.). Tithes of booty, ofnormal arrangement was that the channels commercial profits, &c., were offered atterminated in main reservoirs (castdld), this altar.whence the suppiy was carried in part Ara Pads, Altar of Peace, in Rome,to public fountains and public baths, in was dedicated by order of the Senate inpart to secondary reservoirs. From these 9 B.C. in honour of the peace restored bysecondary reservoirs water was distributed Augustus. It was erected in the Campusin pipes to private consumers, who paid Martius. The walls of the small cpurta water rental. surrounding the altar were covered with Under the republic the maintenance of beautiful sculptures in relief, of whichthe aqueducts was let out by the censors fragments survive in the museums ofto contractors and supervised by the Rome, Florence, and Paris.censors, and when there were no cen- in Greek mythology, a womansors, by the aediles. These magistrates Arachne,also had control of the distribution of of Lydia, who challenged Athene (q.v.)the water. After the death of Agrippa, to a contest in weaving. She depicted inwho had her web the amours of the gods, and personally looked after thepublic works, a new organization was Athene, angered at her presumption and A board was appointed choice of subject, tore the web to piecesadopted (11 B.C.).consisting of a curator of consular rank and beat the weaver. Arachne in despairand two assistants of senatorial rank, hanged herself, but Athene turned her intoto have charge of the water supply. a spider.These were unlikely to have technical Aratus (Ardtos), (1) a Greek of Soli inknowledge. Under Claudius a procurator Cilicia (b. c. 315 B.C.), who came toaquarum of equestrian rank was estab- Athens and became acquainted with Cal-lished, who probably did most of the real limachus, and subsequently spent part ofwork. The post of curator was one of his life at the court of Antigonus Gonatas,great importance and authority. The king of Macedonia, where he wrote hymnsboard had under them a permanent staff, for the marriage of the king. Ho was the composed at first of 240 skilled slaves author of an extant poem entitled Phaino-bequeathed to Augustus by Agrippa, and mena (in 1154 hexameters) describingmaintained by the aerarium or State the stellar regions (the relative positions,treasury. To these Claudius added a that Is, of the chief stars and constella-further 460 slaves, at the charge of the tions, their risings and settings, withflscus (q.v.). This permanent staff carried little mythological allusion), based on anout the minor jobs, important work being earlier astronomical work by Eudoxus.lot out to contractors. The aqueducts The last 400 lines of the poem, dealingwere in constant need of repair, for leaks, with signs of the weather, were sometimesespecially in the stone-built channels, given the separate title of Diosomlai*wore caused by excessive heat or frost. The poem was translated into Latin byThe arches near the city also gave a great Cicero in his youth, and the latter part ofdeal of trouble. Frontinus, who was it also by Germanicus and Avienus (qq.v.)appointed curator aquarum in A.D. 97, (see also Hipparchus (2)). Ciceros trans-brought to light many abuses in con- lation is thought to have had consider-nexion with the system, notably the able influence on the style of Lucretius.tapping of the channels by unauthorized Other poems, which have not survived,persons to secure a supply of water for were ascribed to him. He has sometimes
  • 51. Arbela 39 Architecturebeen thought identical with the Aratus migrate to Thasos, and he was at ono !of Idyll vii of Theocritus ; but this has time a mercenary soldier. He fell hi lovenow been disproved by inscriptions. (2) Of with Neobule, daughter of Lycambes, butSIcydn, see Achaean League. her father forbade the marriage, and Archilochus avenged himself with suchArbela, a town in Assyria near it was ; biting satires that father and daughter,fought in 331 B.C. tho battle of Gaugamela according to tradition, hanged themselves.(sometimes called battle of Arbela) in He is said to havewhich Alexander the Great (q.v., perished in a battle 5) between Parians and Naxians.finally overthrew Darius. Ho is chiefly famous for his iambicArcadia (Arkddid), a region in the centre poetry (q.v.), but ho also wrote elegiesof the Peloponnese, very mountainous, and hymns and is said to bo the author ofespecially in the north, where Cyllene, various metrical inventions. His iambicErimanthus, and Aroanius towered to poems show a great variety of talent,nearly 8,000 feet. The largest plains were mockery, enthusiasm, melancholy, and ain the southern part, about Mantinca and mordant wit. Some of them celebrateMegalopolis. Its inhabitants claimed to Neobule. Eustathius spoke of him asbo tho oldest people in Greece and resisted scorpion-tongued*. Only fragments ofthe Dorian invasion (see Migrations) and his work survive. See also Epode.later Spartan aggressions; they retaineda dialect which may have represented tho Archimedes (c. 287-212 B.C.), born at Syracuse, one of the greatest mathema-original Achaean language. Arcadia has ticians of an astronomer, and anmany associations with Greek mytho- inventor antiquity, and mechanics. Ho hi physicslogy. According to one account Zeus was studied at Alexandria and subse-born there, on Mt. Lycaeus. Hermes and probablyPan were originally Arcadian deities. quently lived at the court of Hicron II of where he was killed at the cap-Through Evander (q.v.), said to have Syracuse, ture of the city by Marcellus, a capturebeen an Arcadian, Arcadia is connected which his devices had helped to postponewith the origins of Rome. Lake Stym- for two years. He left a number ofphalus lay among the lofty mountains treatises on statics andof northern Arcadia, and Styx was the hydrostatics, on thename of a little river falling down a circle, are and on the * Sphere and Cylinder*,tremendous cliff on Mt. Aroanius (tho which still extant. He invented themodern Mt. Chelmos). Arcadia also con- compound pulley and tho Screw of a contrivance for raisingtains the famous temple to Apollo at Archimedes*, water which may still be seenBassae near Phigalia, m a lonely and irrigation in use on the canals of Egypt. *Givo meimpressive situation which heightens tho aeffect of the beautiful ruins. The frieze place to stand, and I will move tho earth , * is a saying attributed to him. Eureka*of the cclla, representing the battle of the have found it) is said to have beenCentaurs and the Lapithae and tho battle (I his exclamation when ho discovered, byof the Greeks and the Amazons, dis- in his bath the water displacedcovered in 1812, is now in the British observing his body, the means of testing (byMuseum. The Arcadians derived their byname from a. legendary Areas, Bon of specific gravity) whetherHicronmetal had been introduced into base s crown.Zeus and Callisto (q.v.). There is a good deal about Archimedes inArcesilas (Arkesilds) or ARCESILAUS Plutarchs life of Marcellus.(Arkesildos), of Pitane in Asia Minor, sec Cicero, who was quaestor in Sicily inAcademy. 75 B.C., discovered the tomb of Archi- medes near one of the gates of Syracuse,Arcesilaus (Arkesildos), tho name of fourof the kings of Gyrene (q.v.) between the overgrown with brambles and forgotten. It had on it a column on which was repre-end of the 7th c. and the middle of tho sented a sphere inscribed in a cylinder,5th c. B.C. recalling his discovery of the relationArchelaus (Archddos), see Macedonia, between their volumes (Tusc. Disp. v. 1. 23. 04-6).Archetype, see Texts and Studies, 11. Architecture. Greek architecture 1.Archiddmus, see Isocratcs. Tho remains of Greek architec- earliestArchilochus (Archilochos), a celebrated ture known to us are the so-called Cyclo-Greek poet, probably of tho 7th c. B.C., pean walls of Tiryns and Mycenae, builtmember of a distinguished family of of huge polygonal blocks fitted together.Paros, but himself the son, it is said, of a This form of building gradually gave placeslave woman. Poverty drove him to to squared blocks, of which primitive
  • 52. Architheoria 40 Aresspecimens are also seen at Mycenae. In Arcturus (Arktouros, guardian of Ark-the same ancient town may still be seen tos, the Bear), a bright star in the con-the wonderful beehive* tombs of the stellation Arotophylax (which likewiseearly princes, circular chambers built of means guardian of the Bear), situatedhorizontal courses of stone which gradu- in the heavens near the Great Bear. Theally approach till they form a vault. The name Arcturus is sometimes wronglylater development of Greek architecture applied to the whole constellation, ofis best studied in the Greek temples (see which it is one star. The Great Bear isTemples). See also Houses. Among famous also known as the Wain, in which caseGreek architects wore Mnesicles, architect Arctophylax becomes Bootes, the Wag-of the Propylaea, and Ictmus and Calli- goner*. The morning rising of Arcturus,cratSs, architects of the Parthenon. in September, was regarded as the time of the vintage and as the time when the 2. Orders of Architecture cattle left the upland pastures. See the There were three orders of Greek archi- prologue to the Rudens* of Plautus,tecture, based on the form of the column. which is spoken by the star Arcturus.(1) In the Doric order, the most ancient, For the myth of the origin of Arcturus,the column, starting without base direct see Callisto.from the floor, rose to a height about5J times its diameter at the foot, tapering Areopagiticus, see Isocrates.slightly from about a quarter of the way Areopagus (Areios Pagos), the Hill ofup. It had wide, shallow flutings, and was Ares at Athens, to the W. of the Acropolissurmounted by a capital consisting of a and separated from it by a depression (Seebasin-shaped circular moulding and plain, PL 13a). According to legend, it was sosquare slab. On this rested the architrave, called because it was there that Ares wasa quadrangular beam of stone stretching tried for the murder of Halirrhothios sonfrom pillar to pillar. Above the architrave of Poseidon, the lover of Ares daughter.was the frieze, divided into metopes According to legend again, as set forth(square spaces adorned with sculpture) in the iCuniemdes of Aeschylus (seeby the triglyphs, surfaces cut in vertical Orcsteia), it was there that Orestes wasgrooves (see Temples, 1). Above this tried for the murder of Clytemnestra,again was a projecting cornice. (2) In the Athena referring the case to a tribunalIonic order the column was taller, being of Athenian citizens. After the synoecismin height about nine times its diameter at (see Athens, 2), it was on the Areopagusthe foot, and the fluting was narrower and that the Boule or Council of State hold itsdeeper. The column stood on a base and sittings. Later, under the constitutionswas surmounted by a capital charac- of Draco and Solon (qq.v.), the name wasterized by lateral volutes (like rams applied to the body which, sitting on thishorns). The frieze was continuous, not hill, judged cases of murder, maliciousinterrupted by triglyphs. (3) In the wounding, arson, and poisoning. TheseCorinthian order the column was similar definite powers were never withdrawnto that of the Ionic order, but the capital from the Court of Areopagus, but it hadwas of an inverted bell shape, adorned also certain indefinite powers, which werewith rows of acanthus leaves, giving rise abolished by Ephialtes (q.v.), viz. ato graceful volutes. general supervision of the magistrates, For ROMAN ARCHITECTURE, see Art. guardianship of the laws, control of educa-Architheoria, see Liturgy. tion, and censorship of morals; and the competence to assume, in great emergen-Archon (ArcJion), see Athens, 2. a dictatorial authority. It was com- cies,Archytas (Archiltds) of Tarentum, a posed of the men who had dischargedPythagorean philosopher and geometri- without reproach one of the archonships,cian who flourished about 400 B.C. (and and these remained members of thethus a contemporary of Plato). He was Areopagus for life.also a military commander and repeatedly Ares (JWs), in Greek mythology, the sonled the forces of his city hi successful cam- of Zeus and Hera (qq.v.), the god of war,paigns. He is said to have invented the or rather of warlike frenzy. He is not ascrew and the pulley, and to have solved personage of great importance in mytho-(by geometry) the problem of the propor- logy, and plays no very glorious part intion between the sides of two cubes, one the stories in which he appears. He is aof which has double the content of the stirrer of strife, unchivalrous, and does notother. He was also said to have been always have the advantage in encountersdrowned at sea, a tradition perhaps with mortals (see, e.g., under Otus andfounded on Horace, Od. I. xxviii. Ephialtes). For his intrigue with Aphro-Arctinus (Arktinos), see Epic Cycle). dite, see under her name. The Romans
  • 53. Arete 41 Argonautsidentified him with Mars (q.v.), a god of death by the Assembly, and six weregreater dignity. executed, including Pericles, son of theArete (Arete), in the Odyssey, the wife great statesman, and Thrasyllua (seeof Alcinous, king of the Phaeacians. Thrasybulus). See also Socrates.Arethas, see Byzantine Age and Texts Argonautica, see Apollonius Rhodius,and Studies, 4. Valerius Flaccus, and Varro Atacinus.Arethusa one of the A/rgonauts (Argonautai), in Greek (Arethousa), (1)Hetfperiaes (q.v.). (2) Afountain in mythology, the men who sailed in theOrtygia (the "island in the harbour of ship Argo with Jason, son of Aeson, toSyracuse). Legend relates that the river- Colchis (q.v.) to recover the golden fleece of the ram that had carried away Phrixusgod Alphcus (q.v.) fell in love with thenymph Arethusa when she bathed in his and Helle (see Athamas). The story wasstream. *Hhe Sed from him to Ortygia probably built up from various sources,where Artemis transformed her into a owing to the desire of many families tofountain. But Alpheus, flowing under the claim an Argonautic ancestor, and in different lands, for its geography centressea, was united with the fountain. It wasbelieved in antiquity that there was a both in Thessaly and about the Blackreal connexion between the river and the Sea, where Miletus had settlements at anspring. The myth is the subject of early date. Pelias (see Tyro) had usurped the throne of lolcos in Thessaly, whichShelleys poem *Arjothujaa% and Miltonrefers to it in Arcades"", properly belonged to his half-brother Divine AlphetfS, vtT6, by secret sluice, Aeson, and after the latters death to Stole under seas to meet his Arethuse. Jason. Jason had been sent for safety and education to the Centaur Chiron (q.v.).Argei, bundles of rushes, resembling men When Jason reached maturity he returnedbound hand and foot, which on the 14th to lolcos. Pelias, warned by an oracleMay (according to Ovid) of each year were to beware of a one-sandalled lad (andcarried to the Tiber by pontifices (q.v.) Jason had arrived with only one sandal),and thrown into the river from the Pons promised, in order to get rid of him, toSublicius by the Vestal Virgins. The restore the throne if he would first recovermeaniDg of the rite is disputed. The the golden fleece. Jason undertook theArgei may have been scapegoats in a rite adventure and embarked in the Argo atof purification, or offerings to the river- Pagasae with some fifty of the chiefgod to pacify him and induce him to heroes of Greece (among them the Dio-tolerate the bridge across his stream (the scuri, Orpheus, and, for part of the way,pontiflces were said to have built the Pons Heracles, qq.v.), and after many adven-Sublicius, the oldest in Rome). The rite, tures (see Hylas, Hypsipyle, Phineus,again, is thought by some to have been Symplegades) reached Colchis. AeetSs,a rain-spell. There were twenty-seven king of Colchis, consented to surrendershrines of these argei throughout the city, the fleece (probably regarded as possessingand probably twenty-seven argei con- valuable magic properties) if Jason wouldnected with the shrines (the lucky number perform certain apparently impossibletwenty -seven, thrice nine, is frequently tasks. These included the sowing of amet with both in Greek and Roman dragons teeth, from which armed menritual). would arise, whoso fury would be turnedArges, see Cyclopes. against Jason. With the help of the magic arts of Medea (q.v.), the kings daughter,Argiletum, at Rome, a district NE. of who fell in love with Jason, the tasks werethe Forum, between the Esquiline and successfully accomplished, and Jason andthe Quirinal (see PI. 14). It was occupied Medea and the other Argonauts returnedby artisans and shopkeepers, notably to lolcos with the golden fleece. Medea,booksellers and shoemakers. in their flight from Colchis, according toArginusae (Arginousai), islets S. of one version of the story, murdered andLesbos, off which in 406 B.C. the Athenian cut in pieces her young brother Absyrtusfleet heavily defeated that of Sparta, and scattered the fragments, that hercapturing or destroying seventy Spartan father, seeking for them, might be delayedships. The Athenians lost twenty-five in his pursuit. At lolcos Medea tookships, and, owing to bad weather, their vengeance on Pelias for the wrong donecrews were not rescued. It was thought by him to Jasons family. First sheat Athens that insufficient efforts had restored Aeson to youth by boiling himbeen made to save them, and the blame in a cauldron with magic herbs, and thenwas laid on the eight generals who had persuaded the daughters of Pclias tobeen present. These were condemned to submit their father to the same process.
