The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature
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The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature Document Transcript

  • 1. DO 68204 >mCD
  • 2. THE OXFORDCOMPANION TO CLASSICALLITERATURE
  • 3. THE OXFORDCOMPANIONTO CLASSICALLITERATURE Compiled and edited by SIB PAUL HARVEY OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1937
  • 4. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS AMEN HOUSE, E.G. 4 London Edinburgh Glasgow New York Toronto Melbourne Capetown Bombay Calcutta Madras HUMPHREY MILFORD PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITYPRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, OXFORB BY JOHN JOHNSON. PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY
  • 5. PEEFACE aim of this book, as designed by the publishers, is toTHE present, in convenient form, information which the ordinaryreader, not only of the literatures of Greece and Rome, but alsoof that large proportion of modern European literature whichteems with classical allusions, may find useful. It endeavours todo two things in the first place to bring together what he may :wish to know about the evolution of classical literature, theprincipal authors, and their chief works in the second place, ;to depict so much of the historical, political, social, and religiousbackground as may help to make the classics understood.Accordingly, for the first of the above purposes, articles inalphabetical arrangement (1) explain the various elements ofclassical literature epic, tragedy, comedy, metre, &c (2) give;an account of the principal authors; and (3) describe thesubjects or contents of their works, either under the name ofthe author, where more convenient, under the title of the or,work itself. Interesting points of connexion between the classicsand medieval and modern English literature are noticed. Ingeneral the book confines itself to the classical period, but someauthors of the decline, such as Plutarch and Lucian, Jerome andAusonius, are included, because of their exceptional interest orimportance. In addition, to effect the second of the above purposes,articles are added: (1) on the principal phases of the history of Greece (more particularly Athens) and Rome, down to the end of the period of their classical literatures, and on their political institutions and economic conditions outstanding histori- ; cal characters, inseparable from literature, such as Pericles and Pompey, are separately mentioned ; (2) on Greek and Roman religion and religious institutions, and the principal schools of philosophy ; (3) on various aspects of the social conditions, under such
  • 6. vi PREFACE headings as Houses, Women (Position of), Slavery, Educa- tion, Food, Clothing, and Games ; the art, industry, com- merce, and agriculture of the Greek and Roman periods are also noticed ; (4) on the more important myths and mythological charac- ters, as an essential element in Greek and Roman litera- ture; (5) on geographical names of importance in a literary connexion, as the birthplaces of authors, or as the scene of events frequently alluded to something is said of the ; topography of Athens and Rome, and further geographical information is furnished by maps and plans ; (6) on the manner in which ancient books were written, and the texts transmitted and studied through the ages ; (7) on such things as Roman camps, roads, and aqueducts, ancient ships and chariot-races, horses and elephants in antiquity, and domestic pets. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that this work doesnot list antiquities as such, but only those antiquities whichconcern the study of classical literature. The compiler of a book such as this is necessarily under aheavy debt to previous writers. It would be impossible, withinthe limits of a preface, to enumerate the works, whether editionsof and commentaries on ancient authors, or treatises on variousaspects of antiquity, which have been consulted in the courseof its preparation. Of such works I may specially mention,rather as an illustrative sample than as giving any indication ofthe extent of my obligations, the works of Werner on JaegerAristotle, of Prof. Gilbert Murray on Aristophanes, of C. M.Bowra on Homer, of Sir J. C. Sandys on Epigraphy and on theHistory of Scholarship, of A. W. Pickard-Cambridge on theevolution of the Greek drama, of F. G. Kenyon and F. W. Hallon ancient books, of W. W. Tarn on Hellenistic Civilization, ofR. C. Jebb on the Attic Orators, and of R. G. Collingwoodon Roman Britain. Apart from this general acknowledgementof my indebtedness, I must confine myself to naming a few
