The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature


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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature

  1. 1. DO 68204 >mCD
  5. 5. PEEFACE aim of this book, as designed by the publishers, is toTHE present, in convenient form, information which the ordinaryreader, not only of the literatures of Greece and Rome, but alsoof that large proportion of modern European literature whichteems with classical allusions, may find useful. It endeavours todo two things in the first place to bring together what he may :wish to know about the evolution of classical literature, theprincipal authors, and their chief works in the second place, ;to depict so much of the historical, political, social, and religiousbackground as may help to make the classics understood.Accordingly, for the first of the above purposes, articles inalphabetical arrangement (1) explain the various elements ofclassical literature epic, tragedy, comedy, metre, &c (2) give;an account of the principal authors; and (3) describe thesubjects or contents of their works, either under the name ofthe author, where more convenient, under the title of the or,work itself. Interesting points of connexion between the classicsand medieval and modern English literature are noticed. Ingeneral the book confines itself to the classical period, but someauthors of the decline, such as Plutarch and Lucian, Jerome andAusonius, are included, because of their exceptional interest orimportance. In addition, to effect the second of the above purposes,articles are added: (1) on the principal phases of the history of Greece (more particularly Athens) and Rome, down to the end of the period of their classical literatures, and on their political institutions and economic conditions outstanding histori- ; cal characters, inseparable from literature, such as Pericles and Pompey, are separately mentioned ; (2) on Greek and Roman religion and religious institutions, and the principal schools of philosophy ; (3) on various aspects of the social conditions, under such
  6. 6. vi PREFACE headings as Houses, Women (Position of), Slavery, Educa- tion, Food, Clothing, and Games ; the art, industry, com- merce, and agriculture of the Greek and Roman periods are also noticed ; (4) on the more important myths and mythological charac- ters, as an essential element in Greek and Roman litera- ture; (5) on geographical names of importance in a literary connexion, as the birthplaces of authors, or as the scene of events frequently alluded to something is said of the ; topography of Athens and Rome, and further geographical information is furnished by maps and plans ; (6) on the manner in which ancient books were written, and the texts transmitted and studied through the ages ; (7) on such things as Roman camps, roads, and aqueducts, ancient ships and chariot-races, horses and elephants in antiquity, and domestic pets. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that this work doesnot list antiquities as such, but only those antiquities whichconcern the study of classical literature. The compiler of a book such as this is necessarily under aheavy debt to previous writers. It would be impossible, withinthe limits of a preface, to enumerate the works, whether editionsof and commentaries on ancient authors, or treatises on variousaspects of antiquity, which have been consulted in the courseof its preparation. Of such works I may specially mention,rather as an illustrative sample than as giving any indication ofthe extent of my obligations, the works of Werner on JaegerAristotle, of Prof. Gilbert Murray on Aristophanes, of C. M.Bowra on Homer, of Sir J. C. Sandys on Epigraphy and on theHistory of Scholarship, of A. W. Pickard-Cambridge on theevolution of the Greek drama, of F. G. Kenyon and F. W. Hallon ancient books, of W. W. Tarn on Hellenistic Civilization, ofR. C. Jebb on the Attic Orators, and of R. G. Collingwoodon Roman Britain. Apart from this general acknowledgementof my indebtedness, I must confine myself to naming a few
  7. 7. PREFACE viiworks from which I have more especially and more frequentlysought; ^guidance, viz,: in the matter of Greek Literature, thehisto^es of the subject by A. and M. Croiset, Prof. GilbertMurray, and Prof. Rose Latin Literature, the works of J. W. ;Mackail, R. Pichon, J. Wight Duff, and Prof. Rose; Greekmythology and religion, Prof. Roses Handbook of GreekMythology and M. P. Nilssons History of Greek Religion;Roman religion, the works of W. Warde Fowler and Cyril Bailey *and Sir J. G. Frazers commentary on Ovids Fasti; Greekand Roman History, the works of G. Glotz, M. Gary, J. B. Bury,M. Rostovtzeff G. Ferrero, and the Cambridge Ancient History. ,On antiquities in general I have obtained much assistance fromthe Cambridge Companions to Greek and Latin Studies, fromthe dictionaries of Darexnberg and Saglio and of Seyffert(Sandys and Nettleship), and from Stuart Joness Companionto Roman History; on points of biography from LiibkersReallexikon and on certain matters from the Real-Encyclo- ; padie of Pauly-Wissowa. I must also acknowledge the helpful suggestions which I havereceived from several people who were concerned with this bookin its various stages: from Dr. Cyril Bailey; Mr. J. B. Poyntonof Winchester College Mr. W. H. Walsh of Merton College, ;Oxford; Mr. A. H. M. Jones of All Souls College, Oxford; Mr.H. A. Murray of Kings College, Aberdeen; Mr. J. M. Wyllie;Mr. S. W. Steadman; and Miss C. M. M. Leask of Aberdeen;alsofrom the staff of the Clarendon Press. Such value as thebook may have is largely due to them. H.P.H. September, 1937.
  8. 8. LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS PAGESDetailed description . . . 465-8 PLATES 1. Greek and Roman Houses. 2. Roman and Roman Camp. Villas 3. Greek Armour. 4. Roman Armour. 6. Greek and Roman Theatres. 6. Greek and Roman Temples. MAPS 7. Asia Minor and the East: Routes of Xerxes, Cyrus, Alexander, and the March of the Ten Thousand. 8. Greece and Asia Minor. 9. Roman Empire.10. Italy.11. Gaul.12. Roman Britain.13 (a). Athens. (6). Piraeus.14 (a). Rome under the Republic. (6). Centre of Rome under the Early Empire.
  9. 9. GUJNJKKAL. AKTIULESTHE following selected list indicates the headings under which information on general subjects can be found.Administration,Public (Athens, 9 ; Rome, Horses. 12). Houses and Furniture.Agriculture. Hunting.Alphabet. Judicial Procedure.Aqueducts. Law, Roman.Architecture, Greek (for Koman Archi- Libraries. tecture, see Art). Ludi.Army. Lyric Poetry.Art, Roman (for Greek Art Bee Architec- Magic, ture, Painting, Sculpture, Toreutic Art). Maps.Augury and Auspices. Metre.Augustan Age. Migrations and Dialects, Greek.Baths. Mines.Birthplaces of Greek and Roman Money and Coins. authors. Monsters.Books, Ancient. Museums.Burial and Cremation. Music.Byzantine Age of Greek Literature. Mysteries.Calendar. Mythology.Castra. Names.Chariot races. Novel.Ciceronian Age. Omens.Classic. Oracles.Clothing and Toilet. Oratory.Colonization. Ostraca.Comedy. Painting, Greek (for Roman Painting seeCorn Supply. Art).Dancing. Papyri, Discoveries of.Dictionaries. Pets.Didactic poetry. Philosophy.Divination. Pottery.Dogs. Priests.Economic Conditions (Athens, 10 J Prose. Rome, 13). Provinces, Roman.Editions of Collections of the Classics. Religion.Education. Roads.Elegy. Roman Age of Greek Literature.Elephants. Sacrifice.Epio. Satire.Epigraphy. Satyric Drama.Epitaphs. Sculpture, Greek (for Roman SculptureFestivals. see Art).Finances (Athens, II; Rome, 14). Ships.Food and Wine. Slavery.Games. Temples.Gladiators. Texts and Studies.Glass. Theatre.Guilds. Tragedy.Hellenistic Age. Vase-painting.Historians, Ancient, and Modern. Weights and Measures.Homeric Age. Women, Position of. A date chart of Greek and Latin authors and of events contemporary with them is given on pages 455-62.