  • 54. Argos 42 AristaeusBut on this occasion the right herbs were Nlcias, as a result of the efforts of Alol-omitted, and the experiment resulted in biades, she in 420 joined Athens andPeliass death. Acastus, his son, there- shared her defeat at Mantinea hi 418.upon drove Jason and Medea from lolcos, This led to a fierce conflict between herand they took refuge at Corinth. For Ja- aristocratic and democratic parties, whichsons abandonment of Medea in favour sided respectively with Sparta and Athens,of Glance, daughter of Creon, king of and the decadence of the State increasedCorinth, and its tragic consequences, see in tho course of this struggle; thereafterMedea (Euripides tragedy). Jason him- Argos exerted no considerable influenceself died at Corinth, killed, according to on tho course of story, as ho sat under the old Argo, bythe falling of a piece of her woodwork. Argus (Argos), (I) the herdsman that Hera set to watch lo (q.v.); he wasFor the subsequent adventures of Medea called Argos Panoptes, having eyes allsee Theseus. over his body. When Hermes killed him, The story of tho Argonauts is the sub- Hera placed his eyes in the peacocks tail ;ject of Pindars Fourth Pythian Ode, of (2) tho craftsman who built the ship Argothe Argonautica* of Apollonius Rhodius, (see Argonauts); (3), in tho OdysseyValerius Flaccus, and Varro Atacinus (xvii. 292), the dog of Odysseus, which(qq.v.), and hi modern English literature recognizes him on his return and thenof W. Morriss Life and Death of Jason . * dies.The Golden Fleece* was tho name of afamous order of chivalry instituted by Ariadne (Ariadn$), see Theseus.Philip the Good, duko of Burgundy, in Aricia, a town hi a hollow of the Alban1429. Hills. In a grove near it was tho famous seat of the worship of Diana NemorensisArgos, a word meaning the plain, hi (see Diana).the Homeric poems designated the wholeof the plain of Argolis, roughly a triangle Arion (Ar(e)ion), (1) a semi-mythical poet of uncertain date, born according to legendflanked on the NE. and NW. by mountains at Methyrnna in Lesbos. He is said to haveana on the S. by the sea, with Mycenaenear the apex and nine miles from the sea, been a pupil of Alcrnan (q.v.), to haveand Tiryns nearer the sea on the east (see spent tho greater part of his life at tho court of Periander, tyrant of Corinth, and also toPI. 8). This was tho country of Agamem- have visited Italy, where ho amassed muchnon, which had Mycenae (q.v.) for its wealth. On his return ho was thrown over-capital; and tho word Argives was also all tho Achaeans who board b} the sailors, who desired to acquireextended to include his treasure. Hut a dolphin, charmed byrecognized him as their leader. After the song he had been allowed to sing beforethe Dorian invasion (see Migrations and his death, carried him to land. To ArionDialects), Argos was the name of thenew capital of tho conquerors of the was attributed the creation of the dithy- ramb (q.v.) as a literary composition. Heregion. They subdued Mycenae, Tiryns, isalso said to have been the inventor ofand Nauplia, and the name Argos covered the rpayiKos T/JOTTO?, probably meaningthe whole of their territory. The city of the tragic mode in music, the musicalArgos itself stood on the western sideof the plain, four miles from the sea, at mode afterwards adopted in tragedy.tho foot of a steep mountain which formed (2) Tho name of a legendary horse, theits acropolis.In the first half of the 7th c. offspring of Poseidon (q.v.) and Demeter. It belonged to Adrastus (q.v.) and itsB.C., under king Pheidon, Argos was tho swiftness enabled him to escape after themost important State in tho Peloponnese, failure of his expedition against Thebes.and the system of weights and measuresthat he introduced was adopted by tho Aristaeus (Aristaios), in Greek my-Peloponncsians. But the power of Argos thology, son of the nymph Gyrene, whomsank as that of Sparta (q.v.) rose, and Apollo loved and carried off to the regionthereafter, largely under tho influence of in Africa that bears her name. Aristaeusjealousy of Sparta, sho played a secondary was a god of various kinds of husbandry,and not very glorious role in tho history including bee-keeping, and of hunting.of Greece. At the time of tho Persian Wars He fell in love with Eurydico (q.v.) and(q.v.) she concealed her unfaithfulness to she, in trying to escape from him, trodthe Greek cause under a mask of neutrality. on a serpent, from whose bite she died.A democratic government was introduced The Dryads avenged her by killing ailand Argos allied herself with Athens the bees of Aristaeus. In this calamity,against Sparta in 461. In the first part according to Virgil (Georg. iv. 315 et seq.)of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) she re- Aristaeus on the advice of his mother con-mained neutral. After the Peace of sulted Proteus, appeased the nymphs, and
  • 55. Aristagoras Aristophanesobtained new swarms from the carcases hymns, in a good imitation of the Atticof bulls. Aristaous married Autonod" style. Fifty-five of his compositions aredaughter of Cadmus, and became father extant.Of Actaeon (q.v.). See olao Etesian Winds. Milesian Aristides of Miletus, seeAristagoras, tyrant of Miletus, the Talcs.instigator of the Ionian revolt againstPersia of 499 B.C. Sec Persian Wars. Aristippus (Aristippos), of Cyrene, a pupil of Socrates (q.v.) and founder of theAristarchus (Aristarchos) of Samos (b. Cyrenaic school of philosophy. He re-c. 320 B.C.), an astronomer (not to bo con- garded pleasure as the only absolute goodfused with Aristarchus of Samothrace, seo hi lifo, but he distinguished betweenbelow), who first put forward the view pleasures, for some are a source of pain.that the sun was the centre of the plan- Man must therefore select his pleasures,etary system. It was on this hypothesis and this implies both intelligence and self-that Copernicus founded his researches. control. Aristippus was thus a predecessorAs, however, Aristarchus supposed that of Epicurus (q.v.). His works arc entirelythe planets revolved hi circles (instead of lost.ellipses), this theory could not be recon- AristocratEft, Against, a speech in aciled with the observations, and was aban- public prosecution by Demosthenes. Seodoned by his immediate successors, such Demosthenes (2), 3 (c).as Hipparchus. see liar-Aristarchus of Samothrace, head of the Aristogiton (Aristogcitori), modius.Alexandrian Library (q.v.) from c. 180 toc. 145 B.C. and the founder of scientific Aristophanes (c. 448-e.- 380 B.C.), thescholarship* (Sandys). Ho produced edi- great Athenian comic poet. His familytions of Homer, Ilesiod, Alcaous, Ana- belonged to the demo Kudathenaion incroon, and Pindar, and a great number of the city of Athens, but his father Philipposvolumes of commentaries and treatises on had a small property hi the island ofliterary and grammatical subjects. His Acgina, to which the family moved whencritical notes on Homer are in part Aristophanes was still a boy. The puritypreserved in the scholia of one of the of his Athenian descent appears to haveVenetian MSS. See Texts and Studies, 2. been questioned. His first comedy, now lost, Daitaleis (people of the imaginaryAristides (Arisfcides) (d. c. 468 B.C.), deme of the Banqueters), a satire on thoknown as The Just, son of Lysimachus, product of a city education as comparedand one of the democratic leaders at with the old-fashioned country training,Athens, famous for his rectitude, patriot- won the second prize in 427. The Baby-ism, and moderation. He was one of the lonians (also lost) appeared in 426, soonstrategi at Marathon, and subsequently after the reduction of the rebelliousarchon. He came into conflict with Mytileno and its bare escape from thoThemistoclcs (q.v.) when the latter rose massacre of its male inhabitants desiredto power, and as a consequence he wasostracized in 482. According to Plutarch, by Cleon (seo Lesbos). Tho play, which in- cluded a chorus of Babylonian slaves work-who has a life of Aristides, an illiterate ing in a mill, representing the Atheniancitizen requested Aristidcs to record his allies, was a vigorous attack on the policyvote in favour of the ostracism. Being of Cleon. Aristophanes was in consequenceasked whether Aristides had ever injured prosecuted by Cleon, on a charge, ithim, he replied No, but it vexes mo to appears, of alien birth and high treason.hear him everywhere called the Just. None the less, at the Lcnaea of tho follow-Aristidcs returned from exile when the ing year, 425, appeared tho Aoharnians*expedition of Xerxes was threatening, (q.v.), the first of his surviving comedies,held a command at Salamis, and led a pica for tho termination of the war, withthe Athenian contingent at Plataea. His indications of continued hostility to Cleon.greatest achievement was in the organiza- This won tho first prize. Tho above playstion of the Delian confederacy (see Delos), had not been produced in Aristophaneswhen he apportioned the tribute to the own name, why is not known; but in hisvarious confederate States, a task en- next play, the Knights (q.v.), 424, thetrusted to him on account of his rectitude author comes forward undisguised. Withand discretion. He served Athens faith- astonishing courage ho heaps invectivefully to the end and died about 468. We and ridicule on Cleon (then at tho heighthave a lifo of him also by Nepos. of his power) and satirizes the defects ofAristides (Aristeides), AELIUS (d. A.D. democracy. This play again won the first189), a Greek rhetorician who wrote prize. The Clouds (q.v.) followed in 423,speeches, letters, and a kind of prose the Wasps (q.v.) In 422, the Peace*
  • 56. Aristophanes of Byzantium Aristotle(q.v.) in 421. The plays that he produced see Texts and Studies, 2. He is said toduring the next six years are lost. In 414 have invented or regularized Greek ac-appeared the Birds (q.v.), in 411 cents; and he devised a set of criticalLysitrata (q.v.), in 411 or 410 the signs indicating passages in manuscriptsThesmophoriazusae (q.v.), about 392 suspected of being interpolations or other-the Ecclesiazusae* (q.v.), and in 388 Plu- * wise noteworthy.tus* (q.v.). Ho wrote two comedies after Aristotle (Aristoteles) (384-322 B.C.), athis, which he gave to his son Araros to great Greek philosopher.produce, but which are now lost. One ofthese, the Kokalus , we are told, started 1. Biographythe typo of the New Comedy, introducing Aristotle was born at Stageira hiromantic features which are character- Chalcidice, the son of NIcomachus, physi-istic of the plays of Menander. The life- cian to Amyntas II, king of of Aristophanes, therefore, shows In 367 he came to Athens, and was ahim as the chief representative of the pupil of Plato until the lattors death inOld Comedy (see Comedy), developing 347, that is to say for twenty years. Heand intellectualizing it, then gradually then left Athens. Stageira was destroyedtransforming it in the direction of a new in the same year by Philip of Macedon,form of art. His dialogue is vivid and and Aristotle settled at Assos in the Troad,natural; his lyrics contain passages of where there was a sort of small colony ofmuch beauty ; his indecency is coarse and philosophers of the Athenian Academy,outspoken but not prurient or morbid. favoured by Hermeias, the enlightened The political plays of Aristophanes princo of the neighbouring city of Atar-show him a supporter of the country neus. There Aristotle remained for threeparty, the farmers and landowners, and years, probably lecturing and writing.a vigorous opponent of the war policy He then went to Mytilene and taughtfrom which these were the chief sufferers. there till 344. In that year ho was invitedBut he jibes at all the leaders in turn, from by Philip of Macedon (q.v.) to be tutorPericles to Cleophon. He brings out, by to his son Alexander the Great (q.v.). Tocaricaturing them, the ridiculous or evil explain Aristotles acceptance of this postsides of the opinions or customs of the it has been suggested that the appoint-moment, and no doubt the jokes and ment was perhaps made in connexionsarcasms that he levels at individuals and with some kind of diplomatic missionat institutions human and divine were from Hermeias, who was negotiating withtaken good-humouredly and not too liter- Philip against his Persian overlord. Her-ally by his audience. Plato in his Sym- meias, whose niece Aristotle married,posium* (q.v.) represents Aristophanes as presently camo under Persian suspicion,an agreeable and convivial companion was carried off to Susa, and there cruci-who gives an amusing turn to a serious fied. Aristotle wrote an epigram for hisdiscussion, and this is perhaps the light cenotaph at Delphi and a beautiful com-in which to regard much of his work. It memorative hymn. In 335, when Alex-does not appear in fact to have affected ander started on his expedition to Asia,the course of events. Aristotle returned to Athens, and opened Aristophanes had a direct influence on there a school of philosophy which cameEnglish literature, notably on Ben Jonson, to be known as the Peripatetic school fromMiddleton, and Fielding. John Hookham his habit of walking up and down (TreptTra- Frere, one of the contributors to the TLV), while conversing with his pupils, inAnti- Jacobin, translated several of his the paths of the Lyceum (a grove sacred *plays. R. Browning, in his Aristophanes to Apollo Lyceius, where there was aApology* (1875), presents Aristophanes gymnasium). He collected manuscriptsdiscussing with Balaustion, the former and formed the first considerable library ;defending comedy as the representation of also a museum of natural objects, in thereal life, and attacking the unnatural and assembling of which he is said to haveascetic Euripides, while Balaustion main- been aided by Alexander. He enjoyed thetains the superiority of the tragic poet. friendship and protection of Antipator,The Plutus* and the Peace* were acted whom Alexander had left as governor ofat Cambridge in 1 536 and 1546 respectively. Macodon and Greece. After the death ofFor an appreciation of Aristophanes char- Alexander in 323 the anti-Macedonianacter and work, see Gilbert Murray, party at Athens regained the ascendantAristophanes (Oxford, 1933). (Antlpater had been summoned to Asia), and Aristotle quitted Athens. He died theAristophanes of Byzantium, head of following year at Chalcis. His will, pre-the Alexandrian Library (q.v.) c. 195 served by Diogenes Laertius (q.v.), showsB.C. For his critical work in this capac ity him to have been of a kindly and afleo-
  • 57. Aristotle 4 5 Aristotletionate disposition, and he appears to that their author went through a processhave instilled in his school a spirit of of philosophical evolution: from being afamiliarity and friendship. disciple of Plato in sympathy with much of his teaching, he passed into a critic of 2. General character of his work some of the leading Platonic doctrines Aristotle left a vast number of works on (e.g. that of Ideas), and finally adopted aa great variety of subjects; some four wholly independent position and philo-hundred were attributed to him. But ho sophical method. Of this the principalwas primarily a teacher whose influence features were the careful analysis of cur-was exerted on his pupils by the spoken rent philosophical conceptions, e.g. theword, not a literary author. It was his analysing of a given object (robe n) inpractice to treat more difficult subjects terms of matter and form; and thewith his pupils in the morning, and to give revolutionary view that speculation mustlectures to larger audiences in the after- be based on experience of reality andnoon. The former lessons came to be systematic research, converting Ethicsknown as acroamatic (i.e. oral) or esoteric, and Politics, for instance, from abstractthe latter as exoteric. But Aristotle him- theoretical sciences into practical sciencesself did not use the word esoteric; and based on careful observation of life. Heit seems probable that he applied the thus extended philosophy to coverword exoteric to his early published universal science.writings (intended for the cultivated pub-lic outside his school), as opposed to his 3, Aristotle *8 extant workslectures. Among these published writings The surviving treatises may be classi-were dialogues on philosophical and other fied as follows :subjects, lucid, eloquent, grave, less poeti- 1. ON LOGIC, the Organon (instru-cal than those of Plato, many of them ment), as this group came to bo calledprobably composed when he was still a much later, consisting of six treatisesmember of Platos Academy or was teach- known as: Categoriae (a theory of termsing at Assos. We possess fragments of and predicates), De interpret at ione, Ana-fourteen of these, notably of a Protrepti- lytica priora and posteriora, Topica, andcus* or exhortation to philofiophy. To De sophisticis elenchis. In these Aristotlea late period of his life probably belong was the first to explore the science ofanother class of writings, collections of reasoning, both formal (hi the Prior Ana-data obtained by systematic research, in lytics) and scientific (in the Posteriorpursuance of his final system (see below) Analytics), basing himself on the syllogism,of basing philosophical speculation on a which ho discovered. Later logicians havewide ascertainment of facts. To this class added little to his conclusions on thebelonged the groat collection of the con- syllogism. The Schoolmen of the Middlestitutions of 158 cities, and the Dida- Ages summarized his teaching on thisscaliae* (q.v.) or records of dramatic per- subject in the famous mnemonic linesformances at Athens. These likewise are Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferioquelost, with the exception of the Polity of prioris ..., in which the vowels of thethe Athenians, discovered in an Egyptian words Barbara-Ferio, etc. indicate thepapyrus in 1890, the first of the collected nature of the major and minor premissesconstitutions. and conclusion of the various moods of The treatises, which form the bulk of the syllogism, A a universal affirmative,Aristotles surviving work, consist mainly E a universal negative, I a particularof notes or summaries of his oral lectures, affirmative, O a particular negative.written either by himself or some of his 2. ON METAPHYSICS, a group of treatisespupils, and put together by later editors, known as Mftaphysica, a name not due tosometimes without regard to the fact Aristotle (who uses the term irputrr) (/>iXoao-that various passages belong to different but to the editors who placed the <f>ia),periods of his philosophical development writings on this subject after the Physicsand do not harmonize together. They (aero, ra </>vau<d). In these Aristotle ex-disappeared not long after his death and plores the nature of the real, the essentialwere not brought to light until the 1st c. substance of the universe. At the base ofB.C. There is a story, recorded by Strabo, his doctrine is the distinction betweenthat they were disinterred in a cellar matter and form. Ho finds hi the universebelonging to tbe descendants of Neleus, a hierarchy of existences, each of which is the matter of that next above it, and *an important Aristotelian of the group atAssos. The story has been doubted, but imparts form and change to that nextIsnot improbable. below. At the lower end of the scale is A study of the surviving treatises and primary formless matter, which has nofragments of Aristotles writings shows real but only logical existence. At the
  • 58. Aristotle 4 I Aristotleupper end is the prime unmoved mover, wider sense, for the individual is essen-an eternal activity of thought, free from tially a member of society. His ethicalmatter, giving motion to the universe treatises are known as the Nicomacheanthrough an attraction akin to love; this and Eudemian Ethics. These cover muchprime mover he identifies with God. The the same ground, though with certain im-Aristotelian form, the intelligible nature portant differences of view. The relation of a thing, differs from the Platonic idea* between the two works is not certain;(at least as Aristotle conceived it) in being they are probably editions by Aristotlesimmanent in the thing and not existing son Nicomachus and his disciple Eudemusapart from it. The Metaphysica, as we of two courses of his lectures on Ethics,have it, is a medley of materials from the Eudomian earlier than the Nico-detached writings or lectures of different machcan and representing an earlier stageperiods, and is not self -consistent. in the development of Aristotles moral 3. ON NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (Physics, theory, when the Platonic influence wasBiology, Psychology), treatises known as still strong. The Nicomachean Ethics is(a) Physica, an examination of the con- generally regarded as the more valuablestituent Clements of things that exist by work. It is in the main a study of thenature (nature being an innate im- end to which conduct should bo directedpulse to movement), and a discussion of the Good. Aristotle accepts happinesssuch notions as matter and form, time, (evBaLfjiovLfi) as this end, but rejectsspace, and movement, with an exposition pleasure, honour, and wealth as the basisof the Four Causes, the Material Cause of happiness. He finds the highest happi-(that out of which a thing comes to be), ness in a life of contemplation, as being 1the Formal Cause (the intelligible nature the activity peculiar to man, in accordof a thing, that in virtue of which it is with the virtue of the best part of himwhat it is), the Moving Cause (from which (the rational principle), and manifestedimmediately originates the change), the not for short periods but in a completeFinal Cause (the end or aim of the change) ; life. By contemplation ho means con-(b) De caelOj on the movement of celestial templation of philosophic truth. Butand terrestrial bodies. Aristotle knew that such a life is beyond the reach of thethe earth is a sphere, but thought it was ordinary man, whose happiness is to besituated at the centre of the universe ; his sought in moral virtue and practical wis-view that the distance between Spain and dom. Aristotle, distinguishing between theIndia by a westerly voyage might not be moral and intellectual virtues, discussesvery great influenced Columbus; (e) De the natvre of moral virtue, and defines itgenerfitione et corruptione, on coming into as a disposition, developed by a properbeing and passing away ; (d) Mdcorologica, exercise of the capacity, to choose a cer-principally on weather phenomena. The tain mean, as determined by a man ofgroup of works on biology includes the practical wisdom, between two oppositeHistoria Animalium, an introductory col- extremes of conduct a mean, for instance, ;lection of facts regarding animal life, show- between asceticism and the yielding toing in some respects a surprising degree of uncontrolled impulses. Aristotle lays stressobservation (Aristotle knew, for instance, on the notion of moral intention; virtuethat whales are mammals) and a series of of character becomes pre-eminent instead ;treatises in which he deals with the classi- of virtue of intellect (of. Socrates).fication of animals, their reproduction, and In the eight books of the Politico,,the adaptation and evolution of their or- Aristotle discusses the science of politicsgans for ho 5ays stress on final causes in from the point of view of the city-state, ;the problems of organic life. The group is which he assumes to be that most con-closed by a treatise in three books De ducive to the fullest life of the citizen.anima, that is to say on the internal He thinks the State was developed natur-principle of movement and sensibility ally by the grouping of families in villages,which holds bodies together and gives and of villages in a State, for the purposethem life. This vital principle or soul of securing to the citizens a good and self-docs not survive the death of the body, sufficing life. Since this moral end, andthough the intelligent soul of man not material purposes, is the essentialpossesses a. portion of active reason, characteristic of the State, it is necessarywhich is Immortal, and is perhaps to bo that the power should rest, not with theIdentified with God. To the same group wealthy or the whole body of free citizens,belong a monograph On the interpreta- but with the good. He discusses citizen-tion of dreams , and the Parva Naturalia on ship, the classification of actual constitu-the general physiological conditions of life. tions, and the various types of these, their 4. ON ETHICS AN POLITICS. Aristotle diseases and the remedies; he recognizesregards ethics as a branch of politics in the the advantages of democracy, but finds