  • 7. PREFACE viiworks from which I have more especially and more frequentlysought; ^guidance, viz,: in the matter of Greek Literature, thehisto^es of the subject by A. and M. Croiset, Prof. GilbertMurray, and Prof. Rose Latin Literature, the works of J. W. ;Mackail, R. Pichon, J. Wight Duff, and Prof. Rose; Greekmythology and religion, Prof. Roses Handbook of GreekMythology and M. P. Nilssons History of Greek Religion;Roman religion, the works of W. Warde Fowler and Cyril Bailey *and Sir J. G. Frazers commentary on Ovids Fasti; Greekand Roman History, the works of G. Glotz, M. Gary, J. B. Bury,M. Rostovtzeff G. Ferrero, and the Cambridge Ancient History. ,On antiquities in general I have obtained much assistance fromthe Cambridge Companions to Greek and Latin Studies, fromthe dictionaries of Darexnberg and Saglio and of Seyffert(Sandys and Nettleship), and from Stuart Joness Companionto Roman History; on points of biography from LiibkersReallexikon and on certain matters from the Real-Encyclo- ; padie of Pauly-Wissowa. I must also acknowledge the helpful suggestions which I havereceived from several people who were concerned with this bookin its various stages: from Dr. Cyril Bailey; Mr. J. B. Poyntonof Winchester College Mr. W. H. Walsh of Merton College, ;Oxford; Mr. A. H. M. Jones of All Souls College, Oxford; Mr.H. A. Murray of Kings College, Aberdeen; Mr. J. M. Wyllie;Mr. S. W. Steadman; and Miss C. M. M. Leask of Aberdeen;alsofrom the staff of the Clarendon Press. Such value as thebook may have is largely due to them. H.P.H. September, 1937.
  • 8. LIST OF PLATES AND MAPS PAGESDetailed description . . . 465-8 PLATES 1. Greek and Roman Houses. 2. Roman and Roman Camp. Villas 3. Greek Armour. 4. Roman Armour. 6. Greek and Roman Theatres. 6. Greek and Roman Temples. MAPS 7. Asia Minor and the East: Routes of Xerxes, Cyrus, Alexander, and the March of the Ten Thousand. 8. Greece and Asia Minor. 9. Roman Empire.10. Italy.11. Gaul.12. Roman Britain.13 (a). Athens. (6). Piraeus.14 (a). Rome under the Republic. (6). Centre of Rome under the Early Empire.
  • 9. GUJNJKKAL. AKTIULESTHE following selected list indicates the headings under which information on general subjects can be found.Administration,Public (Athens, 9 ; Rome, Horses. 12). Houses and Furniture.Agriculture. Hunting.Alphabet. Judicial Procedure.Aqueducts. Law, Roman.Architecture, Greek (for Koman Archi- Libraries. tecture, see Art). Ludi.Army. Lyric Poetry.Art, Roman (for Greek Art Bee Architec- Magic, ture, Painting, Sculpture, Toreutic Art). Maps.Augury and Auspices. Metre.Augustan Age. Migrations and Dialects, Greek.Baths. Mines.Birthplaces of Greek and Roman Money and Coins. authors. Monsters.Books, Ancient. Museums.Burial and Cremation. Music.Byzantine Age of Greek Literature. Mysteries.Calendar. Mythology.Castra. Names.Chariot races. Novel.Ciceronian Age. Omens.Classic. Oracles.Clothing and Toilet. Oratory.Colonization. Ostraca.Comedy. Painting, Greek (for Roman Painting seeCorn Supply. Art).Dancing. Papyri, Discoveries of.Dictionaries. Pets.Didactic poetry. Philosophy.Divination. Pottery.Dogs. Priests.Economic Conditions (Athens, 10 J Prose. Rome, 13). Provinces, Roman.Editions of Collections of the Classics. Religion.Education. Roads.Elegy. Roman Age of Greek Literature.Elephants. Sacrifice.Epio. Satire.Epigraphy. Satyric Drama.Epitaphs. Sculpture, Greek (for Roman SculptureFestivals. see Art).Finances (Athens, II; Rome, 14). Ships.Food and Wine. Slavery.Games. Temples.Gladiators. Texts and Studies.Glass. Theatre.Guilds. Tragedy.Hellenistic Age. Vase-painting.Historians, Ancient, and Modern. Weights and Measures.Homeric Age. Women, Position of. A date chart of Greek and Latin authors and of events contemporary with them is given on pages 455-62.