  10. 10. PKELIMINAEY NOTE HEAD-WORDSPROPER names are entered as head -words in the form in which theyare most familiar to ordinary readers, e.g. Ajax, Aristotle,Menelaus, Phidias, Terence. The Greek v appears as y, K as c,.and final -os as -us where these are the more familiar forms. Thecorrect transliteration of Greek names and the full Latin names areadded in brackets where required: e.g. Ajax (Aids), Aristotle(Aristoteles), Menelaus (Meneldos), Phidias (Pheidids), Terence(Publius Terentius Afer) (Less familiar names, not head- words, such .as Asopichos, Pherenikos, are given in transliterated form.) Latin proper names appear under the persons nomen unless he isgenerallyknown by his cognomen e.g. Cicero appears under that ;name, not under Tullius . In a few cases the names are given underthe praenomen, e.g. Appius Claudius, where this is the customarydesignation. QUANTITIES AND PRONUNCIATION The ordinary English pronunciation of names is shown, by stressand quantity marks, in head- words only (i.e. in the words printed inheavy black type at the beginning of each article). Where thequantities in the English pronunciation differ from those in Greek orLatin, the name is repeated in brackets with the Greek or Latinquantities. The quantities shown in all names and common nounsother than head-words are their quantities as Greek or Latin words,and are not necessarily an indication of their accepted pronunciationin English. For instance (1) Catullus, GAIUS VALERIUS, (2) Claudius (Tib&rius Claudius N&ro Qermanicua), (3) a river in Pamphylia,where Catullus and Claudius represent the ordinary Englishpronunciation, while Glfus, VALERIUS, Tiblriua, Nlro, Qermanicus,Pamphylia, show the quantities of the Latin or Greek names. In general only the long vowels are marked, and vowels are to betaken as short unless marked as long but ; (1) a syllable in which the vowel is long (or common) by position,
  11. 11. PEELIMINARY NOTEunder the ordinary rules of Greek and Latin prosody, as beingfollowed^by two consonants, is usually not marked; e.g. the firstsyllables in Thersites, Petronius ;< (2) the vowels of Latin case-endings which are long by the ordi-nary rules of Latin prosody, for instance -o, -a, -is of the ablative,-i, -orum, -arum of the genitive, are not marked; e.g. De Amlcitia. (3) short vowels are occasionally marked with the short sign,e.g. for emphasis, as where a vowel which is short in Greek or Latinis usually pronounced long in English ; e.g. Solon (Solon), Titus(Titus). Where a vowel is common (sometimes short, sometimes long) other-wise than under above, this is indicated by the sign -; e.g. (1)Diana. Where, in a name of some importance, a quantity is un-known or uncertain, the fact is stated. The groups of letters AE, AI, Atr, EI, EU, otr, are to be takenas diphthongs unless indicated that the letters are to be pro- it isnounced separately, e.g. Alpheus, Antinous. Where a name which appears as a head-word occurs also elsewherein the course of an article, the quantities are not always again in- *dicated there. For instance, where Socrates occurs in the articleon Plato, it is printed without indication of the quantities. The greatmajority of the names of persons and places mentioned in the courseof articles are given also as head- words, if only for purpose of cross-reference ; and this applies also to Greek and Latin common nounssuch as ecdesia, venationes. Accordingly a reader who desires to knowthe quantities of the syllables of such a name or noun should firstlook for it among the head- words. If it does not appear there andno quantities are marked where it is found in an article, it may beinferred that its syllables are short.
  12. 12. ABBREVIATIONSad fin.: adfinem, at or near the end. gen. : genitive.b. : born. Gk.: Greek.c. : century. L. or Lat. Latin. :cc.: centuries. m. married. :c.: circa, about. O.T.: Old confer, compare. q.v. : quod vide, which see.d. : died. qq.v,: quae vide, both which, or alldr.: daughter. which, seq. : et sequentes, and following. understand or supply. sc.: scilicet,fl.i floruit, flourished. The abbreviated names of authors and works, such as Horn. Il/, Virg. Aen., appearing in this book are for the most part sufficientlyfamiliar to need no explanation but the following may be noted: ;Apoph. Keg.: Apophthegmata Re- Phaedr.: Phaednis. gum. Ran. : Ranae (Frogs).Ep.: Epistulae (Epistles). Sep. c. Th. Septem contra Thebas :Epod.: Epodes. (Seven against Thebes).Nub. :Nubes (Clouds). Vesp. : Vespae (Wasps).Phaed.:Phaedo.
  13. 13. G0M1PANION TO CLASSICAL LITERATUREAbbreviations denoting certain editions interlocutors were L. Licinius Lucullusof the Classics, etc. (q.v.), Q. Lutatius Catulus, an aristocraticALG. leader (consul in 78 B.C.), Q. Hortensius Anthotogia Lyrica Graeca.Bude. Collection des University de France, (q.v.), and Cicero. The two books of this first edition were called * Catulus and publiee SOILS le patronage de IAssoc. Guillaume Bude. Lucullus after the chief interlocutors.CAF. Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta. Cicero then camo to the conclusion thatCAH. Cambridge Ancient History. these interlocutors could not agree, andCGF. Comicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta. as Varro had asked that a work should beCIE. Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum. dedicated to him, Cicero altered his planGIG. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. and dedicated a new edition to him.CIL. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. He rearranged the work in four books,CLA. Codices Latini Antiquiores. and made the interlocutors Varro, Atticus,Cl.Qu. Classical Quarterly. and Cicero. We have the first book (i.e.Cl.Rev. Classical Review. the first quarter) of the second editionGPL. Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. (sometimes known as Academica Pos-CRP, Comicorum Romanorum Fragmenta. toriora), and the second book (i.e. theFdV. Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. second half, Lucullus) of the first edition (sometimes known as Academica Priora). *FHG. Fragmenta Historicorum Oraecorum.HRR. Historicorum Romanorum Reli- The scene of the conversations is laid at various villas on the shores of the Gulf of quiae.IG. Inscriptiones Graecae (Berlin, 1873- Naples. The date of the conversations, in the first edition, was supposed to be before ).IGA. Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae 60 B.C. in the second, near the time of ; (Berlin, 1882). composition.JHS. Journal of Hellenic Studies. In Book I of the second edition VarroOCT. Oxford Classical Texts. expounds the evolution of the doctrines of the Academy (q.v.), from the dog-PLG. Poetae Lyrici Graeci.RE. Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie. matism of the old school to the scepticismRev. Arc. Revue Archeologique. of Arcesilas and Carneades. In Book IISEG. Supplementum Epigraphicum Grae- of the first edition Lucullus attacks the cum. position of the sceptics. Cicero defendsSVF. Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. the sceptic view and Carneades doctrineTeubner or BT. Dibliotheca scriptorum of probability. Graec. et Lot. Teubneriana.Thes. L.L. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. Acptiemus, see Academy. Academy (Akademeia), a grove of olive-Abdera a Greek city on the trees near Athens, adjoining the Cephlsus, (ra "Afloypa),coast of Thrace, founded in the 7th c. and sacred to the hero Academus (see Dios-refounded in the 6th by lonians (of TeQs in curi), and containing a gymnasium (q.v.).Asia Minor), the birthplace of Protagoras It was in this grove that Plato and hisand Democritus (qq.v.); nevertheless pro- successors taught, and his school of philo-verbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants. sophy was in consequence known as the Academy,Absyrtus (Apsurtos), brother of Medea the olive grove of Academe, ;see Argonauts. Platos retirement, where the Attic bird Trills her thick -warbld notes the summerAbydos (Abudos), see Colonization, 2,and Leander. long. (Milton, P.R. iv. 244 et seq.). Sulla cut down the trees during his siegeAcad&mica* a dialogue by Cicero on the of Athens, but they must have grownphilosophical theories of knowledge, com- again, for Horace, who studied at Athens, *posed in 45 B.C. In its first form the refers to the woods of Academus (Ep. n.treatise consisted of two books, and the ii. 45). Plato was buried near the grove. 4339