  • 59. Aristotle 47 Armythe highest type in the monarchy of the men. The writings of Aristotle reachedperfect ruler if such a ruler is available, them mainly in Latin translations ofand failing this in an aristocracy of men Arabic versions (see Texts and Studies,of virtue and enlightenment. But this, too, 8), and were used in support of Christianis difficult, and on the whole he regards theology, notably in the lectures anda limited democracy as the constitution Summa of Thomas Aquinas. The recog-best suited to the practical conditions of nition in Britain of his importance isGreece of his day. Ho regards slavery as especially seen in the writings of Johna natural institution, so far as based on of Salisbury (d. 1180, Polycraticus andthe inferiority of nature of the slave (not Metalofficus] ; Michael Scot the astrologeron right of conquest). But the master (1175 ?-1234 ?), who translated an Arabicmust not abuse his authority, and slaves summary of the Historia Animalium;must have the hope of emancipation. It Bishop Grosseteste (d. 1253), himself ais improbable that the treatise as we have powerful influence on subsequent Englishit was ever planned as a whole or sprung thought; Roger Bacon (1214?-94), Dunsfrom a single creative act of the mind* Scotue(1265?-1308?),thoughhe was partly(Jaeger). Books VII and VIII containing a Platonist; and William of Ockham (d.the discussion of the ideal State belong to 1349 ?). Aristotles philosophy was one ofan early text in which the purely construc- the principal subjects of study in ourtive method of Plato is followed. Books medieval universities. At a later date weIV-VI, dealing with actual historical see his influence on Francis Bacon (1561-States and containing an allusion to the 1626), who, though contemptuous of thedeath of King Philip, must have been ancient philosophers in general, adoptswritten later, when Aristotle had at his Aristotles division of the Four Causes, anddisposal the collection of the 158 con- entitles part of his work the Novum Orga-stitutions. Aristotles treatise on the num. In the sphere of literature, Aristotles Polity of the Athenians has already been Poetics was regarded as an authority froriireferred to. It traces the development of Elizabethan days onward, and wo find re-the Athenian constitution from the earliest ferences to it in the writings of Sidney, Bentimes (the first chapters are missing) down Jonson, and Milton; and other traces of histo the fall of the Thirty, and then describes fame occur in Marlowe, Spenser, and Shake-the matured democracy of Aristotles day. speare. Landor has an Imaginary Con-The discovery of the treatise has thrown a versation* between Aristotle and Callis-new light on a number of historical points. thenes (q. v. ) in which the author represents 5. ON RHETORIC AND POETRY. Aris- Aristotle as an enemy to Alexander the con- with the methods oftotles Rhetoric deals queror and despot.persuasion, divided into those by whichthe speaker produces on his audience a Army.favourable view of his own character, 1. Greek Armythose by which ho produces emotion, and In Homeric times the warrior, armedthirdly argument, whether by means of with spear and sword and protected byexample or of cnthymeme (the rhetorical helmet, cuirass, greaves, and an ox-hideform of the syllogism). It then discusses shield strengthened with bronze, rode outetyle (of which the leading characteristics to battle in a chariot. From this he dis-should be clearness and appropriateness) mounted to encounter some opposingand arrangement. The whole subject was champion. He used his spear as a missile,one that deeply interested the Greeks of or thrust with it as a pike, and sometimesAristotles time, and the treatise had for supplemented it by hurling a boulder.long a much greater authority than it has Bows and arrows were also used. Butto-day. there was no cavalry. The common folk, For Aristotles Poetics, see under that who were lightly armed, played a minorword. part in the battles. In later times all this was changed. The armies were drawn up 4. The influence of Aristotte in well-ordered lines of armoured hoplltes The influence that Aristotle exerted on (see below) and rushed against each other,later generations of philosophers and each endeavouring to hurl back, outflank,scientists was immense, by the stimulus or break the opposite line. As time wenthe gave, by the instrument of investi- on this simple manoeuvre was elaborated.gation ho forged, and by his actual con- More use was made of light-armed archerstributions to knowledge. In the Middle and slingors and of cavalry. EpaminondasAges this influence, after having been (q.v.) introduced real tactics; and Philipseen in Boethius and the great French of Macedon developed the phalanx (q.v.).teacher Abelard, became especially pro- At Athens in the 5th and 4th oo. B.C.minent in the works of the School- military service was obligatory on all
  • 60. Army 48 Armycitizens, and from the age of 18 to 20 they about 600 men, subdivided as before downunderwent military training as recruits to platoons. Four such moral fought(see also Ephebi). The cavalry, service in under Cleombrotus at Leuctra, but thewhich entailed heavy expense, was formed number of Spartiatae included in themmainly from the hippeis (see Athens, 2); was only about 700. With the dwindlingthe hoplites or heavy infantry, who made up number of Spartan citizens, the ranks werethe bulk of the army, were drawn from the increasingly filled with perioed (see Sparta,zeugttai and the richer metics. The thctes 2), supplemented in great emergencies byserved as light infantry or in the fleet. helots. Cavalry appears to have playedFrom 20 to 49 years of age an Athenian a subordinate part in the Spartan army.formed part of the active army. From This army was unique not only in its50 to 60 ho was included, with the recruits tactical organization (which caused Xeno-and the remaining metics, in a territorial phon amazement) but hi having a uniformmilitia. In 431 at the beginning of the and military flute-players. In all GreekPeloponnesian War, Athens had a field armies the men had to supply their ownarmy of 13,000 and a territorial army of arms and fend for themselves in provisions.16,000 men. There were also some foreign In the early part of the 4th c. the in-mercenaries, light -armed archers. The creasing use of mercenary troops, drawncavalry (1,000 in number after 446) were especially from the wilder parts of Greece,organized in ten squadrons, the hoplites became of importance. These professionalin ten regiments (taxeis), based on the ten troops, known as peltasts (from pelte, atribes. Each regiment numbered about small, light, leather shield), were armed1,300 men, was divided into battalions with a javelin and light shield, and were(lochoi),and was commanded by a taxi- more mobile than the hoplites (see PI. 3b).arch. The hoplite wore a helmet, cuirass, In the Corinthian War (see Corinth) of thisand greaves of metal, carried a shield of period, a force of peltasts, with improvedleather with a metal rim, and was armed weapons, was organized by the Athenianwith a lance six feet long (very different Iphicrates, and was used with great suc-from the Macedonian sarissa of 13 feet), cess against the Spartans. Mercenary ser-and a short sword. He received, on service, vice grew in importance during the 4thpay at two (afterwards three) obols a day, and later centuries, and Greek mercenariesand subsistence allowance at the same were largely employed by tho Persianrate (hi the cavalry the allowance was 1 kings and their satraps (Xenophon anddrachma). Military officers, strategi (q.v.), the 10,000 afford a conspicuous example).taxiarchs, etc., were elected (not chosen Demosthenes frequently protests againstby lot) annually, but unlike most of it. For t he later development of Greek mili-the civil officials might be re-elected in- tary tactics see Epaminondas and Phalanx.definitely (see also Polemarch). See PI. 3a. Alexanders military successes were prin- At Sparta (q.v.), whore the whole life cipally duo to his skilful use of cavalry (whoof the male citizens was organized with a were more numerous in his than in earlierview to the military efficiency of the State,Greek armies and were trained to chargeliability to foreign military service ex- homo). These delivered flank attacks,tended from 20 to 60 years of age, and a while the phalanx attacked the enemyhigh degree of mobility and dexterity in front. In the narrative of Alexandersthe use of weapons was attained by con- battles we constantly find him command-stant exercises. It was from Sparta that ing in person the best of the cavalry andthe institution of armoured spearmen delivering the decisive blow. The succes-fighting on foot in serried ranks (hoplites) sors of Alexander relied largely on greatspread through Greece. Our knowledge of masses of inferior oriental troops, doublingthe organization of the Spartan army is tho depth of the phalanx and thus furthernot very certain, and the details given by diminishing its mobility. Pyrrhus appearsThucydides and Xenophon, respectively, to have tried to remedy this defect in hisare not easy to reconcile. Moreover the wars with Rome by breaking up theSpartans deliberately kept the strength of phalanx into a number of columns withtheir army secret. At Mantinea in 418 B.C. bodies of Italian troops placed betweenit consisted, according to Thucydides, of them; but ho failed to overcome theseven lochoi of 512 spears, subdivided Roman resistance. The later easterndown to 16 platoons (enomotiai) of 32, adversaries of Rome, such as Philip V,each with its commanding officer, thus Perseus, and Antiochus III, were even lesssecuring rapidity of movement and flexi successful.bility. It seems probable that before the 2. Greek siege-craftend of the Peloponnesian War the or-ganization was modified, and a formation Siege-craft made no considerable pro-called a mora introduced, numbering gress before the 5th c. B.C. In earlier days
  • 61. Army 49 ArmyGreek citadels on rocky hills, or walled of twocenturies, designed to give thetowns such as Thebes, were impregnable, formation greater flexibility. It was fur-and had to be reduced by blockade, unless ther divided between heavy-armed andtreachery opened a way to the besiegers. light-armed troops (velites); and theIn the 5th c. we first hear of siege engines heavy -armed in turn into hastdti, prin-(chiefly rams, scaling-ladders, and screens cipes, and tridrii, according to their agolor the protection of the attacking force). and military experience, the hastati beingBut the defence still had the advan- the youngest soldiers, the triarii thetage, as maybe seen from the account veterans. The hastati and principes, occu-given by Thucydides (n. Ixxv et seq.) of pying the front ranks, had two javelinsthe successful resistance offered by the (pild) for throwing; the triarii, used as aPlataeans in 429 B.C. to the engines of the reserve, retained the hasta. The heavy-besiegers. A great advance in siege -craft armed troops had a bronze helmet, thewas made when, at the beginning of the light-armed a leather helmet; all had a4th c., Dionysius I of Syracuse introduced shield and a sword, a short cut-and-thrustthe use of the catapult. From a large weapon, worn, unlike the modern sword,cross-bow of increased range and power, on the right side. See PI. 4.this was developed into an engine capable The Roman cavalry, which originallyof heavy missiles against were merely mounted infantry, were under discharging During this century sieges the Servian organization drawn fromfortifications.began to be conducted more scientifically, the richest class. Equites equo publico re-with regular covered approaches, mines, ceived their horses from the State equites ;movable towers, and various types of equo privato provided their own. Romancatapults. The methods of the defence cavalry disappeared after 146 B.C., andwere likewise improved. Countermines Italians did not servo in the cavalry afterwere sunk to upset movable towers, cata- the 1st c. B.C. Thereafter the cavalrypults were extensively used against the formed part of the auxiliary troops.engines of the besiegers, and fire-arrows Before the enfranchisement of Italy theand similar devices wore employed to set Roman army proper was assisted by con-them on fire. Among the most notable tingents from tho Latin and Italian alliessieges of this century were the siege of (nominally equal, in practice often moreTyre by Alexander the Great (q.v., 4) fc numerous). Foreign mercenaries wereand the unsuccessful siege of Rhodes by freely employed for cavalry (Numidians,Demetrius Poliorcutcs (see Macedonia, Gauls, Spaniards) and special arms 2, and Rhodes). (Balearic slingers). The original Roman army was a militia 3. Roman Army of Roman citizens in which service was The earliest Roman armyis said by compulsory. But tho shrinkage in thotradition to have been an exclusively number of available citizens, in spite ofpatrician body (the Ugio) consisting of the lowering of the census-standard fromthree regiments of 1,000 infantry each, 11,000 asses to 4,000, led Marius to effectwith three centuries of cavalry. This a reorganization. There had been a gradualforce was reorganized and enlarged by transition before his time; owing to thoServius Tullius on the basis of his classi- almost continuous wars a professionalfication of the community (see Rome t 2). type of soldier was growing up. MariusIt was raised to four legions, each of about abolished tho property qualification and3,000 infantry, drawn in certain propor- abandoned conscription. The cohort (oftions from the various classes of the census three maniples) became the military unit ;but with a minimum property qualifica- there were ten cohorts in the legion; thetion of 11,000 asses (12,500 according to legion was raised (nominally) to 6,000 mensome authorities). These were required (in practice it sometimes fell to half thisto equip themselves and serve without strength), and equipment became The legionaries were armed with The hasta was abandoned, and all carriedshield, sword, and long spear (hasta); the pttum. The eagle was adopted as thethere were certain differences of equip- standard of tho legion, and was carried byment according to class. The legion the first maniple of the first cohort. En-fought in mass formation, six ranks deep, listment was normally for twenty years ;with a front of 500. There wore also pay was 120 dendrii a year (increased undereighteen centuries of cavalry. Pay was Caesar to" 225 denarii) ; the cost of rationsintroduced, according to tradition, in 406 was deducted from the pay. The commandduring the siege of Veil, owing to the of each legion was exercised by one of sixprolonged character of the service. The tribunes (tribuni militum), commanding inlegion was reorganized at some date before turn (in Caesars army and under the empire the 2nd c. B.C. on the basis of the maniple* each legion had one commanding officer, tho 4339 E
  • 62. Army 50 ArmyUgQius the tribunes were retained with garrisons of the less important provinces.subordinate duties). Under these were A contingent of auxiliary cavalry (four aloesixty centurions, each commanding a of 30 men each in Hadrians time) was at-century. tached to each legion. Pay in the auxiliary Professional armies of this description, forces was at the rate of 70 denarii a year.owing their allegiance to their generals, to (C) Special corps, (a) Praetorians (q.v. andwhom they looked for rewards and chances see also Praefectus Praetorio), nominallyof booty, were at the root of the civil wars Italians till Septimius Severus; (b) fourof the 1st c. B.C. Great military comman- cohortes urbanae for police duties in theders, relying on their legions, were able to capital, recruited from freedmen; theydominate the State, and their conflicting served under the Prefect of the City,ambitions brought about the terrible ranked after the Praetorians, and receivedstruggles of that period. higher pay than the legions; (c) Vigilum The number of legions varied with the cohortes, the fire-brigade, also recruitedrequirements of the time. Augustus was from freedmen.the first to create a standing army, which The army of the empire was stationedat his death included 25 legions, per- almost entirely on the frontiers. Thesemanently existing, with fixed stations were defended by forts (castella), and,and definite members and names. Three where the frontier was not protected by alegions, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, had river, by methods which varied at differentbeen destroyed Varus (q.v.) disaster periods. Under Domitian a series of small in theand these numbers were never used again. earth forts were erected, with larger stoneTwo legions were added by Claudius, and forts at greater intervals in the rear;three more before the accession of Ves- under Trajan and his successors thepasian; and this total of 30 legions was defence consisted of a wall of stone orretained in the reign of Trajan. The origin earth with a ditch in front of it and fortsof the practice of giving names as well as at intervals. For Hadrians Wall from thenumbers to certain legions appears to be Solway to the Tyne, see Britain, 2. Forthe retention by Augustus of some of the the Roman camps, see under Castra. Seelegions of Antony as well as his own those ; also Elephants.bearing the same number in their originalarmies kept them, with a distinguishing % 4. Roman siege-craftname in addition, e.g. II Adjutrix and Siege-craft developed in the RomanII Augusta. The military establishment army in much the same way as in theof the empire consisted of: (A) Legions, Greek armies (see above, 2). Blockaderecruited nominally from Roman citizens, was increasingly supplemented or replacedbut actually often from provincials from ; by assault, as the devices of Greek en-Hadrians time, if not earlier, local re- gineers came to the knowledge of thecruitment became the rule. The term of Romans and were developed by them.service in the legions was 16 years (soon The testudo was a Roman device by whichraised to 20). Pay was at the rate of interlocked shields formed a screen under225 denarii a year (with a free ration of which a scaling party could approach thecorn), raised to 300 by Domitian, with a walls; and there were other protectivelump Bum on discharge of 3,000 denarii. devices of the same kind, such as theThe legionaries were not allowed to marry musculus (a long gallery on wheels withduring their service, but the unions they sloping roof), used by Caesar at the siegeformed during their service were legalized of Massilia. The lines of the besiegingon their discharge. (B) Auxiliary cohorts force were protected by trenches and pits(under tribuni) and dlae (under prefects against sallies of the enemy, and whenof equestrian rank), infantry and cavalry threatened by a relieving army (as atrespectively, recruited from provincials; Alesia in 52 B.C.), by an external rampartthey had a longer period of service and and palisade. A causeway (agger) mightlower pay, and acquired Roman citizen- bo built up to the walls and a huge mov-ship on discharge. They were originally able tower brought along it into a positionrecruited from special races, after which from which the assailants could drive thethey are normally called. They also for defenders from the wall and cross to it bythe most part came to be recruited locally drawbridges. The chief battering engineand Roman citizens often entered them. was the ram (arils), a beam tipped withThere wore also some cohorts of Roman iron, sometimes of great weight and swungcitizens. Some of the auxiliary infantry on ropes, hi the more developed type onretained their national weapons and were a wheeled frame. The catapult andcalled sagittdrii (archers), funditores (slin- ballista (discharging respectively largegers), etc. Auxiliary cohorts were attached arrows and heavier missiles) were a sortto the several legions, or were used for the of giant crossbow to which the propulsive
  • 63. Arnold 51 Artforce was given by the torsion of ropes; in -law. It is a rather haphazard letter ofthe onager was a large mechanical sling. advice on the pursuit of literature, andThese engines were used especially for the appears to consist largely (and this agreesdefence. with a statement by an early commenta- tor) of maxims extracted from a GreekArnold, THOMAS, see Historians (Modern). manual by Neoptolomus of Parium, aArpinum, a town in Latium, the birth- Hellenistic writer of uncertain date, eachplace of Marius and Cicero. followed by the comments of Horace himself. But the poets charm pervadesArria, (1) wife of Caecina Paetus, who, the whole, which is rendered more inter-when her husband was ordered to deathunder the emperor Claudius, taught her esting by apt illustrations and by shrewdhusband how to die, stabbing herself and criticisms on authors of tho day. After dealing with technical points on thehanding him the dagger, with the wordsPaete, non dolet*. (2) The daughter of composition of a drama (such as pro-the above, wife of Thrasea, a Stoic philo- portion, subject, metre, language) and a short passage on tho epic, Horace passessopher who was put to death by Nero. to advico en poetic composition inArrian (Fldvius Arridnus) (c. A.D. OS- general. He insists on the seriousness ofITS), a Greek of Nlcomedia in Blthynia, the poetic art: study life and human rela-a successful officer in the Roman army, tions; avoid the corrupting influences ofwho became consul and legate in Cappa- gain and flattery; do not write unlessdocia. Ho was author of various extant inspired by the Muse; submit your workworks in Greek: a valuable Anabasis of to a competent judge; keep it by you forAlexander the Great, in seven books, nine years. The work exercised a greatnarrating his campaigns, with an eighth influence in later ages on European litera-book descriptive of India and Indian ture, notably on French drama throughcustoms and relating the voyage of Boileaus translation. It was translatedNearchus in the Persian Gulf anEncheiri- ; into English by Bon Jonson. Many liter-dion or manual of the philosophy of his ary phrases, such as tho purple patch,master Epictetus (q.v.), and a record of the ridiculus mus of bathos, the refer-the Lectures (Diatribai) of the same ence to Hoiner nodding, tho labour ofphilosopher, four books of which out of the file, the abrupt entry on a subjectthe original eight survive a Periplous or ; (in medias res), have their origins in it.geographical description of the Euxino Arsinoe, see Alcmaeon. (2) The name (1 )Sea; a Kunegetikos (on Hunting) purport- of several Macedonian princesses. Theing to supplement tho treatise attributedto Xenophon and other minor works. most important was Arsinoe II, Phila- ; delphus the daughter of Ptolemy I andArs Amatoria, a poem in three books tho wife successively of Lysimachus,of elegiacsby Ovid, written shortly beforePtolemy Ceraunus, and her brotherthe beginning of tho Christian era. The Ptolemy II. She was a woman of greatterm *ars was applied to a technical vigour and ability, successful both in wartreatise, and is playfully applied to a and peace, and the years till her deathtreatise on tho devices of love. Tho firstin 270 were Egypts golden age* (Tarn).two books consist of instructions to men She was deified before her death. (3) Foron the wooing of women of easy virtue tho Egyptian town of that name see ;the third, of instructions to women on Fayoum.the seduction of men. The work is full Art. (1) GREEK, see Architecture, Paint-of humour and charm, and contains ing, Sculpture, Toreutic Art. (2) ROMAN.interesting glimpses of Roman life and Whether or not there existed an indigen-manners the circus, tho theatre, the ban- ous Italian or Romano -Etruscan art beforequet. It was very popular, and quotations the invasion of Hellenism is a matter offrom it have been found on the walls discussion. But such remains as can beof Pompeii. It was perhaps partly on claimed for it are of no high merit. Greekaccount of its immorality that Augustus art on the other hand, whose inspirationbanished tho poet to Tomi. had become exhausted and whoso expres-Ars PoStica, the title (it was not the sion had become conventional, found re-authors) by which tho Epistle to tho newed youth and fresh themes on RomanPisos* of Horace is generally known. It soil and in Roman history. Roman sculp-is addressed to a father and two sons of ture reached its highest excellence in thethe name of Piso, whose identity depends lst-2nd o. A.D., and is seen at its best inon the date to be assigned to the work portrait busts, where it showed great(see Horace); the elder was perhaps the power of expressing character, and in bas-son of the Piso who was Caesars father- reliefs, the subjects of which are largely
  • 64. Art 62 Arval Priestshistorical.Fine examples of them are seen Artemiddrus (Artemidoros) of Daldis,in the sculptures of the Ara Pacis (q.v.) see Divination (ad fin.).of the Augustan Age, and, at later stagesof development, of the Arch of Titus Aijtemis (identified by the Romans withand the frieze and column of Trajan; but iflana, q.v.), Greek mythology the inbreadth and grandeur of treatment are daughter of Zeus and Loto (q.v.), andsometimes marred by excessive crowding sister of Apollo. For the legend of herof figures and meticulous attention to birth see Apollo. She was a goddess ofdetail. There are also many examples of wild life, a virgin huntress, attended bydecoration of altars and columns with a train of nymphs, and also a goddess ofconvolutions and festoons of foliage and childbirth and of all very young Though the artists may, at least She was also identified with the the first period, have been mainly A famous centre of her cult was EphesusGreeks, the art was a new one. (q.v.), where her maternal character was Painting was used by the Romans prominent, and where she may have beenchiefly to decorate the inner walls of in origin the Asiatic goddess of fertility,houses. The subjects of these frescoes, identified by the lonians with the Greekof which many examples have been found Artemis ; the high priest of tlte temple atin Herculaneum and Pompeii, were prin- Ephesus was known as the Megabyzus.cipally scenes from Greek myth, or single At Brauron in Attica there was an ancientfigures such as Orpheus or a Centaur, less shrine of the moon-goddess, supposedfrequently landscapes, still life, or contem- to contain the imago of the goddessporary scenes. Many of them show much brought from Tauris by Iphigenia (q.v.).beauty of colour, line, and expression. It was so highly venerated that a sanctuary Roman was even more dis- architecture was dedicated on the Acropolis of Athens marked especially by thetinctive, being to Artemis Brauronia. Artemis had adevelopment of the arch, the vault, and special association with the bear (shethe dome. It evolved the plans of great turned Callisto, q.v., into a bear) and the little girls who were her temple-servantspublic buildings, on which our modernconceptions have been based these build- ; at Athens were called bears. She isings were remarkable for unity of design, treated with scanty respect in the Iliad*solidity of construction, and grandeur of (xxi. 489 et seq.), where Homer representsdecoration (though the latter was some- her as beaten by Hera with her own bow,times tasteless). The masonry took the and sent away weeping. See also Hecate.form of either ashlar, concrete, or brick. Artemis is involved in the myths ofThe architecture is seen at its best in Callisto, Hippolytus, and Orion (qq.v.).such buildings as the Pantheon built by See also Britomartis.Agrippa in 27 B.C. (which survives much Artemisia (Artemisia). (1) daughter ofaltered), the mighty Colosseum, and inthe plan of the Baths of Caracalla; also Lygdamis king of Halicarnassus and after his death regent of his kingdom. Withhi the great aqueducts, bridges, theatres, five ships she accompanied Xerxes in his&c., of which the remains are still to be invasion of Greece, and is said to haveseen in all parts of the Roman Empire. Mention must also be made of the art shown bravery and resource at Salamis. (2) The wife of Mausolus (q.v.).of gem-engraving which became popularat Rome in the last century of the republic Arundel Marbles, see Marmor Parium.and was further developed under theempire, both in the form of the intaglio Arval Priests (Frdtres Arvdles), a collegewhere the design is sunk, and in the cameo of twelve priests charged in ancient timeswhere it is engraved in relief. Engraved with the observance of the annual cere-gems were used for signet-rings, and the mony (Ambarvalia, q.v.) designed to pro-surviving examples include portraits of pitiate the gods of agriculture. The textCaesar, Pompey, Cicero, and Tiberius. of an Arval hymn survives, one of thoLarger examples are the splendid portrait earliest fragments of Latin literature. Itof Augustus in the British Museum; the is an invocation of tho Lares and Mars (haGemma Augustea at Vienna representing his early character of an agricultural god)Augustus, Tiberius, Germanicus, and a to protect the fields. The college of thegroup of deities, with a military scene Arval priests was revived by Augustus.below ; and the grand camee in Paris repre- As we know from inscriptions that havesenting Tiberius, Livia, and Germanicus, been recovered, they worshipped in awith various symbolical figures. The grove on the Via Campania, five milesgem-cutters were probably Greeks or from Rome. They carried on the cult ofartists from the Hellenistic East the most ; the Dea Dia, an earth goddess, and onfamous of them was named Dioscorides. solemn occasions offered sacrifices for the