  • 10. PKELIMINAEY NOTE HEAD-WORDSPROPER names are entered as head -words in the form in which theyare most familiar to ordinary readers, e.g. Ajax, Aristotle,Menelaus, Phidias, Terence. The Greek v appears as y, K as c,.and final -os as -us where these are the more familiar forms. Thecorrect transliteration of Greek names and the full Latin names areadded in brackets where required: e.g. Ajax (Aids), Aristotle(Aristoteles), Menelaus (Meneldos), Phidias (Pheidids), Terence(Publius Terentius Afer) (Less familiar names, not head- words, such .as Asopichos, Pherenikos, are given in transliterated form.) Latin proper names appear under the persons nomen unless he isgenerallyknown by his cognomen e.g. Cicero appears under that ;name, not under Tullius . In a few cases the names are given underthe praenomen, e.g. Appius Claudius, where this is the customarydesignation. QUANTITIES AND PRONUNCIATION The ordinary English pronunciation of names is shown, by stressand quantity marks, in head- words only (i.e. in the words printed inheavy black type at the beginning of each article). Where thequantities in the English pronunciation differ from those in Greek orLatin, the name is repeated in brackets with the Greek or Latinquantities. The quantities shown in all names and common nounsother than head-words are their quantities as Greek or Latin words,and are not necessarily an indication of their accepted pronunciationin English. For instance (1) Catullus, GAIUS VALERIUS, (2) Claudius (Tib&rius Claudius N&ro Qermanicua), (3) a river in Pamphylia,where Catullus and Claudius represent the ordinary Englishpronunciation, while Glfus, VALERIUS, Tiblriua, Nlro, Qermanicus,Pamphylia, show the quantities of the Latin or Greek names. In general only the long vowels are marked, and vowels are to betaken as short unless marked as long but ; (1) a syllable in which the vowel is long (or common) by position,
  • 11. PEELIMINARY NOTEunder the ordinary rules of Greek and Latin prosody, as beingfollowed^by two consonants, is usually not marked; e.g. the firstsyllables in Thersites, Petronius ;< (2) the vowels of Latin case-endings which are long by the ordi-nary rules of Latin prosody, for instance -o, -a, -is of the ablative,-i, -orum, -arum of the genitive, are not marked; e.g. De Amlcitia. (3) short vowels are occasionally marked with the short sign,e.g. for emphasis, as where a vowel which is short in Greek or Latinis usually pronounced long in English ; e.g. Solon (Solon), Titus(Titus). Where a vowel is common (sometimes short, sometimes long) other-wise than under above, this is indicated by the sign -; e.g. (1)Diana. Where, in a name of some importance, a quantity is un-known or uncertain, the fact is stated. The groups of letters AE, AI, Atr, EI, EU, otr, are to be takenas diphthongs unless indicated that the letters are to be pro- it isnounced separately, e.g. Alpheus, Antinous. Where a name which appears as a head-word occurs also elsewherein the course of an article, the quantities are not always again in- *dicated there. For instance, where Socrates occurs in the articleon Plato, it is printed without indication of the quantities. The greatmajority of the names of persons and places mentioned in the courseof articles are given also as head- words, if only for purpose of cross-reference ; and this applies also to Greek and Latin common nounssuch as ecdesia, venationes. Accordingly a reader who desires to knowthe quantities of the syllables of such a name or noun should firstlook for it among the head- words. If it does not appear there andno quantities are marked where it is found in an article, it may beinferred that its syllables are short.
  • 12. ABBREVIATIONSad fin.: adfinem, at or near the end. gen. : genitive.b. : born. Gk.: Greek.c. : century. L. or Lat. Latin. :cc.: centuries. m. married. :c.: circa, about. O.T.: Old Testament.cf.: confer, compare. q.v. : quod vide, which see.d. : died. qq.v,: quae vide, both which, or alldr.: daughter. which, see.et seq. : et sequentes, and following. understand or supply. sc.: scilicet,fl.i floruit, flourished. The abbreviated names of authors and works, such as Horn. Il/, Virg. Aen., appearing in this book are for the most part sufficientlyfamiliar to need no explanation but the following may be noted: ;Apoph. Keg.: Apophthegmata Re- Phaedr.: Phaednis. gum. Ran. : Ranae (Frogs).Ep.: Epistulae (Epistles). Sep. c. Th. Septem contra Thebas :Epod.: Epodes. (Seven against Thebes).Nub. :Nubes (Clouds). Vesp. : Vespae (Wasps).Phaed.:Phaedo.