  14. 14. Acastus Achaean LeagueHis immediate successors as leaders of praetextae (q.v.) (on Decius Mus andthe school were Spousippus, Xenocrates, Brutus the liberator) and works onPolemo, and Crates, and the Academy literature Didascalica, a short history (under these leaders was known as the of Greek and Latin poetry, perhaps inOld Academy. A brief account of the verse and prose, thus anticipating tho general character of the Platonic teaching Menippean Satires of Varro), agriculturewill be found under Plato, 3. Arcesilas of (in verse), and history (annals, of rather aPitane (c. 315-240 B.C.), who introduced mythological and theological character,the doctrines of Pyrrhonian scepticism in verse). He was the first great Latin(see Sceptics) into the teaching of the grammarian of whom tradition tolls. Hisschool and engaged in controversy with tragedies were marked by dignity of stylethe Stoics on the question of the certitude and by the faculty of depicting terror,of knowledge, was the founder of what is pathos, and fortitude. He is perhaps theknown as the Second or Middle Academy. first Latin poet to show some appreciationThis sceptical attitude was further de- of the beauty of nature. His Atreusveloped by Carneades (q.v.) in the 2nd contained the tyrants phrase Oderintc. B.C. Antiochus of Ascalon in the 1st dum metuant, said by Suetonius to havec. B.C. effected a reconciliation with tho been frequently in Caligulas mouth.Stoic school and claimed to restore the Acestes, in the Aeneid, son of theOld Academy. See also Neoplatonism. Sicilian river-god Crimisus and a TrojanAcastus (Akastos), son of Pelias (see woman (Egesta or Segesta). He enter-Argonauts) and father of Laodameia (sec tains Aeneas and his comrades in Sicily.Protesilaus). See also Peleus. Achaea, Achaeans (Achaia, Achaioi).Acca Larentia or LAURENTIA, probably Aohaeans, according to a view widely held by modern students, was the nameoriginally an Italian goddess of the earthto whom the seed was entrusted. She was by which the first Hellenic invaders of Greece were called (see Migrations andworshipped at the Ldrentdlia on Dec. 23.In legend she was the wife of the herdsman Dialects), and Achaea was the name ofFaustulus and the nurse of Romulus and two territories in Greece, the region whereRemus. For a discussion of her possible con- they first settled in tho north (the name wasnexion with tho Lares (q.v.) see Frazer on subsequently restricted to the mountainsOv. Fast. iii. 55. of Phthiii), and a strip along the southern shore of the Corinthian Gulf, which theyAccents, GREEK, were invented by Ari- occupied later. But it is pointed out thatstophanes of Byzantium (q.v.), about tho there is no evidence of any traditionbeginning of the 2nd c. B.C., with a view that tho Achaeans were Invaders, and thatto preserving the correct pronunciation, Herodotus and Pausanias speak of themwhich in the Hellenistic Age was being as autochthonous. Homer xiscs the termcorrupted by the extension of tho Greek in two senses: in a narrower sense of alanguage to many new countries. The people inhabiting the kingdom of Achillesaccents indicated not stress but varia- near the Spercheus in Thessaly, and in ations in the pitch of the voice. The grave wider sense of the Greek army besiegingaccent signified the ordinary tone, the Troy and of the Greeks generally, noacute a rise in tho voice, the circumflex doubt because the Achaeans were aa rise followed by a fall. In tho period of prominent tribe among them.papyrus rolls (see Books) accents are as The Achaeans of the Peloponnese werea rule only occasionally indicated. The tho founders, probably in the 8th c. B.C.,use of them became generalized about of the important group of colonies at thethe 3rd c. A.D. The most important work southern extremity of Italy (includingon accentuation was that of Herodian Sybaris and Croton) which formed the(q.v.). H. W. Chandlers Greek Accentua- greater part of what was known as Mag-tion (2nd ed. 1881, Clarendon Press) is a na Graecia. Much later, Peloponnesianstandard treatise on this subject. Achaea became important in the historyAccius or Arnus, Ltfcrus (170-C.86 of the 3rd c. B.C. as the centre of theB.C.), a Latin poet, probably of Pisaumm Achaean League (q.v.). In a later agein Umbria, of a humble family. He was again Achaia was the name given bya younger contemporary of Pacuvius the Romans to the province, comprising the greater part of Greece, formed by(q.v.), whom he rivalled as a greatRoman tragedian. Cicero records that he Augustus.conversed with him. We have the titles Achaean League, a league of cities ofof some 45 of his tragedies, which dealt Achaea in the Peloponnese which hadwith Greek themes such as Andromeda, detached themselves from the rule ofMedea, Philoctetes. He also wrote two Antigonus Gonatas (see Macedonia, 3)
  15. 15. Achaemenidae AchilleidIn 275 B.o. Its constitution is interesting Dikaiopolis, an Athenian farmer, sitsbecause the affairs of the League were awaiting the meeting of the Assembly,administered by a Council composed of sighing for the good times of peace. Adelegations from the cities in proportion Demigod appears, sent by the gods toto their population; each delegation was arrange peace with Sparta, but unfortun-chosen by its city, but we do not know by ately lacking the necessary travelling-what method. It was the nearest approach money. This Dikaiopolis provides, butto representative government which we the treaty with Sparta is to be a privatefind in Greece. The power and influence one for himself alone. The Demigodof the League increased under the leader- presently brings the treaty, narrowlyship of Aratus of Sicyon, who from 245 escaping from the chorus of infuriatedwas for thirty years the director of the Acharnians. Dikaiopolis celebrates hisLeagues policy, and in alternate years peace with a procession consisting of hisits general (he wrote his Memoirs, now daughter and servants, and this leadslost, and there is a life of him by Plutarch, to a dispute between Dikaiopolis and theincluding a vivid description of his capture chorus on the question of peace or war,of Corinth). He made the League the in which Lamachus (q.v.), the typicalleading power in the Peloponnese, with general, takes part. Dikaiopolis is allowedCorinth as its chief stronghold. On the to make a speech before being executed asmilitary side the League subsequently a traitor ; and to render this more patheticderived great strength from the ability borrows from Euripides some of the stageof Philopocmen (q.v.), and was finally (in properties that make his tragedies so mov-188) able to overcome Sparta herself. But ing. As a result the chorus are won overits high-handed policy brought it into to the view of Dikaiopolis. After theconflict with Rome. After the defeat of parabasis, in which the poet defends histhe Macedonians at Pydna (168), Rome, position, there is a succession of amusingas a measure of future security, deported scenes illustrative of the benefits of Italy a thousand Achaeans suspected A Megarian (Athens had been trying toof hostility to her cause among these was ; starve out Megara by a blockade) comesPolybius (q.v.). In 148, when the surviving to Dikaiopolis to buy food, offering inexiles (other than Polybius) had returned exchange his little daughters disguised asto Greece, there was again trouble between pigs in sacks. A Boeotian brings eels andthe League and Sparta. Rome intervened other good things, and wants in returnand imposed harsh terms on the League. local produce of Attica; he is given anThe League rebelled and declared war, but Informer tied up in a sack. A yeomanafter a short struggle was completely de- wants peace -salve for his eyes, which hefeated by Mummius hi 146 and dissolved. has cried out for the loss of his oxen ; and so forth. Finally Lamachus has to marchAchaemenidae, the first royal house off through the snow against the Boeo-of Persia, so named from the hero tians, and returns wounded by a vine-Achaemenes (Pers. Hakhdmanis), founder stake on which he has impaled himself,of the family. To this family belonged while Dikaiopolis makes merry with theCyrus, Cambyses, and Darius (see Persian priest of Bacchus.Wars). Achates, in the Aeneid, the faithfulAcharnfans (Acharnes), a comedy by friend and squire of Aeneas, frequentlyAristophanes, produced at the Lenaea in referred to as fldus Achates.425 B.C., his first surviving play. The Athenians had for six years been Acheron (Acheron), in Greek mythology, one of the rivers of the lower world (seesuffering the horrors of the PeloponnesianWar, the devastation of their territory* Hades). The name was that of a river in southern Epirus, which, issuing fromplague in the overcrowded city, and shor-tage of food, but their spirit was unbroken. a deep and gloomy gorge, traversed theThe Acharnians (inhabitants of an Attic Aoherusian swamps, and after recievingdeme lying NVV. of Athens near the foot the waters of the tributary Cdcytus fellof Mt. Parnes), of whom the chorus of into the Thesprotian Gulf.this play is composed, had been among AchillSid (AchilUis), an epic poem inthe chief sufferers, for their territory had hexameters by Statius (q.v.) on the storybeen repeatedly ravaged. The comedy, of Achilles (q.v.), of which only one bookwhich is a plea for peace as the only and part of a second were written. Therational solution, was produced, not in poem describes how Thetis, anxious thatthe name of Aristophanes, who was still a her son shall not take part in the Trojanyouth, but in that of Callistratus, probably War (from which she knows he will notalso a comic poet. It won the first prize, return), removes him from the care of thein spite of the unpopularity of the theme. centaur Chiron (q.v.) to Scyros. It relates