  • 65. Arx 53 Asia Minorimperial house. Hence the inscriptions as kept in the sanctuary of Epidaurus, arecording their sacrifices are of historical harmless variety, are said still to beimportance. found in the neighbourhood. Sacred dogs were also kept in this sanctuary, andArx, at Rome, the NE. summit of theCapitoline Hill, the citadel proper. Hero Asclepius is represented on coins with awas the temple of Juno (q.v.) Moneta. dog under his chair. According to some authorities Asclepius after his death wasAscalaphus (Askalaphos), seo Perse- turned into the constellation Ophiuchus,phone. the snake-holder. See also Aesculapius.Ascanius or TCrLUS, the son of Aeneas,and according to legend the ancestor of Asia Minor, GREEK CITIES OF. Greekthe gens Julia (q.v.). See Acneid. cities and States (Aeolian, Ionian, andAsclepiadean, seo Metre, 3. Dorian) extended along the W. coast of Asia Minor and the adjoining islands fromAsclepiades of Samos (c. 290 B.C.), the Troad in the N. to Halicarnassus anda famous Greek writer of epigrams, of Rhodes in the S. (see Migrations andthe Hellenistic Age, a contemporary of Dialects and PI. 8). In the early stagesPhilitas and Theocritus (qq.v.). Eighteen of their history these Greek States wereof his poems are included in the Palatine in contact with the neighbouring kingdomAnthology (q.v.) and show great elegance of Lydia and the more distant Phrygia,and finish. He probably gave his name to and Greeks and Asiatics influenced onethe Asclepiadean metre (seo Metre, 3) another. The Phrygians and Lydiansemployed by Horace. adopted the alphabet of the Greeks, and theAsclepius (Asklepios, Lat. Aesculapius), Phrygian king, Midas, dedicated a thronein Greek mythology, son of Apollo (q.v.), at Delphi. The Greeks adopted the Asiaticand god of medicine. Apollo loved modes of music, introduced Eastern mythsCoronis, daughter of Phlegyas, but she into their religion, took from Lydia thewas unfaithful to him, and ho slew her. invention of coinage, and were affectedAfterwards ho was sorry, and turned the by Asia in their art, science, and technicalcrow which had told him of her infidelity skill. They came in the 6th c. under thefrom a white bird into a black. He saved dominion of Croesus of Lydia, and a littlethe child of Coronis (Asclepius) and en- later under that of the Persian Cyrus.trusted him to the wise Centaur Chiron But the Persians did not interfere much(q.v.). From him Asclepius learnt the art with their trade or internal life. Theof medicine. At the prayer of Artemis he Greek cities had been independent States,restored her favourite llippolytus to life. jealous of each other, torn by aristocraticZeus, angered at his interference, slew and democratic factions, and strategicallyAsclepius with a thunderbolt, Apollo, in weak against attack from the interior.turn, was wroth at the death of his The Persians favoured the establishmentson, and in revenge killed the Cyclopes of tyrannies, which became common.(q.v.) who had made the thunderbolt. These States were wealthy and prosperousTo expiate this murder he became for a communities. Their soil was more fertileyear the slave of Admetus (q.v.). Homer than that of Greece and they had goodrepresents Asclepius as the father of harbours. They grew corn, raised stock,Machaon and Podaleirius, the surgeons and cultivated the olive and (especiallyof the Greek host before Troy; and he in the islands) the vine. They were im-came to bo worshipped as the god of heal- portant industrial centres, for they hading, the most famous seat of his cult being raw materials, metals, wood, wool, leather,Epidaurus. Here patients coming to bo and dyes, and produced textiles, furniture,cured slept in his temple, and the cure gems, and pottery. Their trade becamewas effected in the night, or the means of active, and was facilitated by their inclu-it communicated by dreams. The sanc- sion in the Persian Empire. Prosperitytuary of Asclepius at Athens stood under developed their social and political lifethe S. cliff of the Acropolis, adjoining the and led them to send out fresh colonies,Theatre of Dionysus (q.v.). It was here especially to places from which they couldthat Plutus (q.v.) in Aristophanes play obtain corn and salt fish (see Colonization,was cured of his blindness. The attribute 2). Prosperity also encouraged a greatof Asclepius was the snake, a symbol of intellectual development, of which we seerejuvenescence (because the snake slough- the proof in the large number of philo-ing his skin was thought to renew his sophers and poets born in Ionia at a timeyouth), and sacred serpents were kept in when Greece itself was still comparativelythe temples of Asclepius; these were benighted (see Birthplaces). With thebelieved to heal the sick by licking them. coming of the 5th c. the history of GreekThe yellow snakes referred to by Pausanias Asia Minor becomes bound up with that
  • 66. Asianism 5 Atellanof Greece proper. See Persian Wars, Andromache (qq.v.), born during theAthens, 4, and the names of the principal siege of Troy, and thrown from its battle-Greek cities in Asia such as Ephesus and ments by the victorious Greeks after theMiletus. capture of tho city. See Trojan Women.Asianism, see Oratory, 1, ad fin. Astynomi (Astunomoi), see Athens, 9.AsinSHa, a farcical comedy by Plautus Asyndeton (not bound together), aadapted from the Onagos of the Greek figure of speech in which words or clausescomedian Demophilus. which in ordinary speech would be con- Demaenetus, an indulgent father, wishes nected by conjunctions, are left uncon-to help his son Argyrippus to redeem the nected; e.g. Quaero ab inimicis, sintnecourtesan Philaenium from an old procur- haec investigata, comperta, patefacta,ess ; but he is tyrannized over by his wife sublata, deleta, extincta per me* (quotedArtcmona, who keeps a tight control of the by Quintilian, probably from a lost passagepurse-strings. By a trick of one of his slaves of Cicero).ho gets possession of twenty minae which Atalanta (Atalante), in Greek mythology,were to be paid to Artemonas steward daughter either of lasos an Arcadian,for some asses which have been sold and Clymene (q.v.), or of Schoineus, a(whence the name of the play), and father Boeotian. She was a great huntress andand son spend the evening banqueting her part in the hunt of the Calydonianwith Philaenium. But a rival for tho boar is told under Meleager. She refusedgirls favours, furious at finding himself to marry any man who could not defeatanticipated, warns Artemona, who de- her in a foot-race; and any suitor whomscends on the party, and with dire threats she defeated was put to death. Hippo -carries off her guilty husband. menes (or Meilanion) took up the chal- The saying homo homini lupus is lenge, and by the advice of Aphroditederived from this play (1. 495). carried with him three apples of theAsinius Pollio, see Pollio. Hcspcridcs (q.v.). He dropped these at intervals, and as Atalanta could notAspasia (Asp&sid), see Pericles. resist the temptation to stop and pickAssaracus, the great-grandfather of them up, he won the race. The story ofAeneas (see genealogy under Troy). Virgil Atalanta and Meleagcr is tho subject ofrefers to the Lar (see Lares) of Assaracus Swinburnes beautiful drama Atalanta in (Aen. ix. 259), and Aeneas finds Assaracus Calydon (1865).among his Trojan ancestors in Elysium. Ate (from ddodai to be blinded ), in early Asterope, one of tho Pleiades (q.v.). Greek mythology the personification of Astraea (Astraia), the Starry Maid, the blind folly or tho agency which causes it. constellation Virgo, identified with Dike Tho Litai (prayers) follow after her, un- (Justice) by Aratus (q.v.). In the Golden doing the evil she has done. In the Ate is a bane or curse aveng- Age (q.v.) she lived among men, but in tragedians, the later ages, owing to the wickedness ing unrighteousness. of men, she withdrew to the sky. Ateius Capitd, GAlus, see Capita. Astrology, the art of predicting the Atellan Farces (Fdbulae Mellanae), future from signs given by tho stars, was named from tho town of Atella in Cam- introduced into Rome from the East. pania, appear to have been (for the subject It came into some repute in tho later days is obscure) ancient comic dramatic per- of the republic, and still more under the formances, representing scenes in the life empire. Attempts to repress it were re- of country towns. Certain stock charac- peatedly made by the emperors, and ters, Maccus the fool, Dossennus the astrologers were banished under, e.g., hunchback, Manducus the glutton, Pap- Tiberius, Claudius, Vitellius, and Ves- pus tho greybeard, &c., were probably pasian, not from disbelief in the genuine- introduced in ridiculous situations. Some ness of tho art, but probably from fear of of tho later titles suggest burlesques of it as likely to favour conspiracies. The mythology. Atellan plays became popular emperors themselves kept their own at Rome probably in the 3rd c. B.C. and astrologers and caused horoscopes to be were acted by amateurs. They were cast. In spite of repression, astrology con- revived in more literary form, with the tinued to be generally practised, as ap- same stock characters and with a written pears from Juvenal, Sat. vi. 535 et scq. verse plot, by Pomponius of Bononia and Novius, who probably flourished early in Astronomica, see Manttiits. the 1st c. B.C. These farces were acted by Astyanax (Asfiianax), known also as professional comedians, and continuedSKAMANDRIOB, the son of Hector and intermittently until the end of the 1st c.
  • 67. Athamas 55 AthensA.D. In this later form the Atellan farce the inventor of the flute (see Marsyaa).was played after a tragic performance. She is generally represented as a woman of severe beauty, hi armour, with theAthamas (Athamas) in Greek mythology,son of Aeolus (q.v. (2)) and king of Thebes. Gorgons (q.v.) head on her shield. She is frequently referred to as olauk&pis,By his first wife Nephele (the Cloud) which probably meant blue-eyed, andhe had two children, Phrixus and Helle.Ino (q.v.), his second wife, conceived a Pausanias remarks on the blue eyes of a statue of Athene which he saw. No certainhitter hatred of her step -children. They escaped from the death that menaced explanation of her title Pallas is known,them on a winged and golden-fleeced nor of the epithet Tritogeneia applied to her by Homer. For her great temple onram, which carried them away across the the Acropolis see Parthenon, and for thesea, Helle became giddy and fell off intothe part of the sea called, in consequence, temple there of Athene Nike or Victorythe Hellespont. Phrixus arrived safely in Athene* see Acropolis. See also Pallas. The Romans identified Athene with theirColchis, where the king Aeetes receivedhim hospitably.The ram was sacrificed goddess Minerva (q.v.).to Zeus and its golden fleece hung up in Athenians, Polity or Constitution of, The,Colchis and guarded by a dragon. For the (Athenaion PolUeia), see Aristotle, J 2continuation of this myth see Argonauts ;and 3.and for the fate of Athamas, Ino, and hertwo SODS see Dionysus. Athens (Athenai,^. Athenae), the capital of Attica (q.v.).Athenaeus (Athenaios) (fl. c. A.D. 200) ofNaucratis, a Greek writer, author of the 1. General topography in the 5th andDeipnosophislai (Sophists at Dinner or 4th centuries B a.more correctly Connoisseurs in Dining) The standing about three miles city,in fifteen bookR, in which twenty-three from the sea at its nearest point, includedlearned men (some of whom have the within its walls (built or rebuilt on thenames of real persons, such as Galen and advice of Themistocles after Plataea, seeUlpian) are represented meeting at dinner Persian Wars) three principal eminences:in Rome on several occasions, and con- the Acropolis (its fortress) roughly in theversing on food in all its aspects and on a centre, the Areopagus to the W. of this,wide range of other subjects. In reality and the Pnyx to the SW. of the Areopagus.Athenaeus was an industrious collector N. and NW. of the Acropolis and Areo-of excerpts and anecdotes, which he re- pagus was the district known as the Cera-produces in the form of conversation. The micus. This contained the Agora orwork is the source of much information market-place, on which abutted the Stoaon the literature and usages of ancient Poikile or Painted Colonnade and the StoaGreece it survives with the exception of ; Basilcios or Royal Colonnade. The Outerthe first two books and part of the third, Ceramicus outside the walls was a cem-which we have only in a later epitome. etery. The Acropolis was approached at itsAthene or Athena (in Homer Athene, western extremity by the splendid gate-from the 4th c. commonly Athena) or way of the Propylaca. At the foot of thePAIXAS ATHENE, in Greek mythology the southern slope of the Acropolis was thedaughter of Zeus and of his first wife great theatre of Dionysus. To the SE. ofMetis (qq.v.). Zeus swallowed Metis for the Acropolis stood the partially builtfear that she should give birth to a son Olympicum or sanctuary of Olympianstronger than himself. Thereafter Athene Zeus. The principal gate in the walls wassprang from the head of her father, which the Dipylon, on the NW. side of the city.Hephaestus (or Prometheus) had opened From this, roads led to Colonus and thewith an axe. Athene was probably a pro- grovo of Academus. From the adjoiningHellenic goddess, and this curious legend Sacred Gate the Sacred Way led tomay be the outcome of an attempt to Eleusis. Other gates led to the Piraeus, toreconcile her cult with that of the chief Phalcrum, to Sunium, &c. An aqueductgod of the invading Greeks. She was the dating probably from the 6th c. B.C.,patron goddess of Athens (for her conflict perhaps built by Pisistratus, broughtwith Poseidon for Attica, see Athens, 2) water to the centre of the city, perhapsand of Greek cities in general, and in this from the upper course of the Ilissue. Thecapacity had a dual aspect, as Athene houses of the citizens were grouped inPromachos or Polios, the protector and narrow, winding streets about the Acro-champion of the city, and secondly as the polis, and must have presented a meanpatroness of urban arts and handicrafts, appearance, especially as the walls of theespecially spinning and weaving (in this houses, built of sun-dried bricks, wereconnexion see Arachne). She was also usually blank on the street side. W. of the
  • 68. Athens i > Athenscity flowed the Cephisus; the bed of the were, (1) the King Archon, the kingIlissus, generally dry, lay close to the city reduced in powers and made elective,on the SE. and S. The Stadium or race- the religious representative of the State;course was outside the walls, on the left (2) the Eponymous Archon, the real headbank of the Ilissus. For the places, rivers, of the State, especially the supremo judge ;and buildings above mentioned, see under he gave his name to the year (an eventtheir names. See also Long Walls, Par- was said to have occurred in the archon-thenon, Metroum, Cynosarges, and see ship of So-and-so); (3) the PolomarchPI. 13. (q.v.), who commanded the military forces and saw to the safety of the State. Later Origins and primitive constitution 2. the demand of the lower classes for the The Athenians claimed to be autoch- publication of the laws, hitherto unwrit-thonous (original inhabitants of the ten, led to the appointment of six ad-land), but in fact there had been a pre- ditional archons, thesmothetai, codiflersHellenic population (see Migrations and and guardians of the law (later theseDialects) to which the Myccnean (q.v.) had important functions connected withcivilization had extended. To this popu- judicial procedure, q.v. 1). The Boulelation the migrations added successive supervised the magistrates and was theHellenic elements, especially Ionian, but, judicial tribunal. It was composed of theit is thought, without any violent con- men who had previously occupied one ofquest. Attica, by its position, lay outside the archonships. It held its meetings onthe stream of the Dorian invasion. Its the Areopagus (q.v.). Each of the fourpopulation in later tunes was further tribes was divided into twelve naukrariai,modified by the gradual infiltration of and each of these was required to furnishforeigners from many lands, attracted to a ship for the States navy. The presidentsit by the commercial importance of its of the naukrariai appear to have formedcapital. The country was not at first a an important administrative council. Thesingle political whole, but was divided population was further divided into eupa-into small communities. At some moment, tridai (the nobles), georgoi (peasants), andnot later than the 8th c. , a union (synoe- dcmiourgoi (artisans), and later accordingcism) of these communities was effected, to wealth into pentakosiomedimnoi (thoseassociated by the ancients with the name whose land yielded five hundred measuresof Theseus (q.v.). The precipitous hill of corn or hippeis (knights, those oil),known later as the Acropolis, which had whose property yielded three hundred suchlong been occupied, was taken as the measures, and who could therefore keepcapital of the now State. It had at some a horse), zeugitai (those whose propertyearly date been held sacred to the owl, yielded two hundred measures, and wholater to the serpent-god Cecrops (q.v.), could keep a team of oxen), and thetesthe legendary ancestor of the Cecropos, (small peasants and labourers). (For theprobably the first Greek occupants of the area of land represented by the abovecitadel. Some later change in the dominat- qualifications, see Agriculture, 1.) Theing race appears to underlie the myth definition of the three upper classes wasof the defeat of Poseidon by the god- later established on a monetary basis : thedess Athene. There was a contest be- pentakosiomedimnoi were those who hadtween Athene and Poseidon for the land an income of 500 drachmas, the hippeis ofof Attica, and the gods promised the pre- 300, and the zeugitai of 200. The magi-ference to whichever gave the more use- strates were chosen from the wealthyful present to the inhabitants. Poseidon aristocracy.struck the ground with his trident and ahorse sprang up (according to another 3. Seventh and Sixth centuries B.C.version a salt spring on the Acropolis); The accumulation of land and wealth inAthene produced the olivo-treo and was comparatively few hands, the increasingadjudged the victor. From her Athens indebtedness of the peasantry and theirtook its name. The State was at first consequent reduction to the position ofgoverned by kings, said to be descendants serfs bound to the soil, provoked a socialof Erechtheus (q.v.); the population was crisis about the middle of the 7th c. In thegrouped in families (gene), phratriai (q.v.), troublous period that ensued occurredand in four tribes (phulai). The monar- the affair of Cylon and the Alcmaeoni-chical power gradually succumbed to the dae (q.v.), followed by the legislation ofattacks of the old aristocratic families Draco (q.v.), and at the beginning of the(eupatridai, q.v.), and it was replaced by 6th c. by the legislation of Solon (q.v.). Butthe rule of three archons, elected at first the reforms introduced by the latter hadfor ten years and later annually, and a only a limited success, and the strife ofcouncil (BouU, q.v.). The three archons parties continued. They were now dif-
  • 69. Athens 57 Athensferently grouped, into the men of the territory ravaged, but with her fleetplain* (pediakoi), consisting of the nobles intact, her prestige increased, and herand well-to-do farmers whoso interests position as leader of all the Ionian Greekslay in the land, and the men of the shore * acknowledged. She had become, more-(poroZioi), the sailors, fishermen, and arti- over, since the days of Pisistratus, asans whose interests were commercial. great commercial and industrial centre,Later Pisistratus gathered about himself needing foodstuffs for her populationa third group, the men of the hills and raw materials for her industries;(diakrioi), the herdsmen and poor peasants the control of the sea was therefore ofwho had no share in either agricultural or great importance to her. She alonecommercial prosperity, and these ho organ- possessed a fleet capable of protectingized as a frankly revolutionary faction; Greece and the islands of the Aegeanhe seized the supreme power in 561. For against Persian attack. The Greek citiesthe period of his tyranny and that of which had rebelled against Persia accept-his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, BGQ Pisi- ed the leadership of Athens, and this wasstratus. Their fall was succeeded by a the origin of the Delian Confederacy (seestruggle between the partisans of oligarchy Delos). As head of this confederacy andand of democracy, headed respectively by by means of her colonies and cleruchsIsadoras and Cleisthenes (q.v.). The latter (q.v.) on the shores of the Aegean andwon the day and introduced the changes Euxine, Athens under the guidance ofthat were to transform Athens into a truly Cimon and Pericles (qq.v.) became andemocratic State, and in which Herodotus imperial power. She obtained completerightly saw one of the chief sources of control of the allied forces by a series ofher future greatness. The new democracy administrative and political measures, andwas attacked by jealous neighbours only three of her allies, Samos, Chios, and(Sparta, Boeotia, and Chalcis), but was Mytilcne, remained autonomous. By theable to drive them back (506) and con- constitutional reforms of Ephialtes (q,v.)solidate its position. and Pericles democracy reached its fullest It is in this period that the literary and development the government of theartistic history of Athens may be said to people by themselves, offices open to all,begin. Although she did not as yet pro- and payment of the citizens for exercisingduce native poets and artists of impor- their political rights, so that even thetance (except Solon and the shadowy poorest could afford to take their share ofThespis), Pisistratus and his sons were the public duties. But the empire ofzealous patrons of literature and art, Athens offended Greek political sentiment,attracting Simonidcs and Anacreon to which was essentially in favour of theAthens, decorating the city with the independence of each city-state; and herworks of foreign sculptors, and establish- commercial expansion brought her intoing musical and poetic contests at the competition with the great trading cityfestival of the Panathcnaea. See also under of Corinth. The uneasiness of the latterHomer. Attic sculpture, still somewhat was increased by the Athenian occupationprimitive, but graceful and sincere, was of Naupactus at the mouth of the Gulf ofdeveloping", and also the art of vase* Corinth (c. 4,59), and by the Athenian con-painting. trol over Megara, both of which threatened the freedom of Corinthian commerce. By 4. Growth of the Athenian Empire : 459 Athens was at war with Corinth, and Fifth century to the Thirty Years soon after with Aegina and Sparta. But Peace (446) Athens, by also undertaking an attack on At the beginning of the 5th c. Athens the Persian power in Egypt, attempted tooalready figures as a powerful State, but much. The expeditionary force was block-exposed to the menace of Persia, where the aded and had to capitulate, and a reliefexiled Hippias was intriguing to get him- squadron was almost entirely destroyed inself restored. The Persian attack was 454 and although Aegina had fallen after ;delayed for six years by the revolt of the a long blockade in 457-456, and BoeotiaGreek cities of Ionia (see Persian Wars), had been subdued in 457 (battle ofto which Athens, in contrast to the selfish Oenophyta), Athens met with reverses inpolicy of Sparta, lent her assistance. The various directions, including a severefirst Persian invasion was defeated at defeat by the Boeotians at Coronea inMarathon (490). When the second in- 447. She was therefore glad to make avasion came, ten years later, Athens had, thirty years peace with Sparta in 446,under the influence of Themistocles (q.v.), thus ending what is sometimes known asbuilt a strong navy, and she emerged from the First Peloponnesian War. Some im-the struggle (briefly described under Per- portant constitutional changes fall in thissian Wars) with her city in ruins and her period, notably the creation of ten generals