  • 13. G0M1PANION TO CLASSICAL LITERATUREAbbreviations denoting certain editions interlocutors were L. Licinius Lucullusof the Classics, etc. (q.v.), Q. Lutatius Catulus, an aristocraticALG. leader (consul in 78 B.C.), Q. Hortensius Anthotogia Lyrica Graeca.Bude. Collection des University de France, (q.v.), and Cicero. The two books of this first edition were called * Catulus and publiee SOILS le patronage de IAssoc. Guillaume Bude. Lucullus after the chief interlocutors.CAF. Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta. Cicero then camo to the conclusion thatCAH. Cambridge Ancient History. these interlocutors could not agree, andCGF. Comicorum Oraecorum Fragmenta. as Varro had asked that a work should beCIE. Corpus Inscriptionum Etruscarum. dedicated to him, Cicero altered his planGIG. Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. and dedicated a new edition to him.CIL. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. He rearranged the work in four books,CLA. Codices Latini Antiquiores. and made the interlocutors Varro, Atticus,Cl.Qu. Classical Quarterly. and Cicero. We have the first book (i.e.Cl.Rev. Classical Review. the first quarter) of the second editionGPL. Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. (sometimes known as Academica Pos-CRP, Comicorum Romanorum Fragmenta. toriora), and the second book (i.e. theFdV. Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. second half, Lucullus) of the first edition (sometimes known as Academica Priora). *FHG. Fragmenta Historicorum Oraecorum.HRR. Historicorum Romanorum Reli- The scene of the conversations is laid at various villas on the shores of the Gulf of quiae.IG. Inscriptiones Graecae (Berlin, 1873- Naples. The date of the conversations, in the first edition, was supposed to be before ).IGA. Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae 60 B.C. in the second, near the time of ; (Berlin, 1882). composition.JHS. Journal of Hellenic Studies. In Book I of the second edition VarroOCT. Oxford Classical Texts. expounds the evolution of the doctrines of the Academy (q.v.), from the dog-PLG. Poetae Lyrici Graeci.RE. Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclopddie. matism of the old school to the scepticismRev. Arc. Revue Archeologique. of Arcesilas and Carneades. In Book IISEG. Supplementum Epigraphicum Grae- of the first edition Lucullus attacks the cum. position of the sceptics. Cicero defendsSVF. Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. the sceptic view and Carneades doctrineTeubner or BT. Dibliotheca scriptorum of probability. Graec. et Lot. Teubneriana.Thes. L.L. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae. Acptiemus, see Academy. Academy (Akademeia), a grove of olive-Abdera a Greek city on the trees near Athens, adjoining the Cephlsus, (ra "Afloypa),coast of Thrace, founded in the 7th c. and sacred to the hero Academus (see Dios-refounded in the 6th by lonians (of TeQs in curi), and containing a gymnasium (q.v.).Asia Minor), the birthplace of Protagoras It was in this grove that Plato and hisand Democritus (qq.v.); nevertheless pro- successors taught, and his school of philo-verbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants. sophy was in consequence known as the Academy,Absyrtus (Apsurtos), brother of Medea the olive grove of Academe, ;see Argonauts. Platos retirement, where the Attic bird Trills her thick -warbld notes the summerAbydos (Abudos), see Colonization, 2,and Leander. long. (Milton, P.R. iv. 244 et seq.). Sulla cut down the trees during his siegeAcad&mica* a dialogue by Cicero on the of Athens, but they must have grownphilosophical theories of knowledge, com- again, for Horace, who studied at Athens, *posed in 45 B.C. In its first form the refers to the woods of Academus (Ep. n.treatise consisted of two books, and the ii. 45). Plato was buried near the grove. 4339