  16. 16. Achilles Actlumhis adventures there in the disguise of a 480 B.C.; the walls were rebuilt by Themi-girl, his discovery by Ulysses, and de- stoclcs and Cimon (qq.v.). In the centreparture for Troy. The work was begun in stood a colossal statue of Athene Pro-A,D. 95 and was probably cut short by the machos (the Champion) whose goldenwriters death. spear-point could be seen by marinersAchiltes (Achil(l)eus), son of Peleus and from the sea. On the N. side stood theThetis (qq.v.), the chief hero on the Greek Erectheum, the original temple of theside in the Trojan War (q.v.). When an tutelary deities of Athens, Athene, Posei-infant, he was plunged by his mother don, and Ercchtheus (qq.v.), burnt byin the Styx, and rendered invulnerable the Persians and rebuilt in the latterexcept hi the heel by which she held him. part of the 5th c. hi the Ionic style, withShe later hid him, disguised as a girl, at Caryatides (q.v.) supporting its southernthe court of Lycomodes, King of Scyros, porch. In the age of Pericles were added,hi order that he should not take part in the Parthenon and Propylaea (qq.v.). There also was erected after the peacethe Trojan War; but he was discovered of 421 B.C. (see Peloponnesian War) theby Odysseus (q.v.), who sot arms before beautiful little temple of Athene Nikehim, for Achilles betrayed himself by the ( Victory), which survives reconstructed.fondness with which he handled them. It stood on a bastion adjoining the Pro-(There is a play by Robert Bridges,* Achilles in Scyros). By Deidamia, pylaea and was demolished by the Turks about 1685 to make place for a battery.daughter of Lycomedes, Achilles had a At the siege of Other sanctuaries, such as that of Artemisson, Neoptolemus (q.v.). (q.v.) Brauronia, and many statues andTroy, Achilles was leader of the Myr-midons (see Aeucus). He is represented as altars, stood on various parts of the rock.a man of fierce and implacable temper. There were also a large number of marbleWhen he sulked in his tent in conse- slabs and columns, with inscriptions of decrees, memorials, casualty -lists, treatiesquence of his quarrel with Agamemnon, asrelated hi the Iliad, the Greeks were and alliances, public accounts, inventories, etc. Many of these inscriptions, more ordriven back to their ships and almostoverwhelmed. Then followed the inter- less mutilated, have survived.vention of his friend Patroclus (q.v.) in Actaeon (Actaiori), in Greek mythology,the battle, the death of the latter, and son of Aristae us (q.v.) and Autonoe,the terrible grief of Achilles. After ho had daughter of Cadmus (q.v.). For somebeen reconciled with Agamemnon, he slew offence, either because ho boasted thatHector, and later Penthesilea, queen of the he was a better hunter than Artemis orAmazons, who was fighting on the Trojan because he came upon her bathing, theside. Mourning her for her beauty, ho was goddess changed him into a stag, and hemocked by and killed him Thersitcn (q.v.) was torn to pieces by his own a rage. Soon afterwards he was shotin the heel by Paris (q.v.), or by Apollo, Actium, a promontory in the south ofand killed. Odysseus saw him in Hades JLpirus, at the mouth of the Ambracian off which Octavian defeated the fleets(Od. xi), but it was said later that he Gulf,lived immortal in an island in the Euxine of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C. (see 7). This battle marked the end of(see under Colonization, 2, for his worship Rome,there). After the fall of Troy his ghost the Roman republic and introduced theclaimed Polyxena, daughter of Priam, as Roman empire. Early in 31 Octavian hadhis prize, and she was slain on his tomb. landed an army in Epirus hi the hope of fLandor has an Imaginary Conversation* surprising Antony s fleet in the Ambracianbetween Achilles and Helen on Mt. Ida. Gulf. In this hope ho had been disap-The heel of Achilles is proverbial for a pointed, for Antony had succeeded invulnerable spot. bringing up his army for the defence of the fleet and establishing it at Actium.Achilles Tatius, see Novel. For several months the armies and fleetsAcis (Akis), see Galatea. of the two generals confronted each other. At last, late in August, Antony decided toAcragas (Akrag&s), see Agrigentum. fight a battle at sea; but what preciselyAcrisius (Akrisios), see Danae. were his plans is uncertain. The fightAcre/polls (Upper Town), the citadel, began at dawn on 2 September. At firststanding on high ground, of a Greek town. the heavier ships of Antony appearedThe Acropolis of Athens is a rocky plateau, to be prevailing; but presently the sixtyabout 200 ft. high and about 300 yds. long Egyptian ships forming the contingentby 150 yds. wide. It was surrounded by of Cleopatra were seen to set sail and makewalls, which, with the buildings within off southwards. Antony himself followedthem, were destroyed by the Persians in her in a swift quinquereme. Antonys
  17. 17. Ad Herennium Adrastus was destroyed, andfleet his army shortly to die for him. Thefather and mother ofwent over to Octavian. Admetus having refused, his wife Alcestis consented, and accordingly died. JustAd Herennium, Rhetorica, see Rhetoriea. after this, Heracles, on his way to one ofAdelphoe (or Adelphi, The Brothers), his labours, visited the castle of Admetus.a comedy by Terence, adapted from Mcn- The latter, in obedience to the laws ofander and Diphilus (see Comedy, 4), hospitality, concealed the death of hisproduced in 160 B.C. wife, and welcomed the hero. Heracles The two sons of Demea, Aeschinus and presently discovered the truth, went outCtcsipho, are brought up, the former by to intercept Thanatos, the messenger fromhis uncle Micio in the town, the latter by Hades, set upon him and took from himhis father in the country, and the theme whom he restored to her husband. Alcestis,of the comedy is the contrast between For Euripides treatment of the storytheir methods of education. Dcmea makes see Alcestis.himself hated and distrusted by his harsh- Administration, PUBLIC, see Athens,ness and frugality; Micio makes himself 9, Rome, 12.loved and trusted by his indulgence and Adoniaziiscic, see Aeschinus has seducedan Athenian lady of small means, loves Adonic, see Metre, 3.her dearly, and wishes to marry her. in Greek mythology, a beautifulCtesipho, whom his father a J^donia, believes "youth sprung from the unnatural lovemodel of virtue, has fallen hi love with a of Myrrha (or Smyrna) for her fathermusic-girl. Aeschinus, to help his brother, Cinyras (q.v.), king of Cyprus, with whichcarries off the girl from the slave-dealer she had been smitten by Aphrodite for re-to whom she belongs and brings her to fusing to honour the goddess. When Ciny-Micio s house. He thereby incurs the ras, discovering the crime, sought to killsuspicion of carrying on an intrigue with Myrrha, she was changed into a myrtle,this girl at the very moment when the from which Adonis was born. Aphroditelady whom he has seduced has most need (q.v.) fell in love with him and, when heof his sympathy and support. The truth was killed by a boar while hunting, causedbecomes known. Aeschinus is forgiven by the rose or tho anemone to spring fromMicio and his marriage arranged. Demea his blood (or the anemone sprang fromis confounded at discovering the pro- the tears that Aphrodite shed for Adonis).fligacy of Ctesipho. Finding that his Both Aphrodite and Persephone (q.v.)boasted method of education has earned then claimed him, and Zeus decided thathim only hatred, ho suddenly changes his he should spend part of the year withattitude and makes an amusing display each. Tho name Adonis is probably theof geniality forcing his old bachelor Semitic word Adon, lord, and the mythbrother into a reluctant marriage with is symbolical of the course of vegetation*the bride s mother, endowing her relative His death and survival were widely cele-with a farm at, Micio s expense, and brated (in tho East under the name of hisobliging the latter to free his slave and Syrian equivalent, Thamuz, cf. Milton,start him in life showing that even P.L. i. 446-52). As a feature of his wor-geniality can bo overdone. ship, the image of Adonis was surrounded The *Adelphoe was played at the with beds of rapidly withering plants,funeral games of Aemilius Paullus (q.v.). Gardens of Adonis. These are referredAdmetus (Admatos), in Greek mytho- to, e.g., in Spensers Faerie Queene, in. vi. 29, hi Shakespeares 1 Henry VI,logy, son of Pheres and king of Pheraoin Thessaly. When Zeus killed Asclepius i. vi, anjfljba Milton, P.L. ix. 440. The story of the Tore ot~Venus for Adonis is(q.v.) for restoring Hippolytus to life, tho subject of Shakespeare s poem VenusApollo, the father of Asclepius, furious atthis treatment of his son, took vengeance and Adonis.on the Cyclopes (q.v.) who had forged Adrastus (Adrastos), legendary king ofZeuss thunderbolt, and slew them. To Argos at the time of the conflict ofexpiate this crime he was made for a year Polynices and Eteocles for the kingdomthe serf of Admetus, who treated him of Thebes (see Oedipus). Polynices mar-kindly. Apollo, having learnt from the ried his daughter Argeia, Tydeus marriedFates that Admetus was destined to an her sister Deipyle; and Adrastus col-early death, from gratitude to him lected and led the army of the Sevencajoled the Fatss (with the help of wine) against Thebes. When tho expeditioninto granting Admetus longer life, pro- was defeated, Adrastus escaped, thanksvided that at the appointed hour of his to the swiftness of his horse Arion, thedeath he could persuade some one else offspring of Poseidon and Demeter. In