  • 70. Athens 58 Athens(see Strategus) from 501, and from 487 democratic rule endured until the surren-the choosing of the archons by lot. The der of Athens to Sparta in 404. Athensarchonship was in effect thrown open to emerged from the Peloponnesian Warall citizens from ahout 458/7. crippled, impoverished, and at the mercy The fifty years that followed the close of the Spartan Lysander (q.v.). This gaveof the Persian War saw the beginning of an opportunity to the oligarchs, and underthe great poetical and creative age of the menace of Lysander, a body knownAthens, and were rendered illustrious by as the Thirty, of which Critias (q.v.)the names of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euri- was the leading spirit, was nominatedpides, Phidias, and Polygnotus. The posi- to frame a constitution and meanwhiletion of Athens as saviour of Hellas from to rule the State. A council of Fivethe barbarian, her sense of independence Hundred, supporters of the oligarchy, wasand political freedom, her newly acquired appointed, and a reign of terror followed.maritime empire, brought about an But dissensions arose among the oligarchsexaltation favourable to the production and civil war broke out, the democratsof great intellectual works. She was now being led by Tbrasybulus (q.v.). It wasmoreover one of the chief commercial ended by the intervention of the Spartancentres of the eastern Mediterranean, a king Pausanias, and the old democracypoint of attraction to visitors from all was restored (403). In 395 Athens joinedparts of the Greek world, where ideas and Thebes, Argos, and Corinth in theirinformation could be freely interchanged, attempt to overthrow the Spartan supre-and wits were sharpened in the process. macy (see Thebes), an attempt that failedSee Pentecontaetia. in its object and was terminated by the inglorious peace of Antalcidas (387), 5. The great struggle with Sparta to dictated by the king of Persia, who re- Peace of Antalcidas (387) the covered the Ionian cities of Asia Minor The peace with Sparta was destined to and remained master of the Aegean.last only fifteen years, and in 431 began During this period, although the agethe decisive struggle between Athens of the great tragedians was drawing to aand Sparta for the hegemony of Greece, close (Euripides died in 406), the wonder-and at the same time between Athens and ful intellectual productiveness of AthensCorinth for the control of the trade routes continued, illustrated by the names ofto the West (see Pcloponncsian War). Socrates, Plato, Thucydides, and Aristo-The failure of the Sicilian Expedition, the phanes.culminating incident of this war, was thesignal for the revolt of many of the sub- 6. The Fourth century to the rise of of Athens, which she made the Macedonian Empireject-alliesvigorous and partially successful efforts The political interest now passes to theto suppress. The latter part of the war struggle of Sparta and Thebes (q.v.), inwas marked also by the co-operation which Athens played only a secondaryagainst her of Sparta and Persia, furthered part. A wanton raid by a Spartan forceby the intrigues of the exiled Alcibiadcs under Sphodriaa on the Piraeus in 378(q.v.). An oligarchical revolution broke led to the alliance of Athens with Thebes,out in the city itself. A council of Four to war with Sparta, and to the develop-Hundred was established in 411, nomin- ment of a second Athenian Confederacy,ally supplemented by an assembly of composed of various islands and cities ofFive Thousand, which was in fact never the Aegean, Corcyra, and other States,summoned. But the Athenian fleet at professedly directed against Sparta.Samos remained democratic in sentiment, Athens retained her commercial supre-led by Alcibiadcs whom it had recalled. macy and recovered a good deal of herThe revolt of Euboca at this time caused maritime power, for the loss of her empiredeep alarm at Athens, and the Four had not deprived her of her sources ofHundred were overthrown by the end prosperity, and her successes in the warof the same year. In this oligarchic move- with Sparta, which was terminated byment and also in its overthrow Thcra- the peace of Callias in 371, did much tomenes (q.v.) took an important part. A restore her prestige. The most prominentconstitution devised by him, the rule of Athenian statesman of this period wasthe Five Thousand, was now set up. It Callistratus (q.v.), whose general policywas a mixture of oligarchy and democracy was based on harmony with Sparta andpraised by Thucydides and Aristotle. This hostility to Thebes. The latter State,was displaced after the victory of the under the leadership of EpaminondasAthenian fleet at Cyzicus (410) and (q.v.), was now rising to the hegemony ofdemocracy was restored, largely under the Greece, and Athens was more influencedinfluence of the demagogue Cleophon; by jealousy of her neighbour than by her
  • 71. Athens 59 Athensold rivalry with Sparta. In the ensuing various States of northern Greece revoltedstruggle between Sparta and Thebes we against Macedonia. Under the Athenianfind Athens in alliance with Sparta (369), general Leosthencs the Greeks were for aand an Athenian contingent was present time successful, and besieged Antipater,at the battle of Mantinea (362). Meanwhile the regent of Macedonia, in Lamia (aAthens was reviving her old empire in the Thessalian town). But in 322, afterAegean (see Timotheus (2)) and causing Leosthenes had been killed, the Lamiandiscontent and uneasiness among her War ended with tho battle of Crannon, inallies. A revolt of these broke out in 357, which the Macedonians had the advan-and the attempts of Athens to suppress tage. Tho Macedonian fleet had played anit were ineffectual. What is known as the important part in the war, and put anSocial War ended in the peace of 354, end for ever to the sea-power of which the independence of the prin- Antipater imposed on Athens a change ofcipal members of the Confederacy was her democratic constitution, and the fran-recognized in accordance with the policy ; chise was restricted to citizens possessedurged by Isocrates (q.v.), Athens re- of more than 2,000 drachmas. He placednounced her attempt at naval empire. a Macedonian garrison at Munychia. HeHer attention was shortly required in also demanded the surrender of Demos-another direction, for Macedonia (q.v.) thenes and tho other anti-Macedonianwas rising to importance and threatening agitators. Demosthenes took poison tothe Athenian position in the northern avoid capture tho others were put to ;Aegean. death. Tho democrats were reinstated at Athens under the brief rule of Polyperchon 7. The struggle with Macedonia and (the immediate successor of Antipater), the subjugation of Athens but Cassander (Antipaters son) restored For the growth of Macedonian ascen- in tho main his fathers constitution anddancy, see Philip of Macedon. In the face appointed (317) as his viceroy at Athensof this development Athens had to choose a distinguished Athenian citizen, Deme-between two policies: an attempt to trius (q.v.) of Phalorum, a learned manrecover her hegemony, or accommodation and a friend of Aristotle. His ten yearswith Philip. Her course of action was tho of virtual rule wore a period of peace andoutcome of tho conflict of two parties, prosperity for tho city. None tho less,a peace party directed by Eubulus, an when Demetrius Poliorcetes, son of Anti-able financier and a cautious statesman, gonus (see Macedonia, 2), captured thethe orator Aeschincs, tho honest and city from Cassandcr in 307, he was lookedsensible soldier Phocion, and Philocrates upon by tho Athenians as a liberator and(qq.v.); and a war party, determined on was granted divine honours.hostility to Philip, led by Demosthenes, The 4th c. shows tho last phase ofLycurgus, and Hyperides (qq.v.). The the literary and artistic pre-eminence ofpassionate eloquence of Demosthenes pro- Athens. The character of her Intellectualvailed, the attempts made by Philip to activity had somewhat changed: it hadconciliate Athens failed, and Philip was become more analytical and less creative,driven to assert his supremacy by force critical,more concerned with facts andof arms at Chacronea (338). Athens their reasons. It was the age of Aristotle,was obliged to accept the lenient peace- the age also of tho great orators, and of theterms imposed by Philip and to join the New Comedy. Art became less simpleHellenic confederacy organized by him. and more realistic; it sought to renderWhether the opposite policy might have youth and grace rather than to interpretproved more advantageous depends on the old religious ideas. Praxiteles was thowhether Philip and Alexander would in great sculptor of this period.any event have loft Athens really inde- 8. The Period of Decadencependent. If not, the policy of Demos-thenes was the only one that offered her Tho 3rd c. B.C. saw the end of tho politi-a chance of freedom. After the abortive cal importance of Athens. The Chremoni-risings that followed the accession of doan War (266-262 B.C.) is notable as theAlexander the Great, and tho destruction last occasion when Athens took tho leadof Thebes which ended them, a period against Macedon. Supported by Spartaof tranquillity ensued at Athens. During and Ptolemy II, she revolted againstthis the most notable incidents are tho Antigonus Gonatas (see Macedonia, 3),attack on Demosthenes by Aeschines was besieged, and finally yielded toand the affair of Harpalus (see Demos- famine. The war derives its name fromthenes, 1). The death of Alexander in the Athenian ChremonidGs, who orga-323 appeared to give an opportunity for nized the alliance. In 229, on the deaththe recovery of freedom, and Athens with of Demetrius II, son of Gonatas, Athens
  • 72. Athens 60 Athensrecovered her freedom. Philip V, grand- boards of ten, one from each tribe.son of Gonatas, once attacked her, hut Though this method may appear strangeotherwise she had a peaceful existence to us, its results seem to have been on theuntil 88. After the defeat of the Achaean whole satisfactory. It must be remem-League by Mummius in 146, Greece be- bered that the lots were drawn only amongcame a Roman protectorate, not yet a candidates who offered themselves, thatprovince. Some cities were taxed by the successful candidate had to pass theRome; others, including Athens and ordeal of the dokimasia (examination asSparta, were not. There was a revival of to worthiness by the Boulo or Heliaea)material prosperity and of religion. The before entering on office, that he wasgreat quadrennial festival of Athens at liable to account for his actions while inDelos, for instance, was restored. But office, and that the system of boardsthis prosperous period came to an end tended to yield an average of ability.with the Mithridatic War of 88-86, when The chief administrative officials wereAthens, which had espoused the cause of the archons (but their functions wereMithridates, was sacked and in part largely ceremonial and judicial) and thedestroyed by Sulla. Greece suffered strategi (see Strategus). Next in order ofseverely both from Sullas exactions and importance were perhaps the numerousdepredations and from the barbarian treasurers, who had charge of the public Mithridates, who sacked Delphi.allies of moneys assigned to various funds (seeEven greater ruin followed from the 11 below). Chief among these were theRoman civil wars, and endured until ten Treasurers (tamiai) of Athene. ThereAugustus made Greece a Roman province were also (besides the receivers-generalin 27 B.C. But in spite of her political referred to in 11 below) ten polctai, whodecline, Athens retained much of her sold confiscated property, farmed outintellectual prestige and continued to be taxes, &c. ; ten praktores, who collectedfrequented as a centre of philosophic study judicial fines; and ten logistai, who(see Hellenistic Age, 2). She was patron- audited the accounts of outgoing magi-ized in the 2nd c. B.C. by the Attalids (q.v.) strates. The policing and care of theof Pergamum, who adorned her with colon- city were in the charge of ten astunomoinades and sculptures. Apollodorus (q.v.) (five for Athens and five lor the Piraeus),composed there his works on chronology while street repairs were looked after byand mythology; Timaeus (q.v.) spent five hodopoioi. There were also boardsmany years there. It became fashionable of market-inspectors, inspectors of weightsfor Romans to pass some time in study and measures, &c. All the above wereat Athens. Atticus (q.v.) lived there for chosen by lot. The hcllenotamiai ormany years Cioero and Ciceros son and ; treasurers of the federal tribute were prob-Horace were among those who studied ably elected, as were also such technicalin the city. Horace, and in a later ago officials as tho surveyor of the water-Lucian, rejoiced in the peaceful charm of supply, and the specially appointed com-Athens as compared with the turmoil missioners of public works (when suchof Rome. Athens enjoyed some revival works were undertaken). The policingof her lustre under Hadrian and the of tho city was carried out by a body ofAntonines, and Julian the Apostate was 300 Scythian archers (public slaves), anda lover of the city. The end of her period there was a board known as the Eleven,of intellectual eminence came in A.D. 529, under whom were the executioner, thewhen Justinian ordered the closing of her gaolers, and the officials who arrestedschools of philosophy. malefactors (all these subordinates were public slaves). Public slaves were also 9.General administration in the employed in many clerical functions, Fifth and Fourth centuries some of them important, such as the caro A striking feature of the Athenian of archives. See also Boule, Ecclesia, anddemocratic system ia the power wielded Judicial Procedure , orators who held no official position.We have instances of this in Alcibiades, 10. Economic ConditionsCleon, and Demosthenes, who as private (a) The Archaic period. The archaiccitizens exerted at times a dominating period (7th-6th cc. B.C.) which succeededinfluence on the course of events. The the Homeric Age (q.v.) witnessed a trans-actual administration in the 5th and 4th formation of tho Homeric patriarchalcc. was carried on by a largo number of economy. The power of the head of theofficials of various grades. Except where family weakened, the State became moreexperience or technical knowledge was powerful, the individual freer. Populationrequired, officials were as a rule chosen increased and the soil became insufficientby lot, for one year, and as a rule in to support it. Land was converted largely
  • 73. Athens 61 Athensfrom pasture to arable. A great part of *Le travail dans la Grece ancienne, onit was held by the aristocracy and worked which the present section is in partfor them by tenants. Below the aristo- founded). Athens had merchant ships ofcracy, a middle class included the owners 10,000 talents (say 250 tons displacement)of smaller estates sufficient for their sup- which could go five knots, could cross theport and the artisans and traders who open sea (instead of hugging the coast),were profiting by the development of and could sail at night. Traffic by land,industry and commerce. The lowest class on the other hand, was hampered by theincluded tho peasants, owners of an inade- scarcity and defective condition of thequate plot or tenants of the great land- roads. Tho cost of transporting goods byowners. They were heavily in debt and land was extremely high. Some idea ofin general were hi a miserable condition. the cost of living may bo formed from theTho legislation of Solon (q.v.) at the following data. The price of the medimnusbeginning of the 6th c. had at least this (1-4 bushels) of wheat appears to havemeasure of success, that in freeing tho risen during the 5th c. with fluctuationsperson of the debtor it prevented the from 1 to 3 or 4 drachmas; in Demos-Athenian peasant from becoming per- thenes time it normally averaged 5 dr.manently a serf like the helot of Sparta. A days allowance of wheat for a man (his (6) The 5th and 4th centuries. The staple food) was 1 choenix, Ath part ofpopulation of Attica in the 5th and 4th cc. a modimnus, about If Ib. at 3 dr. the ;is unknown and has been very variously medimnus this would cost 221 dr. aestimated. One of the latest estimates year. Adding about the same amount for(Glotz, Histoire grecque) is based on opsonion (relish, i.e. meat, flsh, veget-the number of Athenian hoplites at the ables, fruit), it has been estimated thatbeginning of the Peloponnesian War, as a single man could feed himself for 60 dr.stated by Thucydides: according to this a year, and could live in comfort forcalculation there were then some 40,000 120 dr. A family of four could live foradult Athenian citizens of all classes, about 280 dr. In the 4th c., with wheat atmaking with their families some 140,000 5 dr., the cost of living for a single mansouls. The metics (q.v.) may have num- and for a family may be put at 180 dr. andbered (both sexes and all ages) some 450 dr. respectively. In the latter part70,000. The number of slaves is likewise a of tho 5th c. tho normal rate of pay formatter of conjecture, but was probably be- skilled and unskilled labour was 1 dr. atween 150,000 and 400,000 at this time. day; but to arrive at a mans annualThe census taken by Demetrius of Phale- earnings allowance must be made for therum at the end of the 4th c. is said to have sixty holidays in the year and for varyingshown 21,000 citizens, 10,000 metics, and periods of unemployment. He would400,000 slaves. Tho soil of Attica was probably find it difficult to earn 300 dr.unable to feed the population, and Athens in the year. With this may be comparedimported largo quantities of wheat, dried the remuneration of the architect of theflsh, salt meat, and cattle; also raw Erechtheum in 409-408 ho was paid, as :materials, such as copper, wood, ivory, a public official, at the rate of 1 dr. forwool, flax, papyrus, and also some manu- every day in the year. In the 4th c. thofactured articles such as furniture. She wages of skilled labour rose to 2 or 2J dr.,exported wine and oil, silver, marble, the wages of unskilled labour remainingpottery* arms, books. She also derived at 1 dr. or rising a little above it. Thelargo profits from her position as a com- remuneration of the architect at Eleusismercial centre and from her carrying in the latter part of the 4th c. was at thotrade. Her ships plied to many parts of rate of 2 dr. a day for every day in thothe Mediterranean Thrace and Chalci- year. At the same period public slavesdice, Asia Minor, Phoenicia, Egypt, Italy at Athens received for their subsistence(and later Sicily); and especially to 180 dr. a year, besides their clothing. Thothe Euxine, the principal source of the poorer classes wore supported at first byAthenian corn supply. Tho annual value tho great works of fortification and em-of the total trade of the Piraeus at tho bellishment of tho city later in part by ;beginning of the 4th c., that is to say at a the misthos or payment for the dischargemoment of extreme depression, has been of public duties, while the Theoric Fundestimated, on the basis of the yield of the (q.v.) provided for their amusement. Inimport and export dues, at a sum varying times of war or distress the State came tobetween 1,875 and 2,400 talents (equiva- the aid of the needy by means of thelent in bullion value to about 375,000- diobelia or daily grant of two obols. 480,000, but of much greater purchasing Further, to provide land for the poor,power); it was doubtless much greater thousands were established as cleruchsat a tune of Athenian prosperity (Glotz, (q.v.) in territories across tho sea. The
  • 74. Athens S Athensaccounts of the construction of the following items (talent = about 200,Erechtheum in 409-408 suggest that drachma = about Sd.).citizens were then taking only a small (a) The produce of the silver mines afcpart in industry, leaving manual occupa- Laurium. These were leased to contrac-tions to metics (q.v.) and slaves. These tors, who extracted the ore by slaveBoem likewise to have taken the chief part labour. The annual revenue was probablyin commerce. 50-100 talents. The annual rent of land and houses in (&) The metoikion, a direct tax on thethe 4th c. was normally equal to about resident aliens, 12 drachmas on each head8 per cent, of their capital value. The rate of a family. The yield was probablyof interest on loans on mortgage was 20 talents or more.normally 12 per cent. For commercial (c) Customs duty on goods imported andloans it was generally 10-18 per cent. but exported at the Piraeus, 2 per cent, ad ;for loans on marine ventures it was much valorem, yielding 30-40 talents. Therehigher. For the full navigation season of were also minor taxes, such as octroi andseven months it might bo 30 per cent. it market dues. ;might even be more for voyages involving (d) Judicial fees and flues. In additionspecial risks. Banking was highly organ- to the judicial fees payable by litigants, aized by the end of the 5th c. ; banks lent considerable revenue accrued to the Stateon mortgage, on cargoes, or on personal from penalties in public suits (see Judicialsecurity, and issued letters of credit on Procedure, 1), which took largely thecorrespondents abroad. The bank founded form of fines, and occasionally of con-by Antisthencs and Archcstratos at the fiscation of property. Moreover the ac-end of the 5th c. and carried on in the cuser in a public suit who failed to secure4th c. by the famous Pasion, had largo one-fifth of the votes paid a fine of 1,000foreign transactions, especially with By- drachmas. The revenue from these sourceszantium; when Pasion retired it had a (which went to supply the fund from,capital of 50 talents (10,000). which the jurymen were paid) must have Urban industries (pottery, metal - varied considerably and cannot be esti-working, &c.) were conducted on a mated.comparatively small scale. The largest (e) In war time the eisphorfi, an extra-factory we know of was that of Cephalus, ordinary tax on the estimated capital ofthe father of Lysias, which employed each citizen owning property worth more] 20 slaves on the manufacture of shields. than 1,000 drachmas, at the rate of 2 orThe two factories of the father of Demos- 3 per cent. Metics were subject to thethenes employed respectively 33 on the tax at a higher rate. In 428 B.C., whenmanufacture of arms and 20 on the manu- it was perhaps first imposed, it yieldedfacture of beds. The shoemaker in the 200 talents.mime of Herodas had 13 assistants. Even (/) From the middle of the 5th c. andship-building appears to have been carried until the break-up of the Athenianon hi a large number of small yards. Empire, the phoros or tribute of the allies,Many industries were purely family an amount that varied, at first aboutaffairs in the hands of an artisan and his 400 talents (actually received), later muchwife. The return from industry appears more, perhaps 1,000 have been normally 30 per cent, a year (g) The budget was helped out by theon the capital value of the slaves em- system of liturgies (q.v.) or public servicesployed, but allowance has to be made in discharged by the wealthier citizens.this for amortization. The total revenue amounted in 431, There is occasional mention of large according to Xcnophon, to not less thanfortunes at Athens, but they do not appear 1,000 have been numerous. Callias, cousin of The public expenditure varied greatly,Aristidcs and son-in-law of Cimon, was especially as between periods of peace andreputed the richest man in Greece; he is war. At certain moments, for instancesaid to have had 200 talents (say 40,000). after the Persian Wars, and in the timeNicias had 100 talents. Both these for- of Pericles, heavy expenditure was in-tunes wore derived from mining enter- curred for public works and the buildingprises. of temples (see the figures under Par- See also Agriculture, 1, Slaveri/, 1, thenon). The provision of the fleet andColonization, 1, Hellenistic Age, 1. the pay of the crews absorbed the greater part of the tribute of the allies. Even in 11. Finances in the Fifth and Fourth time of peace part of the fleet was kept centuries in commission, A trireme with its crew The public revenue of Athens in the of 200 men receiving 2-3 obols a day5th and 4th cc. consisted principally of the would cost for pay alone 2,000 to 3,000
  • 75. Athens 63 Attadrachmas a month. At the beginning realized in the person of Eubulus, theof the Peloponnesian War Athens had president of the Theoric Fund (q.v.), who300 triremes, later increased to 400. The was hi fact from 354 to 339 a generalinitial cost of a ship hi the 5th o. is un- minister of finance; and after him in Lycur-known, but it was more than one talent. gus, who discharged the same functionsThe peace expenditure on the army (pay from 338 to 326, actual title of with^hoof 1,500 recruits constantly in train- Treasurer -general (ra/uay TTJS BLOLK^UCCDS)ing, equipment and forage allowance of Atlantids, the daughters of Atlas (q.v.).cavalry> pay of mercenaries) is estimatedat 40-50 talents. In war time each hoplite Atlantis, see Timaeus (Platos dialogue).received 1-2 drachmas a day. Atlas (Atlas), in Greek mythology, accord- The normal peace-time expenditure in- ing to Hesiod a son of the Titan lapetuscluded these further items : and Clymene, daughter of Oceanus (qq.v.). (a) The members of the Boule each As punishment for his part in the revoltreceived (in Aristotles day) 5 obols, and of the Titans (q.v.), he was employed tothose of the Prytany 1 drachma for each support the heavens with his head anddays sitting. The citizens attending meet- hands, somewhere in the extreme west ofings of the Ecclcsia received in the first half the earth. Ho was father of the Pleiadesof the 4th c. 3 obols a day (afterwards and the Hyades (qq.v.) and (in Homer) ofraised to 1 drachma). The archons re- Calypso; also, in later writers, of theceived only 4 obols a day, but there were Hesperides (q.v.). Perseus (q.v.), beinga considerable number of subordinate inhospitably received by him, turned himofficials to be paid. The total cost rose into a mountain by means of the Medusasperhaps from 15 talents to 40 talents or head. See also Heracles.more. (b) The total cost of the pay of the Atreus, in Greek mythology, one of theholiasts or jurymen must have depended sons of Pelops; he was king of Mycenae,on the number employed and the num- brother of Thyestes, and father of Aga-ber of days of employment. If 2,000 on memnon and Menelaus. For the story ofthe average were employed on 300 days, his house, see Pelops.with pay at 3 obols (from 425 B.C.), the Atreus appears to represent a real per-charge would be 50 talents. son, if, as there is reason to suppose, he is the Attarisayas, ruler of the Ahhiyava (c) Miscellaneous expenditure on fes-tivals, embassies, reception of foreign (Achaeans?), whoso marauding bands,missions, public relief to the poor and according to the Hittite archives, attackeddisabled, &c. the Hittite coasts in the latter part of the There was no single budget, but the 13th c. B.C.Ecclesia distributed the revenues over a Atrium Libertatis, at Homo;seenumber of separate funds, administered Libraries. The censors hadtheir officeand accounted for by various magistrates there, and it was in this Hall of Libertyand their treasurers. The revenues were that, in Ciceros time, the judicial ex-all paid to ten apodektai or receivers- amination of slaves by torture was carriedgeneral, chosen by lot from the ten tribes, out (Pro Mil. 59); also the manumissionwho handed them over to the magistrates of directed. The goddess Athena (and Atrium Vestae, or Hall of Vesta, wasthe other gods) played an important part the residence at Rome of the VestalIn the financial system. From 454 B.C. Virgins, in which they lived as in a con-Athena received l/60th of the tribute of vent. It stood near the Temple of Vesta,the allies ; she and the other gods, more- in the Forum, S. of the Via Sacra (seeover, had revenues from sacred lands, PI. 14). In republican times it appears toofferings, and miscellaneous receipts. The have consisted of rooms built round twotemples consequently became extremely sides of a small court. It was repeatedlywealthy, and from their treasures loans rebuilt and restored in imperial times.were made at interest to the State as In its latest form it was a splendid build-required. The distribution between these Ing of several stories, surrounding ansacred funds and the public funds was in oblong cloistered court.fact nominal, and the sacred treasurieswore much impoverished by the failure Atropos, see repay the large loans made during the Atta, Trrus QUINTIUS (d. 77 B.C.), writerPeloponnesian War. In the 4th c. there of togatae (q.v.), of whose comedies verywas a tendency to the simplification and little survives. In his Aquae Caldae heunification both of funds and accounts. depicted life at a Roman watering-place.Moreover the advantage of centralized He is said to have excelled in his femalecontrol was discovered; this was first characters.