  • 14. Acastus Achaean LeagueHis immediate successors as leaders of praetextae (q.v.) (on Decius Mus andthe school were Spousippus, Xenocrates, Brutus the liberator) and works onPolemo, and Crates, and the Academy literature Didascalica, a short history (under these leaders was known as the of Greek and Latin poetry, perhaps inOld Academy. A brief account of the verse and prose, thus anticipating tho general character of the Platonic teaching Menippean Satires of Varro), agriculturewill be found under Plato, 3. Arcesilas of (in verse), and history (annals, of rather aPitane (c. 315-240 B.C.), who introduced mythological and theological character,the doctrines of Pyrrhonian scepticism in verse). He was the first great Latin(see Sceptics) into the teaching of the grammarian of whom tradition tolls. Hisschool and engaged in controversy with tragedies were marked by dignity of stylethe Stoics on the question of the certitude and by the faculty of depicting terror,of knowledge, was the founder of what is pathos, and fortitude. He is perhaps theknown as the Second or Middle Academy. first Latin poet to show some appreciationThis sceptical attitude was further de- of the beauty of nature. His Atreusveloped by Carneades (q.v.) in the 2nd contained the tyrants phrase Oderintc. B.C. Antiochus of Ascalon in the 1st dum metuant, said by Suetonius to havec. B.C. effected a reconciliation with tho been frequently in Caligulas mouth.Stoic school and claimed to restore the Acestes, in the Aeneid, son of theOld Academy. See also Neoplatonism. Sicilian river-god Crimisus and a TrojanAcastus (Akastos), son of Pelias (see woman (Egesta or Segesta). He enter-Argonauts) and father of Laodameia (sec tains Aeneas and his comrades in Sicily.Protesilaus). See also Peleus. Achaea, Achaeans (Achaia, Achaioi).Acca Larentia or LAURENTIA, probably Aohaeans, according to a view widely held by modern students, was the nameoriginally an Italian goddess of the earthto whom the seed was entrusted. She was by which the first Hellenic invaders of Greece were called (see Migrations andworshipped at the Ldrentdlia on Dec. 23.In legend she was the wife of the herdsman Dialects), and Achaea was the name ofFaustulus and the nurse of Romulus and two territories in Greece, the region whereRemus. For a discussion of her possible con- they first settled in tho north (the name wasnexion with tho Lares (q.v.) see Frazer on subsequently restricted to the mountainsOv. Fast. iii. 55. of Phthiii), and a strip along the southern shore of the Corinthian Gulf, which theyAccents, GREEK, were invented by Ari- occupied later. But it is pointed out thatstophanes of Byzantium (q.v.), about tho there is no evidence of any traditionbeginning of the 2nd c. B.C., with a view that tho Achaeans were Invaders, and thatto preserving the correct pronunciation, Herodotus and Pausanias speak of themwhich in the Hellenistic Age was being as autochthonous. Homer xiscs the termcorrupted by the extension of tho Greek in two senses: in a narrower sense of alanguage to many new countries. The people inhabiting the kingdom of Achillesaccents indicated not stress but varia- near the Spercheus in Thessaly, and in ations in the pitch of the voice. The grave wider sense of the Greek army besiegingaccent signified the ordinary tone, the Troy and of the Greeks generally, noacute a rise in tho voice, the circumflex doubt because the Achaeans were aa rise followed by a fall. In tho period of prominent tribe among them.papyrus rolls (see Books) accents are as The Achaeans of the Peloponnese werea rule only occasionally indicated. The tho founders, probably in the 8th c. B.C.,use of them became generalized about of the important group of colonies at thethe 3rd c. A.D. The most important work southern extremity of Italy (includingon accentuation was that of Herodian Sybaris and Croton) which formed the(q.v.). H. W. Chandlers Greek Accentua- greater part of what was known as Mag-tion (2nd ed. 1881, Clarendon Press) is a na Graecia. Much later, Peloponnesianstandard treatise on this subject. Achaea became important in the historyAccius or Arnus, Ltfcrus (170-C.86 of the 3rd c. B.C. as the centre of theB.C.), a Latin poet, probably of Pisaumm Achaean League (q.v.). In a later agein Umbria, of a humble family. He was again Achaia was the name given bya younger contemporary of Pacuvius the Romans to the province, comprising the greater part of Greece, formed by(q.v.), whom he rivalled as a greatRoman tragedian. Cicero records that he Augustus.conversed with him. We have the titles Achaean League, a league of cities ofof some 45 of his tragedies, which dealt Achaea in the Peloponnese which hadwith Greek themes such as Andromeda, detached themselves from the rule ofMedea, Philoctetes. He also wrote two Antigonus Gonatas (see Macedonia, 3)