  18. 18. Aea 6 Aemilius Paullushis old age ho led the second expedition Aegeus (Aigffus), see Theseus and Medeaagainst Thebes, that of the Epigoni (q.v.) (Euripides tragedy).and died on his way home, after its suc-cessful conclusion, from grief for the loss Aegina (Aigina), (1) a nymph, the mother of Aeacus (q.v.). (2) An island inof his son, who alone had fallen in the the Saronio Gulf which was occupied byattack. tho Dorians (see Migrations). In theAea (Aia), in the story of the Argonauts 6th c. it was a strong naval power and(q.v.), the realm of Aeetes (q.v.), later at enmity with Athens. When Persiaidentified with Colchis. threatened Greece early in the 5th c., itAeacus (Aiakos), in Greek mythology, was feared that the Aeginetans wouldson of Zous and the nymph Aegina. He support tho invaders. By tho interventionwas the father Telamon (father of the of Sparta Aegina was forced to give ofgreater Ajax) and of Peleus (father of Athens hostages for her good conduct,Achilles) (qq.v.). He was a man of great and an indecisive war between Aeginapiety, and when the inhabitants of his and Athens followed, beginning probably in 488. Aegina, as a matter of fact, foughtisland, Aegina, were destroyed by a plague,Zeus, to reward him, created human beings bravely on the Greek side at Salamis.out of ants (murmekes) to repeople it, and After the Persian Wars she opposed thethese were called Myrmidons, the name imperial policy of Athens and was sub-by which the subjects of Peleus and dued in 457-6. During the PeloponnesianAchilles are known in Homer. See also War the inhabitants were expelled and the island was colonized (c. 429) by AthenianMinos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus. * cleruchs (q.v.). The island was an impor-Aeaea (Aiatt), in the Odyssey, tho tant centre of Greek sculpture and con-island of Circe, situated in the stream tained a famous temple of Aphaia (seeOceanus (q.v.). Britomartis), of which the fine pedimentsAediles (Aedues) of the plebs, at Home, survive (at Munich). In mythology Aeginaoriginally two plebeian magistrates (named was the realm of Aeacus (q.v.)aediles* from the aedes or temple of Ceres, Aegisthus (Aigisthos), see Pelops.where they preserved the decrees of thepeople), who bad the charge of temples, Aegospotami (Aigospotamoi, Goatsbuildings, markets, and games. To them Rivers), a small river in the Thracianwere later added two Curule Aediles repre- Chersonese, off the mouth of which Athenssenting the whole people. The aediles suffered her final naval defeat in thewere charged with the corn-supply of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) in 405 B.C.metropolis until this was entrusted to see Aegyptus (Aiguptos), (1) Danaus;special officers (see Annona). (2) see Egypt.Aedon, in Greek mythology, daughter of Aelian (Claudius Aelianus) (fl. c. A.D.Pandareos and wife of Zethus king of 200), author of fourteen books (in Greek)Thebes. She was envious of Niobe (q.v.) of Historical Miscellanies (PoikUe His-her sister-in-law (wife of Amphion brother torid), showing wide but uncritical learn-of Zethus) because she had many children, ing about political and literary celebrities ;and plotted to kill them. By mistake she and of a work On the Characteristics ofslew her own child, Itylus (or Itys), and Animals in seventeen books. Both worksmourned for him so bitterly that the gods (the former partly in epitomized form)changed her into a nightingale. Swinburne survive.has a poem Itylus on this legend. Cf. thestory of Procne (see Philomela). Aelius Aristides, see Aristides.Aeetes (Aieies), in Greek mythology, Aelius Lampridius, see Historia Au-son of Helios (q.v.), king of Colchis, of Circe (q.v.), and father of Aelius Spartianus, see Historia Au-Medea. See Athamas and Argonauts. gusta.Aegates Insulae, islands off Lilybaeum Aemilius Paullus, LCcius (d. 160 B.C.),in Sicily, near which was fought in 242 B.C. son of the Aemilius Paullus who fell atthe naval battle in which Q. Lutatius Cannae (q.v.), was consul for the secondCatulus, the Roman admiral, defeated time in 168 B.C., when the Macedonianthe Punic fleet, thereby terminating the War, owing to the incompetence of theFirst Punic War (see Punic Wars). Roman generals and the indiscipline of theAegean Sea (Aigaios Pontos), the part army, was going ill for Rome. He restoredof the Mediterranean between Greece and discipline and in a single campaignAsia Minor. The etymology of the name is brought the war to a successful end by hisunknown. victory at Pydna. He formed, with the
  19. 19. Aeneas 7 Aeneidbooks that had belonged to the Ma- families by representing their ancestorscedonian king (Perseus), the first private in the heroic age, and for recounting,library at Rome. The proceeds of the by the device of prophecy, the historicalbooty gained at Pydna were enormous, triumphs of Rome and of Augustus. Theand were scrupulously paid into the Ro- striking feature of the poem is the con-man treasury. He combined old Roman ception of Italy as a single nation, and ofvirtue with Greek enlightenment. He vas Roman history as a continuous whole fromfather of Scipio Aemilianus (q.v.). There the founding of the city to the full expan-is a life of him by Plutarch. sion of the Empire. The greatness of the theme made a profound impression on theAeneas (Gk. Ainaias), son of Anchiseaand Aphrodite (qq.v.) and a member of Roman people the dignity with which it ; Is set forth is enhanced by the poetsthe younger branch of the royal family tender contemplative spirit, his sympathyof Troy (see genealogy under Troy). In with suffering humanity, and his feelingthe Iliad he is represented as under the for nature. The poem has been criticizeddisfavour of Priam and is a secondary hi certain respects. Its mythology is stifffigure. But it is there stated (xx. 307) that* his might shall reign among the Trojans, and conventional; the Homeric Olympusand his childrens children, who shall bo was discredited in Virgils day (for theborn in the aftertime*. There was an poets treatment of religion see under Virgil). Many of the characters are saidearly tradition that he escaped when Troy to lack force and distinctness. The epis-fell, and went to some place in Italy. ode of Aeneas and Dido has been the sub-Timaeus (q.v.) appears to have been thefirst to make him the originator of the ject of the most frequent censure. It is out of harmony with our ideas of right andfuture Roman State. The tale of Aeneasswanderings to Italy was perhaps told by wrong that Dido, deserted by Aeneas, should perish, while Aeneas goes shabbilyStesichorus (q.v.), and we have it in its fully developed form in the Aeneid (q.v.) away scot-free. It is unlikely that Virgilsof Virgil. That the legend was officially contemporaries would have taken this view. A marriage with Dido, a foreignrecognized in the 3rd c. B.C. is shown bythe fact that after the 1st Punic War the woman, is not one of which they wouldAcarnanians requested the help of Rome have approved; Didos passion had en- tangled Aeneas, but the will of theagainst the Aetolians on the ground thattheir ancestors alone of all the Greeks had gods, they would have said, must prevailnot taken part in the expedition against over human passion; and the incident has many parallels in Greek mythologyTroy. The legend was adopted by l^abiusPictor in his history, and by the poets (Theseus and Ariadne, Jason and Medea, &c.). It is perhaps unintentionally thatNaevius and Ennius. See also Tabula the poet so powerfully enlists our sym-Iliaca. For the reconciliation of the pathy for Dido. Conington says thatlegend with the story of the founding of me by Romulus see Rome, 2. Virgil in this episode struck the chord of modern passions, and it vibrated moreZ" f neid (Aeneis), an epic poem in twelve powerfully than the minstrel himselfbooks of hexameters by Virgil, composed expected .in seclusion in Campania during the last Virgil, in composing the Aeneid, drew oneleven years of his life, 30-19 B.C. (that many sources; primarily on the Iliadis to say, after the battle of Actium had and the Odyssey, combining in hisfinally established the principate of poem the travel -adventures of the latterAugustus). The poem was left unfinished with the warfare of the former, andand Virgil is said, when dying, to have modelling on Homer many episodes (e.g.ordered it to be destroyed. He had read the funeral games in Bk. V, the visit toportions of the work to Augustus and his the nether world in Bk. VI, the descrip-family hi 23 B.C. tion of the shield in Bk. VIII). Virgil The poem is a national epic, designed also drew on the Homeric Hymns andto celebrate the origin and growth of the Cyclic poets, the *Argonautica* of Apol-Roman Empire, The groundwork is the lonius Rhodius, the Greek tragedians,legend that Aeneas (q.v.), after the fall and on his own immediate predecessors,of Troy and long wanderings, founded a Ennius, Lucretius, and others. His pic-Trojan settlement in Latium, the source ture of the lower world appears to be aof the Roman race (see Rome, 2). This poetic treatment of the various opinionsafforded scope for the mythical and about it, popular and philosophical,supernatural element found in Homeric prevalent in his day. The contents ofepic, for recalling the ancient beliefs and the work may be briefly summarized aepractices of magic and religion, for glori- follows :fying the Roman people and their chief Book I. Aeneas, who for seven years