  • 76. Attalids 6 AtticusAttalids, the dynasty that in the course and erected two colonnades there (seeof the 3rd c. B.C. acquired Pergamum, in Stoa).the NW. of Asia Minor, and its surround- Atthis (meaning Attic), a name givening territory, expanded its dominions at to chronicles of early events in Attica.the expense of the Seleucids (q.v.), and The first of such chronicles was made byenjoyed the support of Rome. Attains I Hollamcus in the 5th c. B.C. (see Logo-(241-197)was the nephew and adoptive son graphi), and the best-known by Philo-of Eumenes, who first secured the indepen- chorus in the 3rd c. B.C. Only fragmentsdence of Pergamum from the Seleucids of their chronicles survive.(see his life by Plutarch). By driving backthe Galatian barbarians, Attains obtained Attic dialect, see Migrations and Dialects.power and prestige, took the royal title, Attic Nights, see Gellius.and was able to bring under his control for Attica (Attike), a mountainous and hia time nearly the whole of Seleucid AsiaMinor. In 201 the Pergamenes and the great part arid country, forming the SE.Rhodians became embroiled with Philip V promontory of central Greece, about 1,000 square miles in extent, or a littleof Macedonia (q.v., 3) and took themomentous step of soliciting the support larger than Derbyshire. Its city was Athens (q.v.). See PI. 8.of Rome. This gave Rome the pretextfor the Second Macedonian War and for Atticus, TiTUS POMPONIUS (109-32 B.C.),intervention in Greek affairs. As the ally the intimate friend of Cicero, was born atof Rome against Antiochus III at the Homo of an equestrian family. Ho with-great victory of Magnesia (190 B.C., see drew in 88 from the turbulence and blood-Seleucids), Pergamum established its posi- shed of Rome to Athens, where he livedtion as the leading State in Asia Minor, for many years (whence his cognomenreceiving the bulk of the dominions coded Atticus). Ho took no active part in theby Antiochus. In 172 Eumenes II of Per- politics of the ensuing troubled period,gamum again stimulated Rome against but maintained an attitude of neutralityMacedonia and provided the pretext on and friendship with all parties. He helpedwhich war was declared against Perseus Marians and Pompeians in their hoursin 171. The dynasty of the Attalids came of difficulty: ho protected Ciceros wifeto an end in 133 B.C., when Attains III Tercntia when Cicero went into exile,bequeathed his dominions to Rome. The and Antonys wife Fulvia and his lieuten-government of the Attalids was efficient, ant Volumnius at the tune of Mutina. Inand it was successful in accumulating p consequence he was spared by Antony inwealth, partly from slave labour hi the the proscriptions. He became the friendroyal factories which produced parchment of Augustus, and his daughter marriedand textiles. Under them, the treatment Agrippa, the minister of the latter. Theirof the population and subject cities ap- daughter Vipsania married Tiberius andpears to have been more arbitrary than was mother of the younger Drusus (seethat of the Seleucids, who were regarded Julio-Claudian Family and Germanicusas the champions of Hellenism. This, and and Drusus, B. 1). Pomponia, sister ofthe relations of the Attalids with Rome, Atticus, married Ciceros brother Quintus.made Greek feeling hostile to them. On The series of Ciceros letters to Atticusthe other hand they provided a bulwark begins in 68, and their friendship, whichagainst the Galatlans. With their wealth had its origin when they were fellowthey made Pergamum into a splendid students in youth, continued until Ciceroscity, adorned with sculptures. Those death. Cicero constantly turned to himcommemorating the victory of Attains I for sympathy in distress and difficulty,over the Gallic invaders included a bronze and for advice, both in connexion withrepresentation of the Dying Gaul* of public and private affairs. Atticua hadwhich a marble reproduction survives inherited a considerable fortune, within the Capitoline museum. Eumenes II which he bought land in Epirus, and whicherected a great altar to Zeus with a frieze, he gradually increased by judicious in-some 400 feet long, showing the battle of vestment. He became very wealthy andthe Gods and the Giants. Under the same had strong literary tastes he kept a large ;king, Pergamum became an important staff of slaves trained in copying and bind-centre of literary studies, and a great ing manuscripts. He acted as Ciceroslibrary was built, the rival of that of publisher. His works, which have notAlexandria. It was at Pergamum that the survived, included a Liber Annalis, anuse of parchment (a word derived from epitome of Roman history in one book,Pergamum) was first developed on a large dealing with laws, wars, and politicalscale (see Books, Ancient, 5). The Per- events from the earliest times to his owngamene kings sent sculptures to Athens day ; and a genealogical treatise on certain
  • 77. Attis 65 AugustalesRoman families and the magistracies they prayer for a sign, he sat looking south-had held. He also helped to establish ward. (In certain pla-ces, e.g. in the Arx onthe date of the founding of Rome (see the Capitoline hill, there were permanentCalendar.) We have a life of him by templa the view from these might not be ;Nepos (q.v.). obstructed by new buildings.) Signs on the E. side (the augurs left) were regardedAttis, a Phrygian deity associated with as propitious, on the W. as unfavourable.the myth of Cybele (q.v.) or Agdistis.Attis was the son of Nana, daughter of Hence, in general, signs on the left sidethe river-god Sangarius (a rivor hi Asia were of good omen. (There was alsoMinor). She conceived him after gathering authority for the augur adopting anthe blossom of an almond-tree sprung from eastward-facing position.) The signs were either the flight or song of birds, thunderthe blood of Agdistis. When Attis wishedto marry, Agdistis, who loved him and was and lightning, or the movement of ani- mals. Later, auspices were taken, espe-jealous, drove him mad, so that hecastrated himself and died. At the prayer cially during military operations, from theof the repentant goddess, Zeus allowed manner of feeding (eager or the reverse) of chickens. The gods, moreover, mighthis spirit to pass into a pine-tree, whileviolets sprang from his blood. This myth spontaneously send a sign, such as thun- der, upon which the augur advised; and(like that of Adonis) symbolizes the death in later republican times public businessand revival of plant life. See also Catullus. was frequently obstructed by the observa-Attius Labeo, a translator of Homer tion of pretended signs and similar devices.(q.v., ad fin.). The college, until the lex Ogulnia ofAufldus, a river in Apulia (S. Italy), on 300 B.C., consisted of patricians. Thewhich stood Venusia, the birthplace of augurs received a salary; their officialHorace, who refers in his poems to its dress was the trabea, a mantle with aswift and roaring current ( longe sonantcm purple border, and they were furthernatus ad Aufldum). It was on the banks distinguished by the lituus or curved staffof this river that Hannibal defeated the without knots, which they used for mark-Romans in 216 B.C. at the battle of ing off the templa. Much light is thrownCannae. on Roman augury by the De Divina- tione* (q.v.) of Cicero. The classicalAugeas (Augeids), see Heracles (Labours example of the supposed danger of neg-of) and Trophonius. lecting the warnings of the auspices wasAugury and Auspices. Auspices (au- that of the consul C. Flaminius, who, onspida) were the means by which the the morning of the battle of Lake Trasi-Romans sought to ascertain whether the mene (217 B.C.), insisted on marchinggods were favourable to an undertaking, against the enemy in defiance of theand the augurs were a priestly college obvious indications of the omens, whichwhose members had the knowledge neces- he ridiculed. Within three hours thesary for taking the auspices and inter- consul lay dead on the field and his armypreting them. In the household nothing was destroyed. Similarly on the occasionof importance was undertaken, Cicero of the great sea-fight off Drepanum intells us, except with the sanction of the 249 B.C. between the Roman and Cartha-auspices. But of the details of domestic ginian fleets, it was reported to the Romanaugury we know hardly anything. The admiral that the sacred chickens wouldauspices were taken by the master of the not eat. Then let them drink , he replied *house, with the assistance, if necessary, of and had them thrown overboard. Thea professional augur. We know also that utter defeat of the Roman fleet followed.there were agricultural auguries in spring For omens drawn by the Romans fromand at midsummer. The college of augurs inspection of the entrails of sacrificialwas second in importance only to the victims, see Haruspices.pontifices (q.v.) ; they were the repositoriesof tradition about augury and were con- Augustales. There were during thesulted in cases of doubt, public or private. Roman empire several priesthoods orThey alone had the right of public augury, dignities bearing this title. (1) On theexercised on all occasions when the ap- death of Augustus (A.D. 14) Tiberiusproval of the gods for public action (e.g. instituted the college of Sodales Augustalesa meeting of the Assembly) was required. to look after the cult of the gens Julia.The auspices, originally * signs from birds Its members belonged to the imperial(avis-spicere) were taken as follows. The family or were important personages inaugur marked off a templum, a rectangular the State. (2) The Seviri Augustales werespace In which the auspices were to be members of similar colleges institutedsought. There, after offering a prescribed by Tiberius in the provinces for the 4339
  • 78. Augustalia 66 Augustuscommemoration of Augustus. They were Ambrose (q.v.), and in 387, after a longfreedmen, who thus acquired in Rome the intellectual and moral struggle, in whichsocial standing they desired. Trimalchio, he states that he was influenced by thein the novel of Potronius Arbiter (q.v.), Hortensius of Cicero, received Christianprides himself on being a seoir Augustalis, baptism. He then returned to Africaan honour all the greater because he was (Monica dying at Ostia on the way)chosen in absence without having to and became a priest, and in 395 bishop ofstand for election. (3) During his lifetime, Hippo, which office he occupied till hisAugustus had associated his genius (see death. He was a man of wide erudition,Religion, 5) for purposes of worship with with a bent for philosophy, of strong prac-the Lares Compitales, the Lares of the tical sense, combined with intense sensi-cross-roads. He instituted the Magistri bility and an ardent religious faith. ManyVlcorum to attend to the worship. These of his writings, especially his earliestAugustales also were freedmen. The con- works, have a philosophic cast: the Con-nexion and difference between Seviri tra Academicos, De Vita Beata, andAugustales, Seviri et Augustales, Magistri *Do Ordlne* are a criticism, from theAugustales, and Augustales (in the pro- religious standpoint, of ancient philo-vinces), is still far from clear. sophy. His treatises Do ImmortalitateAugustalia, Ludi, 2 ad fin. Animi* (in which he adopts the Platonic arguments for a future life) and DoAugustan Age of Roman literature, a Libero Arbitrio* (in which he discussesterm applied to the period which followed the vexed question of free will and divinethe Ciceronian Age (q.v.), and of which the foreknowledge) are other examples of hisempire of Augustus was the chief his- philosophical attitude. After historical feature; it is generally regarded appoint- ment to his bishopric his writings assumeas covering the years from the death of a more purely religious character polemi-Julius Caesar (44 B.C.) to the death of cal treatises against the Manichaean andOvid in A.D. 17. The great authors of this Pelagian heretics and the Donatist schis-period were Virgil, Horace, Tibullus, matics, letters of advice, encouragement,Proportius, Ovid, and Livy. The period instruction, or direction, and numerouscovers a variety of political conditions, practical treatises. His methods as afor the old republican system did not end teacher of Christianity are set forth in twountil after the battle of Actium in 31 B.C., works, De CatecMzandis Rudibus (Onand even then continued nominally. the Art of Catechizing) and De Doc- The most prominent characteristic of trina Christiana on a scheme of Christianthis period was the restoration of tran- education, including the interpretation ofquillity and order after nearly a century the Scriptures and Christian eloquence.of revolution, civil turmoil, and massacre. His two most famous works are his * Con-Political activity came to an end with the fessions, the moving story of his owninstitution of the empire; freedom of spiritual struggles, written for the edifica-political and historical inquiry and ex- tion of others, with deep psychologicalpression was limited; hence the disap- insight; and his De Civitate Dei (q.v.),pearance of oratory and the scantiness The City of God, the longest (it con-of prose literature in general during this tains twenty-two books) and the latestage. Poetry is frequently under the in- of his writings ; he worked on it for nearlyfluence of patrons such as the emperor fourteen years. Augustines early practicehimself and other men in high official of rhetoric left its mark not only in hispositions, like Maecenas and Messalla; it wideis addressed to a polished society, and is knowledge of profane literature, but in an easy, supple style and a fondness forconcerned with patriotic themes (pride rhetorical devices and Rome and its imperial destiny), or withthe passion of love, or with the beauty of an honorary title conferrednature. It is a mature literature, the Augustus, in 27 B.C. on C. Julius Caesar Octavianus,product of study and training, showing the first Roman emperor. See Octavianless originality and spontaneity than the and Rome, 7 and 9. He received thisliterature of the preceding age. title because it had no monarchical ringAugustine, ST. (Aurelius Augustinus) and yet designated him as something(A.D. 354-430), was born at Thagaste in greater than an ordinary citizen.Numidia. His father was a pagan; his The title Augustus was assumed by themother, Monica, was a devout Christian succeeding emperors at the request of theand greatly influenced her son. He taught Senate and gradually became their officialrhetoric successively at Thagaste, Car- designation. The title Augusto was con-thage, Rome (383), and Milan. At Milan ferred on Livia after the death of Augustushe came under the influence of Bishop and was afterwards borne by various ladies
  • 79. Aulularia 67 Aventineof the imperial family, not always consorts He wrote a great deal of verse in aof the emperor. great variety of metres, showing rather the technical ability of a professor ofAulul&rin (The pot of gold), a comedy rhetoric than poetic inspiration. He seemsby Plautus, probably adapted from a play to have versified any theme that pre-by Menander. The prologue is spoken by sented itself, such as the names of thethe Lar Familiaris (q.v.). Euclio, an old curmudgeon, has found days and months, or the properties of thea pot full of treasure buried in his house. number three. He particularly delighted in verso catalogues: thus he cataloguedHo hides it away, continues to pretend in the Parentalia his relatives and ances-poverty, and is in terror that the treasure tors, assigning a few lines of pious praisemay be taken from him. His daughter to each ; in other poems the professors ofPhaodria has been ravished by a youngman, Lyconides, at a feast of Ceres. Bordeaux, the famous cities of the world, the twelve Caesars, the Seven Sages, evenLyconides is repentant and wishes to the Roman consuls (but this work is lost).marry her. But meanwhile his uncle He delighted also in such feats of skill asMegad6rus proposes to Euclio for the the composition of a prayer in 42 rhopaliogirls hand. Euclio thinks that Megadorushas designs on the treasure, takes it away (q.v.) hexameters beginning Spes deusfrom his house, and hides it in one place aeternao stationis conciliator, and ofafter another. He is seen by a slave of nearly two hundred hexameters (theLyconides. The latter gets possession of Technopaegnion) each ending in athe treasure, and restores it to Euclio, monosyllable. His more important and interestingwho, overjoyed at its recovery, apparently poems arc, (1) the EpMmeris, or descrip-(the end of the play is lost) bestows his tion of a normal day in his life (the datedaughter on Lyconides. The play is noteworthy especially for and place represented are uncertain), histhe character of the old miser, on whom awakening, talk with his servant, histhe Harpagon of Molieres LAvare* is cook, his secretary, &c. ; and (2) the Mosella. This is a long poem on a visitclosely modelled. The incident of the to the Moselle, artificial in its arrange-cock that scrapes the earth near Euclios him ment: his journey through Gaul, apo-treasure, and is killed by for its mani-fest thievish intention, is also famous. strophe to the river, list of its fishes, *The Aulularia was performed at Cam- description of its vineyards, the reflec- tions in its water, aquatic sports, thebridge hi 1564 before Queen Elizabeth. luxurious villas on its banks, its tribu-Aulus Gellius, see Oellius. taries, ending with its junction with theAurora, see Eos. Rhine and a final tribute of praise. Ausonius possesses neither depth, in-Ausonia, a poetic name for Italy, from sight, nor passion but he shows affection ;Ausones, an ancient, perhaps Greek, name for his country and feeling for naturalfor the inhabitants of middle and southern beauties, and his verse (which includes,Italy. besides the pieces named above, Epistles,Ausonius, DKCIMUS MAGNUS (c. A.D. Epigrams, &c.) throws light, here and310-c. 395), the son of a physician of there, on middle-class life in the provincesBordeaux, was educated there and at in his day. His prose writing Includes aToulouse, and after teaching rhetoric for long Ordtiarum actio or thanksgiving forthirty years at Bordeaux was appointed his consulship, addressed to Gratian.tutor to Valentinians son, Gratian. Auspices, see Augury.With his pupil he accompanied Valen-tinians expedition of 368-9 against the Auster, the south wind (Gk. Notos).Germans, and under Gratian received Autolycus (Autolukos), in Greek mytho-rapid official advancement, becoming pre- logy, a son of Hermes and a master offect of the Gallic provinces, then of trickery and thieving. He received fromItaly, Illyria, and Africa jointly with the his father the gift of making himself andemperors son, and finally consul in 379. his stolen goods invisible, or of changingHe then returned to his family estate at the appearance of the latter so as toBordeaux, where he appears to have spent escape detection. But he was outwittedmost of the remainder of his life, though by Sisyphus (q.v.). He was the father ofhe was at Treves at the time of the Aiiticlea, the mother of Odysseus.usurpation of Maximus. He was nomin-ally at least a Christian, but without any Automedon (Automeddn), In the Iliad, the charioteer of Achilles (q.v.).depth of religious feeling: he tried todissuade his pupil Paulinus from abandon- Aventine, the most southerly of theing the world for a life of religion. seven hills of Rome (see PL 14). According
  • 80. Avernus 68 Bacchylidesto the traditional view, tho Avcntine, imprison Dionysus usually supposed (it isthough within the wall of Servius Tullius that the poet intended to represent(see Rome, 1), remained outside the Dionysus himself in the captive; but inpomoerium or city boundary for religious the tragedy itself the captive proclaimsreasons until the time of Claudius. An- himself merely a votary of the god). Byother theory is that it was not included him Pentheus is induced to spy on thewithin any wall until the rebuilding of womens mystio worship, is discovered bythe Servian Wall in the 4th c. B.C. It was them, and torn in pieces. Agave, in herthe scene of the story of Hercules and frenzy, bears his head triumphantly toCacus (q.v.), whose cave Evander showed Thebes. It is only when she recovers thatto Aeneas (Aon. viii. 184 et soq.). In she finds she has killed her son. Dionysuslater times it was a quarter occupied by proclaims tho doom of tho house of Cad-tho poorer classes, and was crowned by mus, and Cadmus himself and Agave goa temple of Diana. their ways into oxilo. Pentheus exemplifies the limitations ofAvernus, a lake near Cumae and Naples. ordinary humanClose to it was tho cave by which Aeneas reason, closed to tho tho material world. Butdescended to the nether world (Aen. vi). mysteries beyond while Euripides shows sympathy with theThe name was sometimes used for the side of tho Dionysiao religion, henether world itself. It was generally writ- mystio to condemn its extravagances.ten in Greek "Aopvos, which was supposed appearsto mean without birds, and the lake was Bacchanalia (Bacchanalia), orgies ofin consequence thought to be birdless, a Dionysus (q.v.) or Bacchus. They spreadfeature which is often referred to. in Italy early in tho 2nd c. B.C., led toAvSs see Birds. excesses, and had to be suppressed in t 18C B.C. Tho decree of the Senate for-Avienus, RUFIUS FESTUS (4th c. A.D.), bidding these rites survives in an inscrip-who tells us that he was a native of Vol- tion.sinii and twice proconsul, was author of an Bacchi, see Dionysus.extant translation of Aratus (q.v.) intoLatin hexameters. Of two other verso Bacchiac or Bacchius, see Metre, 1.translations by him (of Greek poems on Bacchidgs, a comedy by Plautus,geographical subjects) tho whole of one adapted probably from a lost play (Jt?and part of the other survive. ^a7rara)v) of Menander. A young man is searching on behalf of an absr at friend for tho courtesan Bacchis of Samos ho finds her, but falls under the ; charm of her sister Bacchis of Athens. His conduct arouses suspicion in his friendsBabrius, VALERIUS (?) (c. A.D. 100?) of mind until it comes out that there are twowhom nothing is known, author of 123 courtesans of the same name. Tho slaveAcsopic fables (see Aesop) in Greek chol- Chrysalus is tho pivot of tho play. Iniambio verse (see Metre, 5), pleasantly contrast to the pedagogue Lydus, he aidstold and probably based on some prose his young master in his love affair, ly-collection of these. The fables of Babrius ing unblushingly and resourcefully. Byare extant. a bold and ingenious trick he extracts from the young mans father the moneyBacchae, a tragedy by Euripides, pro- required for the affair, and likens himselfduced in 405 B.C. by his son after his death, to a conqueror of Troy. Finally the sistersprobably written after Euripides had gone beguile the fathers of the two young mento Mace don to tho court of Arehelaus; the into forgiveness and all ends merrily.last of tho groat Greek tragedies. Dionysus, the young god, son of Zeus Bacchus (BakcJios), see Dionysus.and tho Theban princess Semelo (q.v.), Bacchylides (Bakchulides) (c. 505-c.travelling through tho world to make 450 B.C.), born like his uncle Simonideshimself known as god to man, comes to (q.v.) in the island of Ceos, a Greek lyricThebes, where his worship has been re- poet. He appears to have visited the tyrantjected, even by Agave, sister of Somele llieron I of Syracuse (q.v., 1), whom heand mother of PentheHs, king of Thebes. celebrated in three odes. He wrote choralDionysus has maddened the recalcitrant lyrics of all the principal kinds. Thanks towomen, and sent them to adore him on the a discovery among the Oxyrhynchus papyrimountain. Pentheus, bitterly hostile to (see Papyri, Discoveries of), we possessthe new religion in spite of the remon- nineteen of his poems (more or less muti-strances of his grandfather Cadmus and lated), including thirteen epinicia (q.v.)of Tiresias (qq.v.), insults and trios to and five other poems classed as dithy-