  • 15. Achaemenidae AchilleidIn 275 B.o. Its constitution is interesting Dikaiopolis, an Athenian farmer, sitsbecause the affairs of the League were awaiting the meeting of the Assembly,administered by a Council composed of sighing for the good times of peace. Adelegations from the cities in proportion Demigod appears, sent by the gods toto their population; each delegation was arrange peace with Sparta, but unfortun-chosen by its city, but we do not know by ately lacking the necessary travelling-what method. It was the nearest approach money. This Dikaiopolis provides, butto representative government which we the treaty with Sparta is to be a privatefind in Greece. The power and influence one for himself alone. The Demigodof the League increased under the leader- presently brings the treaty, narrowlyship of Aratus of Sicyon, who from 245 escaping from the chorus of infuriatedwas for thirty years the director of the Acharnians. Dikaiopolis celebrates hisLeagues policy, and in alternate years peace with a procession consisting of hisits general (he wrote his Memoirs, now daughter and servants, and this leadslost, and there is a life of him by Plutarch, to a dispute between Dikaiopolis and theincluding a vivid description of his capture chorus on the question of peace or war,of Corinth). He made the League the in which Lamachus (q.v.), the typicalleading power in the Peloponnese, with general, takes part. Dikaiopolis is allowedCorinth as its chief stronghold. On the to make a speech before being executed asmilitary side the League subsequently a traitor ; and to render this more patheticderived great strength from the ability borrows from Euripides some of the stageof Philopocmen (q.v.), and was finally (in properties that make his tragedies so mov-188) able to overcome Sparta herself. But ing. As a result the chorus are won overits high-handed policy brought it into to the view of Dikaiopolis. After theconflict with Rome. After the defeat of parabasis, in which the poet defends histhe Macedonians at Pydna (168), Rome, position, there is a succession of amusingas a measure of future security, deported scenes illustrative of the benefits of peace.to Italy a thousand Achaeans suspected A Megarian (Athens had been trying toof hostility to her cause among these was ; starve out Megara by a blockade) comesPolybius (q.v.). In 148, when the surviving to Dikaiopolis to buy food, offering inexiles (other than Polybius) had returned exchange his little daughters disguised asto Greece, there was again trouble between pigs in sacks. A Boeotian brings eels andthe League and Sparta. Rome intervened other good things, and wants in returnand imposed harsh terms on the League. local produce of Attica; he is given anThe League rebelled and declared war, but Informer tied up in a sack. A yeomanafter a short struggle was completely de- wants peace -salve for his eyes, which hefeated by Mummius hi 146 and dissolved. has cried out for the loss of his oxen ; and so forth. Finally Lamachus has to marchAchaemenidae, the first royal house off through the snow against the Boeo-of Persia, so named from the hero tians, and returns wounded by a vine-Achaemenes (Pers. Hakhdmanis), founder stake on which he has impaled himself,of the family. To this family belonged while Dikaiopolis makes merry with theCyrus, Cambyses, and Darius (see Persian priest of Bacchus.Wars). Achates, in the Aeneid, the faithfulAcharnfans (Acharnes), a comedy by friend and squire of Aeneas, frequentlyAristophanes, produced at the Lenaea in referred to as fldus Achates.425 B.C., his first surviving play. The Athenians had for six years been Acheron (Acheron), in Greek mythology, one of the rivers of the lower world (seesuffering the horrors of the PeloponnesianWar, the devastation of their territory* Hades). The name was that of a river in southern Epirus, which, issuing fromplague in the overcrowded city, and shor-tage of food, but their spirit was unbroken. a deep and gloomy gorge, traversed theThe Acharnians (inhabitants of an Attic Aoherusian swamps, and after recievingdeme lying NVV. of Athens near the foot the waters of the tributary Cdcytus fellof Mt. Parnes), of whom the chorus of into the Thesprotian Gulf.this play is composed, had been among