  20. 20. Aeneid 8 Aeneidsince the fall of Troy has been pursuing: storm; Dido and Aeneas take refuge inhis way to Latium, has Just left Sicily. a cave and are united by the design ofJuno, knowing that a race of Trojan Juno and Venus. The rumour of theirorigin will in future ages threaten her love reaches the neighbouring larbas, whobeloved city Carthage, incites Aeolus to has been rejected by Dido and who nowlet loose a storm on the Trojan fleet. Some appeals to Jupiter. Jupiter orders Aeneasof the ships are wrecked, and the fleet scat- to leave Carthago. Dido discovers Aeneasstered; but Neptune pacifies the sea and preparations for departure and makes aAeneas reaches the Libyan coast. The piteous plea. Her lovers sorry excusesremaining ships also arrive and the for his desertion call down on him DidosTrojans are kindly received by Dido, withering rejoinder. But Aeneas is stead-qiieen of the newly founded Carthage and fast. Dido, distraught by anguish andwidow of Sychaeus. She has fled from fearful visions, makes a last entreaty forTyre, where her husband had been killed delay, and when this is unavailing pre-by his brother Pygmalion, king of the pares for death. When she sees theland. Venus, though Jupiter has revealed Trojan fleet sailing away, she takes herto her the future destiny of Aeneas and own life, heaping in her frenzy curses onhis race, dreading the hate of Juno and Aeneas and his race.the wiles of the Tyrians, designs that Book V. The Trojans return to Sicily,Dido shall be smitten with love for Aeneas. landing hi the territory of their com- Book JI. At Didos request, Aeneas patriot Acestes (q.v.). The anniversaryrelates the fall of Troy and the subsequent of the death of Anchises is celebrated withevents: the building of the Trojan Horse, sacrifices and games. First, a race between the guile of Sinon, the death of Laocoon four ships. Gyas in Chimaera is leading ;(qq.v.), the firing of the city, the desperate ho heaves his pilot overboard for notresistance of Aeneas himself and his com- hugging close enough the turning point;rades, the death of Priam, and his own ho is passed by Cloanthus in flight by the order of Venus; how Sergestus in Centaur runs aground.ho carries off Anchises his father on his Mnestheus in Pristis presses hard onshoulders and takes his son lulus (As- Cloanthus, but the latter wins. Then acanius) by the hand; his wife Creusa foot-race, in which Nisus, leading, slipsfollows but is lost. Her ghost tells him the and falls and deliberately trips Saliusdestiny that awaita him. so as to give the victory to his friend Book III. (Aeneas continues his narra- Euryalus. A boxing match follows be-tive.) He and his companions build a tween Dares of Troy and Entellus offleet and set out. They touch at Thrace Sicily the former is worsted and Aeneas ;(where Aeneas hears the voice of his stops the fight. Finally a shooting-match,murdered kinsman Polydorus from his and a riding display by thirty -six youthsgrave) and Delos. The Delian oracle led by Ascanius (see Ludus Troiae)* Mean-bids them sock the land that first bore while the Trojan women, incited by Junothe Trojan race. This is wrongly inter- and weary of their long wanderings, firepreted to mean Crete, from which they the ships four are destroyed, but a rain- ;are driven by a pestilence. Aeneas now storm quells the fire. When the Trojanslearns that Italy is meant. On their sail away, Palinurus the helmsman, over-way the Trojans land on the island of come by sleep, falls into the sea and is lost.the Harpies (q.v.) and attack them. Book VI. Aeneas visits the CumaeanThe Harpy Cclacno prophesies that they Sibyl, who foretells his wars in Latium.shall found no city till hunger compels After plucking by her direction the Goldenthem to eat the tables at which they Bough (see Di,ana) he descends with her,feed. At Buthrotum in Chaonia they through the cave of Avernus, to the netherfind Helenus the seer (son of Priam) and world. They reach the Styx and on theAndromache, and the former instructs hither side see the ghosts of the unburiodAeneas in the route he must follow, visiting dead; among them Palinurus (q.r.), whothe Cumaean Sibyl and founding his city recounts his fate and begs for burial. Thewhere by a secluded stream he shall find Golden Bough gains for Aeneas permissiona white sow with a litter of thirty young. from Charon to cross the Styx. CerberusAeneas pursues his way and visits the (q.v.) is pacified with a drugged honeycountry of the Cyclops (q.v.) hi Sicily; cake. Various groups of dead are seen:his father dies at Dropanum. Thence he infants, those unjustly condemned, thosereaches Libya. who have died from love (among whom Book IV. Dido, though bound by a Dido receives in silence the renewed ex-vow to her dead husband, confesses to her cuses of Aeneas), and those who haveBister Anna her passion for Aeneas. A fallen in war. They approach the entrancehunting expedition is interrupted by a to Tartarus, where the worst criminals
  21. 21. Aeneid 9 Aeneidsuffer torments; but turn aside to Ely- and urges alliance with the Etruscans.sium, where the blest enjoy a care -free He leads Aeneas through the city and ex-life. Here Aeneas finds and vainly seeks plains the origin of various Roman sitesto embrace Anchises. Ho sees ghosts and names. Vulcan, at the request ofdrinking at the river Lethe (q.v.) and Venus, forges armour for Aeneas. TheAnchises expounds to him the reincarna- shield is described, on which are depictedtion of souls after a long purgation (a various events in the future history ofPythagorean doctrine drawn by Virgil Rome, down to the battle of Actium.perhaps from the Orphic and Eleusinian Book IX. While Aeneas is thus absent,traditions). Among these souls he points Turnus blockades the Trojan camp.out to his son those of men who are in the He sets the Trojan ships on fire, butfuture to be illustrious in Roman history, Neptune turns them into sea-nymphs.from Romulus and the early kings to Nisus and Euryalus pass through thothe great generals of later days, Augustus enemy lines at night to summon Aeneas.himself, and his nephew Marcellus (q.v.), They slay some of the enemy in theirto whose brief life the poet makes touching drunken sleep, but fall hi with a hostileallusion. Aeneas and the Sibyl then leave column and are killed, Nisus gallantlythe lower world through the Ivory Gate, striving to save his friend. The Rutuliansthrough which false dreams are sent to assault the camp ; Ascanius performs hismortals (perhaps a hint that what the first exploit; Turnus is cut off withinpoet has described is no more than a the rampart, but escapes by plunging intodream). This book contains the memor- the lines (851-3) on the destiny of Rome, Book X. The gods debate in Olympus,the central thought of the whole poem : and Aeneas secures tho alliance of Tar-Tu regero imperio populos, Romane, me- chon, king of the Etruscans, and returns mento ; to the scat of war, accompanied by PallasHae tibi crunt artes: pacisque imponere (son of Evander) and Tarchon. Turnus morem, opposes them on the shore, to prevent theParcere subjectis, et debellaro superbos. junction of the Trojan forces. In the Book VII. The Trojans reach the mouth battle Turnus kills Pallas; he pursues aof the Tiber hero the Harpys prophecy ; phantom of Aeneas contrived by Juno(see Bk. Ill above) is fulfilled, for the and is borne away to his city. AeneasTrojans eat cakes of bread which they wounds Mezentius, whose son Lausus trieshave used as platters. Of this land, to save him ; Aeneas reluctantly kills theLatium, Latlnus is the king. His daughter lad. Mezentius addresses his gallant horse,is Lavmia. The goodliest of her wooers Rhaobus, and again faces Aeneas; horseis Turnus, king of the Rutuli; but her and man are killed.father has been divinely warned to marry Book XI. Aeneas celebrates the Trojanher to a stranger who shall come. The victory and laments Pallas. A truce withembassy sent by Aeneas is welcomed by the Latins is arranged. The Italian chiefsLatinus, who offers alliance and the hand debate. Drances proposes that the issueof his daughter. Juno calls out the Fury shallbe settled by single combat betweenAllecto, who stirs Amata (tho mother of Turnus and Aeneas, and Turnus accepts.Lavinia) and Turnus to fierce hostility The debate is interrupted by a report thatagainst the Trojans. Tho wounding of a Aeneas and his army are moving againststag from the royal herds by Ascanius the city. A cavalry engagement followscauses an affray; Latinus is overborne, in which Camilla takes the lead. Tarchonand the Italian tribes gather to expel the plucks Vonulus from his horse and carriesTrojans. Virgil enumerates these and their him off before him on his saddle-bow.leaders; notable among them besides Camilla is killed by Arruns and is avengedTurnus are Mezentius scorner of the by Opis, messenger of Diana.gods, a tyrant hated by his people, Book XII. The Latins are discouraged,Messapus, Virbius (son of Hippolytus, and Turnus decides to meet Aeneas alone.q.v.), and the Volscian warrior-maid, Latinus and Amata try in vain to dis-Camilla (q.v.). suade him. A compact is made for the Book VIII. Aeneas faces war reluc- single combat. But Juturna, sister oftantly, but is encouraged by the god of Turnus, stirs up the Rutulians, and thethe river Tiber, who sends him to seek general fighting is resumed. Aeneas isthe alliance of the Arcadian Evandcr wounded by an unknown hand, but healed(q.v.), the founder of the city on tho by Venus. The Trojans, seeing tho city ofPalatine hill, part of the future Rome. Latinus loft unguarded, attack and fireOn the bank of the Tiber Aeneas sees a it. Amata takes her life. Turnus returnswhite- sow with her litter, as foretold from his pursuit of Trojan stragglers andby Helenus. Evander promises support the opposing forces suspend their struggle