  • 81. Bacis 69 Bekkerrambs. In the former he celebrated per- of the Romans, particularly in late repub-eons from all parts of the Greek world. lican and imperial times. They includedThe dithyrambs treat detached scenes rooms heated to different degrees (thetaken from heroic legend. One of them, frigiddrium, tepiddrium, and calddrium), *entitled Theseus, is of special interest provided with hot water for washing andas being in the form of a dialogue between a cold plunge -bath. Women some tunesAegeus (see Theseus) and the chorus. had separate accommodation or had par-Barchylides was a poet of great elegance ticular hours allotted to them, thoughand imagination, of more natural magic promiscuous bathing was not uncommonthan Pindar, but without the latters gran- under the empire. The vast and luxuriousdeur, gravity, and power. Ho makes ample structures built under the emperors (not-use of myths some of them are new to us. ably Caracalla and Diocletian), of which ;But they are less aptly connected with there are considerable remains, had inhis theme than those of Pindar. There addition halls, lecture rooms, and placeswas an edition of Bacchylides by R. C. for exercise, running, wrestling, ball-play-Jobb in 1905. ing (for it was usual to take exercise beforeBacis (Balds), an old Boeotian prophet* the bath). Rhetoricians used the bathswhose name became a common designa- for recitations, and authors read their newtion for male soothsayers, as Sibyl for works there. Excavations have shown that they were highly ornamented; andprophetesses. beautiful statues have been found hi then*Bacon, ROGER, see Texts and Studies, 8. ruins, such as the Farncse Hercules andBalbus, QUINTUS LtJclLius, one of the the Farnese Bull (from the Baths of Cara-interlocutors In Ciceros *De Natura calla, and now at Naples). The usualDeorum* (q.v.), a learned Stoic, known charge for admission to the baths was aonly from Ciceros dialogue. quadrans (a small copper coin, one-fourth of an as).Bandusia, a fountain celebrated byHorace in the beautiful Ode (in. xiii) Bathyllus (Bathullos), see Pantomime. O fons Bandusiao, splendidior vitro. It BatrachomyomachiG, or Battle of themay have been on his Sabino farm, or near Frogs and Mice, a parody of an epic poem,his birthplace Venusia. attributed in antiquity to Homer, butBasilica, from the Gk. word meaning probably of much later date.* royal* sc. house, a roofed hall sometimes A mouse named Pslcharpax is inviteddivided into aisles by rows of columns, by a frog, Physignathos, son of Peleus, toused for judicial or other public business, ride on his back and visit his watery king-or as a bazaar. The earliest is said to have dom. Unfortunately, at the sight of abeen built by M. Porcius Cato in 184 B.C. water-snake (or perhaps otter), the frogThere were five or six basilicac about the dives and the mouse is drowned. But theForum at the end of the republican period, incident has been seen by another mouse,among them the Basilica Julia, built by and a great war ensues between the miceCaesar, and used for judicial proceedings. and the frogs, in which the mice seem to A form of basilica, with aisles flanking be winning. At the request of Athenaa nave and terminating in an apse, Zeus intervenes, and, having failed withbecame the prototype of the Christian thunderbolts, sends crabs to quell thechurch. strife.Bassarids (Bassaridcs), votaries of Battus, the founder of Cyrcne, seeDionysus (q.v.); a word perhaps meaning Colonisation, 4.wearers of fox-skins. Bavius and Maevius, poetasters sar-Bathos, hi rhetoric, a drop from the lofty castically alluded to in Virgils Thirdor sublime to the mean or ridiculous (the Eclogue. Maevius is also attacked inGk. word ftddos, depth, was not used in Horaces Tenth Epode. In English litera-this metaphorical sense). There is an ture they supplied the titles of Giffordsexample of it in a line by the bombastic epic satires on the Delia Cmscan school ofpoet Furius Bibaculus: poets, The Baviad and The MaeviadJuppitcr hibernas cana nive conspuit (1794-5). Alpes, Bedriacum, between Cremona andJupiter spits the bleak Alps over with Verona, where in A.D. 69 Othos forceswhite snow. This line is parodied by were defeated by the ViteUians, and whereHorace, Sat. n. v. 39-41. the ViteUians later were defeated by the of Vespasian.Baths, ROMAN (balneae). For those in supportersprivate houses see Houses. Public baths Bekker, IMMANUEL, see Texts and Studies,Played an important part in the daily life 11.
  • 82. Belisarius 70 BionBelisarius, see Justinian. enemies who were being massacred by hisBellerophon (Bellerophon or Bettero- orders. Near the temple stood the littlephontfa), in Greek mythology? son of column over which the Fetialis (q.v.)Glaucus (q.v. (3)), the eon of Sisyphus symbolically threw his spear on a declara- tion of war.(q.v.). He spent some time at the court ofProetus, king of Argos, where Anteia (or The moon-goddess of Asia was intro- duced at Rome after the Mithridatic Wars.Stheneboea), wife of Proetus, fell in lovewith him. As he slighted her passion, A temple was erected to her, and she seemsAnteia accused him to her husband. to have become identified with the ItalianProetus, unwilling to violate the laws of Bellona, whose Greek equivalent washospitality by killing Bellerophon under recognized to be Enyo (q.v.).his own roof, sent him to his father-in-law Bellum Cat illnuc, see Sallust.lobates bearing a letter requesting himto put Bellerophon to death (whence the Bellum Civile, see Pharsalia.expression Bellerophontis litteroe. Homer Heliumsays cn}/Ltara Auypa; it has been disputed Jugurthlnum, see Sallust.whether this was a letter.). lobates ac- Bellum Punicum, see Nacvius.cordingly sent Bellerophon against the Bendis, a Thracian of theChimaera (q.v.); but Bellerophon, with who was identified at goddess with moon, Athens Artemisthe aid of the winged horse Pegasus (q.v.) ; and whose ,cult became popular there indestroyed it. He then defeated the fierce the 5th c. B.C. She had atribe of the Solymi, and the Amazons, with temple at the and herwhom he was sent to fight, and overcame Piraeustorch -race. festival was celebrated with athe warriors placed in an ambush to awaithim on his return. Thereafter lobates, Bentley, RICHARD, see Texts and Studies,despairing of killing him, gave him his 10.daughter to wife, by whom he was fatherof Laodamia, mother of Sarpedon (qq.v.), Berenice, see article below and Titus.and of Hippolochus, father of the Glaucus BerentcS, The Lock of (Berenikes Ploka*(q.v. (4)), who at the siege of Troy ex- mos), the title of a poem in Greek elegiacschanged armour with Diomedes. But ho by Callimachus, of which only fragmentscame to be hated of the gods two of his survive. It was translated by Catullus ;children perished, and he is last heard of (Poem 66).wandering alone, eating his heart out, This Berenice was the wife of Ptolemyavoiding the paths of men (D. vi. 201-2). III. Another Berenice, sister of Pto-Later legend relates that ho attempted to lemy III, had been married to Antio-fly to heaven on Pegasus, but that Zeus chus II of Syria; but on the death ofby a gadfly caused the horse to throw its Antiochus in 247 B.C. his widow had beenrider. displaced and killed by Laodice, an earlierBello Civili, Commentarii de, see Com- divorced wife of Antiochus and Laodiccs ;mentaries. eon, Scleucus II, had been proclaimed his successor. Ptolemy III set out in 246 toHello Commentarii Gallico, de, see Com-mentaries. vindicate the claims of his sisters son. On his departure, Berenice his wife dedi-Bellona the old form of the name, (in cated to the gods a lock of her hair asDuelldna), the Roman goddess of war. an offering for his safe return. This lockThe first temple to her appears to have mysteriously disappeared. Conon, thebeen built by Appius Claudius Caecus court astronomer, pretended to discover(q.v.) in the Campus Martius. (In Plinys it, transformed into a constellation there-Natural History* we are told that in after known as Coma Berenices.495 B.C. Appius Claudius Regillus con- In Popes Rape of the Lock, the locksecrated at Rome the images of his ances- of Belindas hair which had been snippedtors in a temple dedicated to Bellona. off is finally wafted, as a new star, to adornWissowa believes this to be an additional the skies.explanation and that the temple of AppiusClaudius Caecus is referred to.) The tem- Berosus (BSrossos), a priest at Babylon,ple, being outside the walls, was used for of the 3rd c. B.C., who wrote in Greek ameetings of the Senate to receive foreign work on the chronology of Chaldaea.ambassadors and Roman generals return- Bias (Bids), see from active service (see Triumph).Here took place, after the battle of the Bion (Blon) (c. 100 B.C.?), born atColline Gate, the meeting between Sulla Smyrna, a Greek poet, imitator of Theo-and the Senate, when the proceedings critus. Of the half-dozen short poemswere interrupted by the shrieks of Sullas attributed to him that have come down
  • 83. Birds 71 Boadiceato us, the most remarkable is the * Lament their fathers (he is reminded that youngfor Adonis , probably intended for recita- storks must also feed their fathers);tion at one of the festivals of Adonis, such Cinesias, the lyric poet, because he wantsas that described by Theocritus in his to soar on airy pinions ; an informer, who Adoniazusae (Idyll xv). The others have would find wings useful for serving writs ;love for their subject, or the charms and Prometheus, who hides from Zeusof the various seasons. Bion is generally under an umbrella while he tells of thecoupled with Moschus (q.v.). It appears food shortage among the gods, andfrom the beautiful dirge hi which some make hard terms advises Peithetairos tofriend or pupil, perhaps Moschus, lamented with them, and Insist on having Basileiathe death of Bion, that the latter was (sovereignty), daughter of Zeus, to wife.poisoned. Then come ambassadors from the gods, Poseidon, Heracles, and a god of the bar-Birds (Ornlthes, L. Aves), a comedy by barous Triballians. Thanks to the greedi-Aristophanes, produced at the Groat ness of Heracles, Peithetairos gets theDionysia of 414 B.C. It won the second sceptre and Basileia, is hailed as theprize. The Athenian fleet had set out on highest of the gods, and preparations arethe Sicilian Expedition in the previous made for his wedding.year. Before it started, the city had been Birthplaces of Greek authors. These,profoundly disturbed by the mysterious where of sufficient importance or interest,and sacrilegious mutilation of the Hermao are dealt with under their several names.(q.v.). Melos had been cruelly and un- The table on p. 72, in which the principaljustly destroyed in 416-415. Aristophanes Greek men of letters arehated the war and its consequences, and summarily to their birth-placesturned from political themes to construct grouped according and their periods, brings out,an Utopia. (1) the predominance of Ionia and the Peithetairos and Euelpidod, sick of life islands of the Aegean as the centre ofin Athens with its worries and anxieties, literary activity in the earliest periodseek out King Tereus (see Philomela), who j (2) the shifting of this centre to Atticahad married an Athenian princess and in the 5th and 4th cc.been turned into a hoopoe, to consult him ; (3) the cessation of literary productionas to the best place to live in. Tereus at Athens after the end of the 4th c. ;suggests various countries, but there (4) the dispersion of literary talent overare objections to them all. Peithetairos all parts of the Greek-speaking world innow has a brilliant idea. Lot the birds the period of decadence. This would haveall unite and build a great walled city inthe air. From this they will rule both appeared even more strikingly if the tablemankind and the gods, for they will con- had included critics, grammarians, writers on science, and authors generally of minortrol the food supply of both. They can meritdevour the seed in the earth, and intercept ; the small share in literary production (5)the steam of the sacrifices on which the which falls to the States of Greece propergods are nourished. Tho chorus of birds, other than Athens. Only ten names areat first hostile, are won over to the pro- included in this category, and four of themposal, and they quickly set about buildingthe city under the direction of Peithetairos belong to Boeotia. Magna Graecia like-and Euelpides, who grow wings to suit wise contributed very little.their new condition. Then various unwel- Birthplaces of Latin authors. In thecome visitors arrive : a needy poet with a table on p. 73 the principal Latin authorshymn in honour of the new city, an of the republican period and the earlyoracle-monger, Meton (the famous astro- empire are roughly grouped accordingnomer) to lay out the streets, and an to their birthplaces. Some importantinspector of ceremonies. They are all authors, such as Tibullus and Tacitus, areappropriately dealt with. The new city excluded, because their birthplaces are(Nephelococcygia, Cloud-cuckoo-land) is unknown. It is remarkable how few ofnow finished, and the guard come in the authors of the first rank are thoughtwith a trespasser whom they have caught, to have been born in Rome itself. ThoIris, the messenger of Zeus, on her way to increased literary importance in imperialdiscover why the sacrifices have stopped times of Spain and other Roman territorieson earth. She is asked for her passport outside Italy is the natural consequenceand generally bullied, and finally goes off of the spread of Roman tears to complain to her father. Mean-while mankind has become bird-mad and Biton, see Cleobte.wants wings. Further visitors arrive: a Boadicea (Boudicca), queen of the Icenifather-beater, because young cocks fight in East Anglia, whose rising against the
  • 84. 72 ( ( El (S (S (C the Herodotus Parmenides Zeno Democritus Protagoras Aristotle Diogenes Ephorus |.|!i 5 .9 o S WOHH _ j-i -4-> * sfss3f-a. W H v slslls II is fe IIi Ill fn il ill a 3
  • 85. 73 S feCQMo aw 3 : | I 111 a u> ef I & a mat 1 C of Italy Rest fl( 1-5 3 CQ pouocl oajdrao eq^ jo pojjod
  • 86. Boccaccio 74 BoethiusRomans and itssuppression by SuetSnius (c. A.D. 480-524), belonged to the gens ofPaulinas are described by Tacitus (Ann, the Anicii, of which many members hadxiv). Boadicea took her own life after the held high office under the empire in thedefeat. (See Britain, 2). 4th and 5th cc. He entered the service of Theodoric and became consul in 510, butBoccaccio, see Texts and Studies, 9. having undertaken the defence of a sena-Boeotia (Boiotid), the country adjoining tor who was accused of secret correspon-Attica on theNW (see PI. 8). It was occu- dence with the Emperor of the East, hepied in the Migrations (q.v.) by Aeolians was charged with high treason, imprisoned,from Epirus, who mingled with such of the and died under torture.older inhabitants as remained but some of ; Boethius was a Christian and has leftthese, Cadmeians (see Cadmus) of Thebes, several treatises on Christian doctrineMinyans (q.v.) of Orchomenus, &c., mi- (De Trinitate, Contra Eutychen etgrated to Ionian settlements overseas. Nestorium, &c.). He also undertook,The languages of the invaders and the after learning Greek at Athens, the ardu-older population coalesced in a special ous task of translating the whole of PlatoBoeotian dialect of Greek. The cities of and Aristotle, commenting on them, andthe new Boeotia showed a high degree of showing their essential agreement in philo-the usual Greek spirit of independence, sophical doctrine. This task he was unableand although Thebes was foremost among to accomplish, but he translated thethem, she was unable to impose her rule logical treatises of Aristotle, and alsoupon them. A Boeotian Confederacy was translated and commented on some of theformed, from which Orchomenus held logical treatises of Porphyry. Incidentally,aloof until about 600 B.C. The organiza- by his discussion, in his commentary ontion of the Confederacy was peculiar. Each Porphyry, of the question whether generaof the cities was governed by four councils and species have real existence apart from(boulai), membership of which depended the sensible objects composing them, hoon property qualification. Each council sat initiated the great dispute which was tofor three months in the year, dealing with separate Nominalists and Realists amongthe preliminary consideration of business, the Schoolmen.but decisions were taken by the four coun- But the most famous work of Boethiuscils sitting jointly. Above these municipal was the Consolatio Philosophiae whichbodies was the federal government. The he wrote in prison. It consists of five bookseleven districts of Boeotia each named one in prose interspersed with verso (there areBoeotarch and sixty councillors. Executive 39 short poems, of great beauty, in 13power rested with the Boeotarchs under metres). It opens with some different,the control of the 660 councillors. Each lines dictated by the afflicted melancholydistrict was required to furnish an equal Muses. The Muses are ousted by Philo-contingent to the army. But some of the sophy, who comes to console the prisoner.cities were unwilling members, in particu- She reminds him of the sufferings of otherlar Plataea, which entered into relations thinkers such as Socrates, and invites himwith Athens to protect her independence. to lay bare his troubles. Boo thins setsBoeotia played an equivocal part, if she forth the ingratitude with which hiswas not actively disloyal to the cause of integrity has been met, and laments theGreece, in the Persian Wars. She was injustice. Philosophy reminds triumph ofsubdued (with the exception of Thebes) him of the caprices of Fortune, and of theby Athens in 457 as a result of the vanity of those things, riches, honours,victory of Oenophyta, and was held inpower, which the world esteems good.subjection until 447. The Boeotian Con- The only real good is God. But how, asksfederacy assumed its greatest importance Boethius, under a beneficent God can evilin the 4th c., when, under the leadership exist or pass unpunished (Bk. IV) 1 Philo-of Pelopidas and Epaminondas, Thebes sophy in reply enters upon the mystery(q.v.) reduced Sparta from her position of of good and evil. The gist of her exposi-leadership in Greece. tion is that evil is in fact nothing, and that Boeotia was a rich centre of earlyevil men in the true sense are not ; and iflegend, as shown by the Hesiodic poems, they can persecute the good and go un-and the many religious and oracular sites. punished, they suffer all the more for their The origin of writing was associated with wickedness. Philosophy passes to the the legend of Cadmus (q.v.). Boeotia question of the true nature of Providence became proverbial for the stupidity of its and Chance, and the reconciliation of free Inhabitants, though it was the birthplace will with the foreknowledge possessed by of Pindar, of the poetess Corinna, and of God. Plutarch (qq.v.). The Consolation* is written from aBoethius, ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVEBINUS philosophic, not a Christian, standpoint,