  22. 22. Aeolians 10 Aeschineswhile he and Aeneas fight. Aeneas wounds Demosthenes. His parents were in rivalTurnus. Even now he would spare him; modest circumstances (his father Atro-but he sees on his body the spoils of metus was a schoolmaster). As a youngPallas and in fierce anger buries his sword man he won some distinction in militaryin his enemys body. service and then became a tragic actor The Aeneid was edited after Virgils and a public clerk. He first appears indeath by his friends Varius Rufus (q.v.) political life in 348 as an envoy sentand Plotius Tucca. For famous editions by Eubulus (q.v.) to the Peloponnese toand translations see under Virgil. It may organize Hellenic resistance to of interest to recall that the two pas- But, with Eubulus, he soon abandonedsages of the Aeneid which Dr. Johnson this policy and became an advocate ofpicked out for their wonderful quality peace with Macedonia. He formed partwere the descriptions of the tomb of of the embassies sent to Philip for thoPolydonis dripping blood (Hi. 19 et seq.), negotiation of the Peace of Philocratesand of the Trojan ships turned to sea- and in 343 was impeached by Demos-nymphs (ix. 77 et seq.). thenes (q.v.) for his conduct on theseAeolians (Aidleis), see Migrations and occasions. His defence (which we possess)Dialects. was successful and he was acquitted. Demosthenes was to have been associatedAeolis, the northern portion of the coast with one Timarchus in the accusation ofof Asia Minor, from the Troad to the river Aeschines, but Aeschines had retorted byHennus, which was occupied by Aeolian bringing a charge against Timarchus ofGreeks (see Migrations). immoral life. His speech against Timar-Aeolus (Aiolos), (1) described in the chus (345), which was successful, is theOdyssey* as the son of Hippotes and first of the three speeches of Acschinesfriend of the gods, who lives an agree- that have survived. He next came intoable life in the floating island Acolia. He prominence in 340, when, at a sessiongave Odysseus a leather bag in which of the Amphictyonic (q.v.) council, thewere secured the winds adverse to the Locrians of Amphissa, at the instigationlatters voyage, and thus he later came to of Thebes, were to bring an accusationbe regarded as the god of the winds. Virgil of sacrilege against Athens. To forestall(Aen. i. 50-9) depicts him as keeping the this, Aeschines accused the Locrians them-winds imprisoned in a cave. (2) A son of selves of sacrilege (see Sacred Wars).Hellen (see Hellenes and Deucalion) and A Sacred War was decreed against Am-the legendary ancestor of the Aeolian race phissa, and it was this war which pro-(see Migrations) and father of Sisyphus, vided the pretext for the invasion ofAthamas, Salmoneus, Alcyone (qq.v.), Philip of Maccdon (q.v.) that culminatedCalycS (mother of Endymion, q.v.), and in the battle of Chaeronea (q.v.). Thoother children, action of Aeschines on this occasion was made the ground of part of DemosthenesAepytus (Aiputos), see Merope. denunciation of Aeschines in his speechAerarium, the treasury of the Roman On tho Crown*. The rivalry betweenrepublic. It was maintained under tho the two statesmen finally manifestedempire, but distinguished from the fiscus itself when Ctesiphon in 336 proposed that(q.v.) or imperial treasury. Its chief Demosthenes should be publicly crownedsource of income in imperial times was the for his services to the state. Acschinesrevenue of the senatorial provinces, and indicted Ctesiphon for tho alleged illegalityit appears to have borne the cost of main- of this proposal, and in his speech sixtenance of public buildings, of the con- years later, which survives, attacked thestruction of roads, and of State religion; whole career of Demosthenes as injuriousit issued tho copper coinage. Though to Athens. The jury by an overwhelmingnominally under the management of majority acquitted Ctesiphon. Aeschinesthe Senate, the control of the emperors retired into exile and died there.over it increased with time, till the two The speeches of Aeschines reveal histreasuries were in practice almost indis- Ho was Inferiority to his great rival.tinguishable. The aerarium was housed in excessively vain, and deficient in nobilitythe temple of Saturn beside the Capitol. of character and political sagacity, butSee Rome, 14. there is no proof of the corruption of The aerarium mUitare was a pension which Demosthenes accused him. Hisfund for disabled soldiers instituted by speeches are in a lighter, livelier style thanAugustus in A.D. 6. those of Demosthenes; he had had noAeschines (Aischinfe), a famous Athen- special rhetorical training, but his stageian orator, was born about 390 B.C. and experience had given him a good deliverywas thus a few years older than his great and a wide acquaintance with literature.
  23. 23. Aeschylus 11 Aesopus Among Landers Imaginary Conversa- ous language and bold metaphors. Histions is one between Aeschines and lyrics, which play a more important partPhocion.(q.v.). in his tragedies than in those of his suc- cessors, reached the highest point in thatAeschylus (Aischulos) (525-456 B.C.), a branch of poetic art. His plays are per-great Greek tragic poet, born at Eleusis, meated with the religious spirit; he ac-near Athens, of a noble family. He took cepts the traditional mythology withoutpart in the Persian Wars; his epitaph criticizing it in the manner of Euripides,(composed, it is said, by himself) represents but tries to reconcile it with morality.him as fighting at Marathon, and his Among the ideas prominent to his playsdescription of Salamis in the Persians are those of destiny or fatality, workingsuggests that he was present at that battle through the divine will and human pas-also. He visited Syracuse at the invitation of sion ; of the heredity of crime, both in theHieron I (see Syracuse, 1) more than once sense that crime provokes vengeance inand died at Gela in Sicily; an anecdote the next generation, and in the sense ofrelates that an eagle dropped a tortoise on the inheritance of a criminal taint; andhis bald head and killed him. He appears of the vengeance of the gods on over-at some time in his life to have been weening pride (hubris). His principalprosecuted on the charge of divulging characters are drawn without complexitythe Elcusinian mysteries, but to have ex- or elaboration, governed by a singleculpated himself. Pericles was his choregus dominating idea, such as vengeance (e.g.(see Chorus) &t some uncertain date; perhaps Clytemnestra in the Agamemnon). Forin the production of the Persians in 472, Aristophanes estimate of Aeschylus, seeor possibly later. Aeschylus was honoured a classic soon after his death and special Quintilian, while commending the sub-privileges were decreed for his plays. limity, dignity, and eloquence of Aeschy-Ho had a son, Euphorion, like himself a lus, thought him at times uncouth andtragic poet. lacking in harmony. Aeschylus wrote some ninety plays Aesculapius, the Latin form of the(including satyric dramas), of which seven Greek name Asclepius (q.v.). The firsthave come down to us: Suppliants, temple to him was founded at Rome inPersians, Seven against Thebes, Pro- 293 B.C., in consequence of a severemetheus Vinctus (qq.v.); and Agamem- The temple, with a sana- pestilence.non, Choephoroe , and Eumenides, torium, stood on the island of the Tiber.forming the Orcsteia (q.v.) trilogy.He also wrote paeans, elegies, and epi- Aeson (Aison), see Argonauts.grams, of which very scanty fragments Aesop (Aisopos), the traditional com-survive. He was the rival in his early poser of Greek fables about animals, isdays of Pratinas, Phrynichus (qq.v.), said by Herodotus to have lived in theand Choerilus (of Athens, /Z. 482), and in reign of Amasis of Egypt (middle of thelater life of Sophocles. He won his first 6th c. B.C.), and to have been a slave ofprize in 484, was successful again with ladmon, a Thracian. Many stories aboutthe Persians in 472, was defeated by animals, adapted to moral or satiricalSophocles in 468, and won his last victory ends, circulated under his name, and wewith the Oresteia* in 458. are told that Socrates, when in prison, Aeschylus generally regarded as the put some of these into verse. A collection isreal founder of Greek tragedy: by the of them was turned into choliambic versointroduction of a second actor ho madetrue dialogue and dramatic action pos- by Babrius (q.v.), and five books of Latin fables after Aesop were published bysible. Though Aristotle says that Sopho- Phaedrus (q.v.). An apocryphal life ofcles introduced scenery, Aeschylus musthave used some primitive spectacular Aesop was written by Maximus Planudes, a 14th c. Byzantine monk. Landor hasdevices, e.g. in the Prometheus. He two Imaginary Conversations betweenalso developed the use of stage dress. His Aesop and his fellow-slave Rhodope (q.v.).plays show rapid progress in dramatictechnique: the Suppliants, an early Aesopus, CLAUDIUS, a celebrated Romanplay, is simple, lacks action, and has no tragic actor hi the 1st c. B.C. Horaceindividual characters; the Oresteia has places him on an equality with Rosciusoutstanding individual characters and a (q.v.), the great comic actor. He was awell developed plot. Aeschylus chose friend of Cicero, and during the latter sthemes of the utmost grandeur, often exile contributed to move popular feelingsuperhuman and terrible, generally from in his favour by allusions to him on themythology (the Persians is an excep- stage. Cicero says that he had great powertion), and delighted in picturesque, sonor- of facial expression and gesture.
  24. 24. Aethiopica 12 AganippeAethiopica, (Aithiopika), see Novel. Antiochus III in his war with Rome (see Selcucids) ; and his defeat in 190 broughtAethiopis (Aithiopis), a lost poem of tlie about the Leagues virtual extinction.Epic Cycle (q.v.), ascribed to Arctmus ofMiletus, a sequel to the Iliad. It con- Afranius, Lttcius (b. c. 150 B.C.), atained the story of the coming to Troy of writer of Roman comedies (togatae, q.v.),Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, and of which only fragments survive. He ap-her slaying by Achilles. It told also of pears to have desired to found a nationalthe coming of the Ethiopian Memnon comedy, and his plays depicted Italian(whence the name of the poem), who like- life and characters. He had a long popu-wise was killed by Achilles; and of the larity, and Horace in Ep. 11. i. 57 saysdeath of Achilles himself. that admirers compared him to Menandor Afrani toga convenisse Monan-Aethra (Aithrd), the mother of Thesous (Dicitur dro*). Afranius acknowledges hi5 indebt-(q.v.). edness to Menander, but the extent ofAetna, a Lathi didactic poem in 644 this is unknown.hexameters attributed by its MS. and Donatus ^Vgamedes, see Trophonius. buL Jdoubtfully by to Virgil,probably not by him. It was perhaps by*^ Agamemnon (Agamemnon), in Greekmy-Lucilius, the friend to whom Seneca the thology, son of Atreus, brother of Mene-Philosopher addressed his Letters*. It laus, husband of Clytemnestra (qq.v.), *describes and purports to explain the erup- king of Mycenae, and leader of thetions of Mt. Etna. These are due, not to Greek host in the Trojan War (q.v.).Vulcan or Enceladus (see Giants), but He is represented in the Iliad* as ato the action of wind in cavities of the valiant fighter, a proud and passionateearth on subterranean fires (substantially man, but vacillating in purpose and easilythe same explanation as that of Lu- discouraged.cretius, vi. 680 et seq.). The poem closes When the Greek expedition againstwith an Illustration of the moral character Troy had assembled at Aulis occurred theof the forces of nature. On the occasion incident of the sacrifice of Agamemnonsof a sudden eruption the inhabitants of daughter Iphigenia (q.v.). During thea neighbouring town hastily fled, each siege the most famous event in whichcarrying the property ho thought most Agamemnon was involved was his disas-precious. But they wore overwhelmed. trous quarrel with Achilles (see Iliad).A certain Amphinomus and his brother, When Troy at last was captured, Aga-however, who carried away nothing but memnon returned safely home with histheir aged father and mother and their captive, Cassandra (q.v.). But now thehousehold gods, were spared by the flames. curse of the house of Pclops (q.v.) over- took him. Clytemnestra had never for-Aetolian League, a confederacy of given the sacrifice of her daughter Iphi-cities or districts of Aetolia, developed genia, and during Agamemnons absenceafter the death of Alexander. It was Aegisthus had become her paramourgoverned at first by an Assembly of all (see Pelops). She now received Aga-free Aotolian citizens (including the citi- memnon with a show of welcome, andzens of federated cities adjoining Aetolian then, with Aegisthus, murdered him andterritory) at the head of it was a general ; Cassandra. It was to revenge his deathelected annually. There was also a that his children, Orestes and Electra, laterCouncil, possessing little power, composed killed Clytemncstra and Aegisthus (seeof delegations from the League cities pro- Orcsteia, Orestes, Electra).portionate to their military contingents. a tragedy by Aeschy-When, with the expansion of the League, Agamemnon, (1) Aadministration by the Assembly became lus ; see Qresteia. (2) tragedy by Seneca the Philosopher, perhaps based on theimpossible, a small committee of the of Aeschylus, or moreCouncil was formed which, with the Agamemnon*general, became the real government of probably on some later play. It is far to the tragedy of Aeschylus andthe League; the Assembly, however, re- inferiortained the decision of peace and war. From shows variations of detail. The ghost ofabout 290 the League occupied Delphi, Thyestes is introduced urging Aegisthusand it gradually extended its territory till to the crime, and Aegisthus confirms a weaker Clytemnestra in her 220 it controlled the whole of central Cassandra is not murdered withGreece outside Attica, and became the Aga-chief rival of Macedonia in the peninsula. memnon, but later. Electra appears and effects the escape of her brother Orestes.But the Aetolians were a predatory peopleand the League was not a source of Aganippe, a spring sacred to the MusesHellenic unity and strength. It joined on Mt. Helicon (q.v.). Cf. Hippocrene.
  25. 25. Agathocles 13 AgoraAgathocles (Agathoktts), see Syracuse, up again after Mariuss army reforms.$3. The creation of a professional army meant that some sort of a pension system had toAgathon (AgatMn), an Athenian tragic be devised, and until Augustus pensionspoet, the most important of the successorsof the three great tragedians. His first took the form of grants of public land. Hence the land legislation of Saturninus,Tictory was gained in 416 B.C. It is the Sulla, and Julius Caesar (in his first con-banquet held at his house to celebrate this sulship). The proposed agrarian law ofvictory that forms the setting of Platos Rullus (63) had a different object, becauseSymposium* (q.v.). Later ho wont to the it was really an attempt by Crassus andcourt of Archolaus of Macedonia and diedthere (c. 400). Only fragments of his work Caesar to strengthen their position againstsurvive. Agathon was an innovator: ho Pompey. There seems to have been no serious problem in connexion with thewas the first to construct a tragedy on an ager publicus in the early empire.imaginary subject with imaginary charac-ters; he made the songs of the chorus Ager Romanus, see Rome, 4;mere interludes (embolima) without refer-ence to the subject of the play, thus pre- Agesilaus (Agesildos) (c. 444-361 B.C.), king of Sparta from about 398. He wasparing the way for the division of the chosen king in place of his nephew, whotragedy into acts ; and he also introduced was the direct heir, by the influence ofsome changes hi the character of the Lysander (q.v.). He was lame, and hismusic. His lyrics are satirically described opponents drew attention to the warningby Aristophanes in the Thesmophoria- of an ancient oracle against a lame reignzusae as like the walking of ants. at Sparta. But ho was a man of greatAristophanes also makes fun of Agathons energy and intelligence. His successfuleffeminate appearance. campaigns against the Persians in 396-5Agave (Agauc), the mother of Pentheus and his victory over the Thebans at(see Bacchae). Statins is thought, from a Coronea are related by his friend Xeno-passage in Juvenal (vii, 82 et seq.), to phon in his Hellenica*. He was lesshave written a libretto * Agave for the successful in the wars of Sparta withpantomimic dancer, Paris. Thebes 379-362. Sparta needed money, and in order to earn a subsidy for her,Agenor, In Greek mythology, king of Agesilaus conducted an expedition in aidTyro, and father of Cadmus and Europa of an Egyptian prince against Persia in(qq.v.). 361. In this he met his death. There isAger publicus, land acquired by con- a life of him by Ncpos, and see below. from States conquered by Rome.fiscation Afjcsilaus, one of the minor works ofIn theory it belonged to the Roman Xenophon, an encomium on his friendPeople, in actual practice it was looked Agesilaus (see above). Its authenticity asafter by the Senate and magistrates a work by Xenophon has been questioned,consul, censor, quaestor. There wore two but is generally accepted. Xenophonchief types of tenure. (1) It might be held relates in some detail the campaign ofon lease at a yearly rental, e.g. the fertile Agesilaus against Tissaphernes in 395 andAger Campanus ;the censors wore respon- the march back to Greece through Ma-sible for this rental.(2) It might bo held cedonia and Thessaly, and gives a fullby squatters (posscssores) against a rental, description of the battle of Coronea, wherebut not on lease. They wore therefore at Xenophon may have fought underliberty to go when they liked or liable to Agesilaus against his own expelled at the States pleasure. This The remaining events of his reign arerental was collected by the local govern- touched on more briefly. The author thenments and paid to the censors. There was passes from his deeds to his virtues, anda tendency after the Punic Wars for such illustrates his piety, justice, wisdom, andsquatters to absorb largo tracts of waste and in time to regard it as their own,despite the Licinian (q.v.) laws, which Agon (contest), (1) see Comedy, 2;limited the amount of land which could (2) at Athens, also an action at law ; (3) atbe held. Hence arose the evictions and Rome, an athletic or musical contestdisputes in connexion with the legislation forming part of the public games, seeof the Gracchi, who desired to resume the Ludi, 2.public land in order to create settlements Agora (Agora), in Greece, an assemblyfor distressed citizens. Stability was of the people, as opposed to tho Councilrestored by a law of 111 (for which see (Boule, q.v.). In tho constitution ofE. G. Hardys Roman Laws and Char- Cleisthenes (q.v.) the name was applied toters), but the question of public land came the assembly of the people hi each tribe