  • 87. Boethus 75 Booksand not mentioned in it. But the Christ is strips. These were placed in two layers,wording shows the Christian influence. so that the fibres in one layer were at rightThe work exercised immense influence in angles to those in the other. The layersthe succeeding ages. That it was very were moistened with water and glue andwidely read is shown by the fact that we pressed together, then dried and polished.possess some four hundred manuscripts of The sheets thus produced, with a maxi-it. was translated, among others, by It mum height of about 15 inches and maxi-King Alfred, by Chaucer, and by Queen mum breadth of about 9 inches, wereElizabeth. It is frequently quoted by glued together side by side so as to formDante, whose famous lines, Nessun mag- a continuous roll (generally 20-30 ft. longgior dolore. . (Inf. v. 121) were sug- . . in Greek rolls). They were called kollemata,gested by Boethius, n. iv. 4 in omni and the first sheet prdtokollon (on whichadversitate fortunae infelicissimum . . . . among the Romans was inscribed the date and place where the roll was made), aBoethus, sec Toreutic Art. word which has survived hi our protocol*. Bona Dea, in Roman a goddess religion, On this roll, in successive columns acrossof unknown name, probably an earth - the direction of its length, the manuscriptspirit protective of women she was some- ; was written with a reed pen. There wastimes identified with Maia, Fauna, or a margin between the columns, and aOps. Rites in her honour were celebrated broader margin above and below. Theannually in December in the house of a width of the column of writing (governedmagistrate with imperium (i.e. a consul, or in the case of poetry by the length of thesometimes a praetor), and were attended line of verse) varied generally from 2 toonly by women; it was these rites which 5 inches. There was no division or spaceClodius (q.v.) profaned by his presence. between the words, and little to help the reader in the way of signs or punctuation.Books, ANCIENT. A short stroke (paragraphos) under the 1. The earliest texts whore there line often indicated the point There is evidence that the art of writing was a pause in the sense, or a change ofgoes back, in Egypt to the third millen- speaker in dramatic texts (but the namenium B.C., in Mesopotamia even earlier, of the speaker was hardly ever given).in the Hittite Empire to the second mil- Titles of books, if given at all, appeared atlennium, and in Crete at least to 2000 B.C. the end, and might be added on a labelThere need, therefore, be no hesitation in (sillubos) of parchment projecting fromadmitting the possibility that Homer the end of the roll. A roller (omphalos,(q.v.) wrote down his poems, for his own umbilicus) might bo attached to the endconvenience if not to bo read by others. of the papyrus, ornamented with project-In the 7th and 6th c. a further stage must ing knobs (cornua). The writing on a rollhave been reached, for it would seem that was generally on one side only, the recto,poems such as those of Archilochus and on which the fibres ran horizontally ; if onSappho must have passed from hand to both, the roll was known as an opistho-hand in manuscript. Later, when tragedies graph. An ordinary roll would contain awere performed, copies must have been book of Thucydides or two or three books available for the actors to learn their of the Iliad*. The rolls comprising a longparts. In Plato and Xenophon we have work or the complete works of an authorreferences to the actual reading of the might bo kept together in a cupboardworks of philosophers and evidence that (L. armdrium) or bucket (L. capsa). Abooks were not expensive. reader would unfold the roll with his right hand, and roll it up, as he proceeded, with 2. The papyrus roll his left. Obviously this form of book was The used for writing in extremely inconvenient. It was impossible chief materialsthe earliest times apart from inscriptions to index and difficult to consult; it lenton stone or metal were clay tablets itself to errors in copying, especially byin Mesopotamia, Syria, and Crete, and uneducated scribes, and the text fre-papyrus in Egypt. In Greece the material quently became corrupted.used at least from the 6th c. appears to ^have been papyrus (also known as bublos, 3. Development of book productionwhence biblion, a book). According to the It appears that at the end oL4me 5th c,descriptions given by Theophrastus (H.P. and hi the early 4th o. boojis existed a)iv. 8. 3) and Pliny (N.H. xiii. 11-12), the Athens in considerable Mfmbers, and^itriangular stem of the papyrus, which trade in books, with it^fentre at A^lfens,grew, principally in the Nile, to the height began; but the practice of reeling (asof 15 feet and the thickness of a mans distinct from oral instanictiorfT did notwrist, was sliced length-wise into thin become firmly efitaWUMd jf&il the time
  • 88. Books 76 Booksof Aristotle. It was he who formed the quires each of several sheets. This lastfirst large collection of manuscripts. (To form ultimately prevailed. The codex ap-this period belongs one of the earliest of pears to have come into use in the 2nd c. *illustrated books, a work on Dissections A.D. The primitive codex was of variouswith diagrams, to which Aristotle makes sizes, generally about 11 x 7 inches orfrequent reference in his treatises on 12 x 8. The manuscript was generallyzoology.) With the organization of the written in one column on a page, some-production of papyrus and later of vellum times in two. The chief advantages of the(see below, 5) by the Hellenistic kings, codex over the roll was that a far greaterand the employment of educated slaves as amount of manuscript could be containedcopyists, the output of books greatly in- in a book of codex form, and that thecreased in the 3rd and subsequent cen- latter was much easier than the roll toturies. The price of the roll of papyrus in handle. Mention should hero be made ofGreece from 408 to about 333 appears to the note-books (tabellac) in use at Rome,have been about two drachmas. In 296 consisting of sheets of wood or otherthe price had fallen to about two obols, material, coated with wax, or whitened,presumably in consequence of the throw- which were fastened together and writtening open of the Egyptian market by Alex- on with a stilus, the coating being easilyanders conquest. But from 279 the price renewed. These may have suggested thehad risen again to two drachmas. This codex form of book a folded set of tablets ;rise may be attributed to the organization was called a caudex or codex. Tho Britishby the Ptolemies (q.v.) of their monopoly Museum possesses parts of a set of tabletsof papyrus. of this description; also stili, reed and The type of book desciibcd above was bronze pens (with split nibs), and Romanintroduced at Rome with Greek literature the 3rd and 2nd cc. B.C. As literaturebecomes more established there in the 1st 5. Vellumc. B.C. and the 1st c. A.D., references to Vellum is a material prepared frombooks and their appearance occur more skins, especially of calves, lambs, andfrequently, particularly in Catullus and kids. According to Pliny, its discoveryMartial (the first book of Martials epi- was due to the rivalry of Ptolemy (prob-grams sold for live denarii a copy; the ably Epiphanes) with Eumencs (probablythirteenth for one denarius). We know Eumenes 11) of Pergamum (q.v.) overthat Atticus (q.v.), who had copyists and their libraries, which led Ptolemy to pro-craftsmen among his slaves, acted as pub- hibit the export of papyrus from Egypt.lisher to Cicero. The Sosii are mentioned This gave rise to the employment of vel-by Horace (Ep. i. xx. 2) as booksellers. lum or parchment (the word parchment*An early illustrated Roman book was the is derived from Pergamum) for the manu-* Hebdomadcs or * Imaginum libri XV * of facture of books at Pergamum. But thereM. Terentius Varro (q.v.), a collection is evidence that Eumenes did not discoverof portraits of celebrated Greeks and vellum, but only extended its use.Romans, with an epigram attached to Vellum did not come into general use foreach. Martial (xiv. 186) refers to a copy book production till much later, thoughof Virgil containing a portrait of the poet it had a marked advantage over papyrusat the beginning. hi its greater durability moreover it was ; better suited than papyrus for writing on 4. The codex both sides. It was not until the 4th c. The next stage in the evolution of the A.D. that it began to take the place ofbook was the gradual substitution of the papyrus in the manufacture of the bestcodex, or book made up of quires of folded books, and the works considered worthsheets, for the roll, and of vclluin for preserving were gradually transferred frompapyrus. Discoveries in Egypt tend to papyrus roll to vellum codex. It is in thisshow that the earliest books in codex form century that the great vellum codices ofwere made of sheets of papyrus, that the the Greek Bible (the Vaticanus and thepapyrus codex was first used for Christian Sinai ticus) were prepared and the earliest ;as distinct from pagan manuscripts (the extant vellum manuscripts of pagan worksBible could only be consulted conveniently date probably from the same century. Forin this form), and that it was thereafter sumptuous books the vellum was some-used principally for manuscripts of this times stained purple. But the use ofclass. The codex took the form either of papyrus did not cease then, and papyrusa large number of quires each consisting manuscripts have been found of the 4th,of a single sheet folded once and sewn 5th, and 6th cc. The roll form was retainedtogether, or of a single quire of as many as for public documents through the Middlefifty sheets folded once, or of a number of Ages to our own times. Tho use of paper
  • 89. Bodies 77 Britainwas introduced from China by the Arabs polis (424 B.C.). See under the 8th c., but was not generalized till He was one of tho most zealous supportersmuch later. See F. W. Hall, Companion of tho war, and his death in the defence ofto Classical Texts, Oxford, 1913, and Amphipolis (422) against Cleon (q.v.), and *F. G. Kenyon, Books and Readers in the death of Cleon in the same engagement,Ancient Greece and Rome, Oxford, 1932, rendered possible tho Peace of Niciae.on which the above article is mainly based. Brauronia, see Artemis. Also the nameBootes, see Arcturus. of a festival held at Brauron in Attica in honour of Artemis.Boreas, (Boreas), the north wind, L.Aquilo. In Greek mythology, he was the Brennus (1) the leader of the Gauls whohusband of Oreithyla, daughter of Erech- defeated the Romans at tho A Ilia andtheus, and thus specially connected with occupied Rome in 390 B.C., but failed tothe Athenians (see under Winds) by her ; capture the Capitol. For tho legend of thehe was father of Zotes and Calais, who Capitol geese, see Manlius. Legend alsofigure among the Argonauts. relates that when the gold which the Gauls accepted as the ransom of RomeBosporus (Gk. Bosporos), ox-ford, aname applied especially to the Thracian was being weighed, and the Romans (a)Bosporus (now generally known as the complained of false weights, ho threw his sword into the scales, to add even more toBosphorus), tho channel connecting the the quantity, exclaiming Vae victis . Sea of Marmora with the Black Sea; (2) Tho leader of the Gauls or Galatianstho name was sometimes associated withthe myth of lo (q.v.); (b) tho Cimmerian who in 280-279 B.C. invaded Pae6nia and Macedonia and thence Greece (see Mace-Bosporus, connecting the Black Sea with donia, 3). He was opposed by a force ofthe Sea of Azov. Athenians and others at Thermopylae andBoudicca, in Anglicized form Boadicca defeated at Delphi. Ho died of wounds in(q.v., and see Britain, 2). 278, and the Gauls retreated with greatBoule, the Council or Senate in Greek It existed at Athens (q.v., Briareos see Giants (L. Briareus), 2) from primitive times and was reor- (Hundred-handed).ganized by Solon and Cloisthenes (qq.v.).At Sparta (q.v.) it was known as tho Briseis, see Iliad.Oerousia. Tho Boule at Athens had general Britain (Britannia).charge of foreign policy (subject to refer-ence to tho Ecclcsia in grave cases), exer- 1. Britain before the Roman conquestcised a general supervision over tho Tho ancients had some knowledge ofadministration, notably tho finances, pre- Britain from tho time of Alexander thopared legislation for the Ecclesia, and Great, when it was visited and describedhad certain limited judicial functions. It by Pytheas (q.v.), but the Romans firsttried officials charged with misconduct, became interested in it owing to the con-and occasionally persons charged with quests of Julius Caesar. Early geographersoffences against the safety or interests of called tho British Isles tho Protanic Isles,the State. For tho Prytany or executive from a Celtic name which survives in thocommittee of the Boule, see Clcisthencs. old Welsh Priten* and tho Irish Crui- thin, and which means painted* orBoustrophedon, see Epigraphy, 2. tattooed translated into Latin it became ;Branchidae, a family that had charge of Picti, the Picts. In the time of Juliusthe temple of Apollo near Miletus. They Caesar tho Celtic tongue was spoken overwere accused of betraying the treasure of the greater part, if not the whole, ofthe temple to Xerxes, and their lives were Britain; but the inhabitants of differentthreatened by the Milesians. Xerxes trans- regions had not reached tho same stage ofported them to Sogdiana, where they were civilization. Archaeological evidence showssafe from pursuit. Many generations later that from perhaps as early as the 6th o.Alexander the Great (q.v.) came upon B.C. successive invasions of people of onetheir town when pursuing Bessus. With or other type of Iron Age civilization hadsingular cruelty Alexander caused their penetrated to various parts of tho island,town to be demolished and the inhabitants where in general a Late Bronze Age cul-to be massacred, in punishment for their ture still prevailed. Julius Caesar foundancestors crime. Bast Kent and parts of Herts and EssexBrasidas (Brasidas), a Spartan general occupied by vigorous Belgic settlers, whoin the Peloponnesian War, an energetic had established themselves only about aand successful commander. His principal generation earlier. They had brought withachievement was the capture of Amphi- them the use of coinage (see below, 3)
  • 90. Britain 78 Britainand of the heavy wheeled plough, suited (Colchester). No further attempt to con-for the cultivation of the stronger soils. quer Britain was made by the RomansBeyond this Belgic area lay a more back- until the reign of Claudius, though Augus-ward zone, combining elements of Bronze tus was thought by his contemporaries toand Iron Age civilizations. Its inhabitants have intended it and Gams (Caligula)were primitiveagriculturists, living in hut planned an invasion. In A.D. 43 a forcevillages. The Trinovantes, Iceni, and consisting of four legions (the Second,Kegni (see PL 12) were its most promi- Ninth, Fourteenth, and Twentieth) andnent tribes. To the west of these, in the auxiliaries, under Aulus Plautius, landedCotswolds, Somerset, and Dorset, lived a at Rutupiae (Richborough) and addressedwealthier and more advanced population, itself to the subdual of the realm ofsuperior to the Belgae in artistic culture, Cunobelinus, which had lately passed tothough their inferiors in agricultural skill. his sons. The Romans won a decisiveTo the NE., in Lincolnshire and York- victory on the Medway. Claudius himselfshire, a warrior race of a similar civiliza- subsequently arrived with reinforcements,tion were establishing their dominion over advanced to Colchester, and received thea Bronze Age population and founding the submission of many tribes. Caratacus, thekingdom of the Brigantes. A sketch of the more energetic of the sons of Cunobelinus,state of Britain at this time is contained escaped to foment resistance to Romein R. G. Collingwood, Roman Britain* among the Silurcs of Wales. The territory(Oxford, 1936), on which the present of Cunobelinus was made a Roman pro-article is based. vince, with Colchester as its capital. At It is probable that Caesar intended to least three client kingdoms, of the Iceni toconquer the island. Britain, to which the the north of the province, of the Brigantespower of certain Gaulish chiefs extended, further north, and of the Rcgni in W.was a refuge for disaffected Gauls and a Sussex, were established. Plautius wascentre of fanatical Druidism (see under left as governor, with orders to subdue thoGaul, 2). His first expedition, in 55 B.C., rest of the country. This ho set aboutwas in the nature of a reconnaissance, and doing by means of three columns movinghis ships suffered severely from a storm respectively N., NW., and W., with theirwhen at anchor or beached at some point base and supply depot at London. P.NE. of Dover. The invasion of the follow- Ostorius Scapula, the successor of Plautiusing year was a more serious affair. A in 47, drew a frontier line across the coun-fleet of 28 warships and 540 transports try, from Scaton in Devonshire, throughconveyed the Roman force (including five Bath, Cirencester, High Cross (where itlegions) to a point between Dover and met Walling Street), Leicester, Newark,Sandwich. In the operations that fol- and Lincoln. This line was tho road knownlowed, Caesar crossed the Thames to as tho Fosse, and it was fortified andattack the Belgic chief Cassivellaunus patrolled to check raids from beyond.(who had assumed command of the British Ostorius then established a fortress prob-forces), captured his principal stronghold ably at Gloucester to control concentra-at Wheathampstead, and forced him to tions of tho Silures; also a colonm ofmake terms. Trouble in Gaul obliged veterans at Colchester. In 51 he advancedCaesar to forgo further operations, and into central Wales against Caratacus andhe returned across the Channel. His fleet defeated him. Caratacus fled to Carti-had again suffered heavy losses from a gale.mandua, queen of the Brigantes; but Cartimandna had submitted to Rome and 2* The conquest and occupation of Britain surrendered him to the victors, who kept During the period which followed him in honourable captivity. (CaratacusCaesars invasion a second migration of figures as Caratach in Beaumont andBelgic tribes to Britain took place. It was Fletchers Bonduca.) The Silures,led by Commius, a Gaulish chief who had though defeated, were not reduced, andserved Caesar during his invasion, but had although Cartimandua had made hersince supported the insurrection of Ver- submission, there was a strong anti-cingetorix. His followers landed in the Roman faction among her subjects.neighbourhood of Southampton and spread In 59 C. Siletonius Paulinus, a dis-over central southern England. The ener- tinguished military commander, becamegetic king Cunobelinus (Cymbeline), who governor of Britain. He penetrated intohad inherited the realm of Cassivellaunus N. Wales and reached Anglesey (61),and ruled c. A.D. 5-40, extended his where he was confronted by a body ofdominions over Herts., Kent, Essex, Beds., Druids and their fanatical supporters,Bucks., and part of Surrey, and became whom he put to the sword. But Paulinusthe most important ruler in south-eastern was now recalled by grave news. On theEngland. His capital was Camulodunum death of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni,
  • 91. Britain 79 BritainNero decided to abolish his client kingdom and with seventeen forts at 30-ft. ditch,and to incorporate the territory in the intervals along it, and mile-castles (as theyI toman province. The measure was car- are now called) and signal towers betweenried out by the emperors procurator with the forts. The rampart, 73 miles long, wasgreat cruelty, and the late kings widow, formed by a stone wall eight to ten feetBoudicca (Boadlcea), and her daughters thick and twenty feet high. This giganticwere subjected to gross outrage. A revolt work was built by legionaries, being par-of the Iceni was lod by Boudicca and celled out in lengths of 31 to 50 yards tospread to the Trinovantes. Colchester was individual centuries, as we learn fromdestroyed. The Ninth Legion under Q. inscriptions on the Wall. Three legionsPetillius Cerialis came to tho rescue, but were employed on it. Part of tho westernwas almost annihilated. London and end was built by men of tho fleet. ThoVerulam were burnt and their inhabitants work was designed as an obstacle tomassacred. It is said that 70,000 perished. raiders from tho north, rather than as anSuetonius had hurried back from Wales actual fortification to resist attack. It waswith his cavalry, but had been unable to garrisoned by auxiliary regiments in thesave the cities. He rejoined his infantry forts and a patrolling force in the midlands, and with 10,000 men met Altogether, including its supporting sta-the far more numerous but unwieldy force tions, it absorbed two -thirds of the auxili-of Boudicca and utterly destroyed it. The ary troops in Britain.queen took poison. Ruthless vengeance In 140-2, under Antoninus Pius, theon the British followed, until tho new governor, Q. Lollius Urbicus, advancedimperial procurator, Julius Classicianus, once more to the line of the Forth andappealed to Nero to replace Suetonius by Clyde and built across the peninsula aa more humane governor and to adopt a wall and ditch, 37 miles long, of much lesspolicy of conciliation; and this was done. elaborate construction. The wall was ofThe tomb of Classicianus, this benefactor turf and clay, with forts two miles apart,of the British, was found in London and is but without intermediate towers. To-in the British Museum. gether with a transplantation of natives, In 71 Q. Petillius Cerialis, tho military it formed part of a scheme for holding thecommander above mentioned, was made Lowlands in subjection. About the yeargovernor of Britain. He had fought with 180, under the emperor Commodus, tribesdistinction, not only against Boudicca but from the north swept over it and destroyedalso in quelling the rebellion of Civilis in a Roman force. The rising was suppressedGaul. He conquered the greater part of in 184, but before the end of the centurythe Brigantian territory and established the Antonine Wall, having proved useless,the Ninth Legion at Eburacum (York), was abandoned. In the last years of thewhich became the chief Roman military century tho governor, Clodius Albinus,centre in northern England. His successor declared himself emperor, and, takingin 74, Sextus Julius Frontinus (q.v.), sub- troops from Britain, crossed to Gaul,dued the Silures and built a new fortress where he was defeated by Septimiusat Caerleon-on-Usk. Cn. Julius Agricola Severus in 197 and committed suicide.(q.v.), the father-in-law of Tacitus, who His withdrawal of troops from Hadrianssucceeded him in 78, completed his work Wall gave the barbarian tribes their op-in Wales, built a fortress at Deva (Chester), portunity: great stretches of the Wall wereoverran the whole of Brigantia, and in- systematically wrecked by them, and thevaded the lowlands of Scotland, reaching destruction of Roman fortresses extendedthe line of the Forth and the Clyde in 81. to York and Chester. The Wall and for-In 83 ho moved farther north and over- tresses were repaired by Severus, a lengthycame in 84 the assembled Caledonian forces process which lasted from 197 to 208 and ;at the unidentified site of Mount Graupius, Severus then in person conducted a puni-probably near Forfar or Brechin. But the tive expedition into Scotland, almostmilitary efforts of Rome were required reaching, it is said, its northern extremity.on the Rhine and Danube, Agricola was He died at York, worn out with his labours,recalled by Domitian, and at or soon after in 211. For the greater part of a centurythe end of the 1st c. Scotland was aban- after this Roman Britain enjoyed securitydoned. and nothing of moment occurred. Under Trajan it appears that the Early in the reign of Diocletian (284-frontier was drawn on a line across Britain 305) Saxon and Frankish pirates becamebetween the Solway and the Tyne. This troublesome in the Channel Seas. Carau-policy took its definite form under sius, a native of the Low Countries, wasHadrian. The frontier or limes, as fully appointed to the command of the fleet,developed under this emperor, consisted the Classis Britonnica, which had beenof a military road defended by a rampart maintained in the Channel since the 1st o.