AchillSid (AchilUis), an epic poem inthe chief sufferers, for their territory had hexameters by Statius (q.v.) on the storybeen repeatedly ravaged. The comedy, of Achilles (q.v.), of which only one bookwhich is a plea for peace as the only and part of a second were written. Therational solution, was produced, not in poem describes how Thetis, anxious thatthe name of Aristophanes, who was still a her son shall not take part in the Trojanyouth, but in that of Callistratus, probably War (from which she knows he will notalso a comic poet. It won the first prize, return), removes him from the care of thein spite of the unpopularity of the theme. centaur Chiron (q.v.) to Scyros. It relates
  • 16. Achilles Actlumhis adventures there in the disguise of a 480 B.C.; the walls were rebuilt by Themi-girl, his discovery by Ulysses, and de- stoclcs and Cimon (qq.v.). In the centreparture for Troy. The work was begun in stood a colossal statue of Athene Pro-A,D. 95 and was probably cut short by the machos (the Champion) whose goldenwriters death. spear-point could be seen by marinersAchiltes (Achil(l)eus), son of Peleus and from the sea. On the N. side stood theThetis (qq.v.), the chief hero on the Greek Erectheum, the original temple of theside in the Trojan War (q.v.). When an tutelary deities of Athens, Athene, Posei-infant, he was plunged by his mother don, and Ercchtheus (qq.v.), burnt byin the Styx, and rendered invulnerable the Persians and rebuilt in the latterexcept hi the heel by which she held him. part of the 5th c. hi the Ionic style, withShe later hid him, disguised as a girl, at Caryatides (q.v.) supporting its southernthe court of Lycomodes, King of Scyros, porch. In the age of Pericles were added,hi order that he should not take part in the Parthenon and Propylaea (qq.v.). There also was erected after the peacethe Trojan War; but he was discovered of 421 B.C. (see Peloponnesian War) theby Odysseus (q.v.), who sot arms before beautiful little temple of Athene Nikehim, for Achilles betrayed himself by the ( Victory), which survives reconstructed.fondness with which he handled them. It stood on a bastion adjoining the Pro-(There is a play by Robert Bridges,* Achilles in Scyros). By Deidamia, pylaea and was demolished by the Turks about 1685 to make place for a battery.daughter of Lycomedes, Achilles had a At the siege of Other sanctuaries, such as that of Artemisson, Neoptolemus (q.v.). (q.v.) Brauronia, and many statues andTroy, Achilles was leader of the Myr-midons (see Aeucus). He is represented as altars, stood on various parts of the rock.a man of fierce and implacable temper. There were also a large number of marbleWhen he sulked in his tent in conse- slabs and columns, with inscriptions of decrees, memorials, casualty -lists, treatiesquence of his quarrel with Agamemnon, asrelated hi the Iliad, the Greeks were and alliances, public accounts, inventories, etc. Many of these inscriptions, more ordriven back to their ships and almostoverwhelmed. Then followed the inter- less mutilated, have survived.vention of his friend Patroclus (q.v.) in Actaeon (Actaiori), in Greek mythology,the battle, the death of the latter, and son of Aristae us (q.v.) and Autonoe,the terrible grief of Achilles. After ho had daughter of Cadmus (q.v.). For somebeen reconciled with Agamemnon, he slew offence, either because ho boasted thatHector, and later Penthesilea, queen of the he was a better hunter than Artemis orAmazons, who was fighting on the Trojan because he came upon her bathing, theside. Mourning her for her beauty, ho was goddess changed him into a stag, and hemocked by and killed him Thersitcn (q.v.) was torn to pieces by his own hounds.in a rage. Soon afterwards he was shotin the heel by Paris (q.v.), or by Apollo, Actium, a promontory in the south ofand killed. Odysseus saw him in Hades JLpirus, at the mouth of the Ambracian off which Octavian defeated the fleets(Od. xi), but it was said later that he Gulf,lived immortal in an island in the Euxine of Antony and Cleopatra in 31 B.C. (see 7). This battle marked the end of(see under Colonization, 2, for his worship Rome,there). After the fall of Troy his ghost the Roman republic and introduced theclaimed Polyxena, daughter of Priam, as Roman empire. Early in 31 Octavian hadhis prize, and she was slain on his tomb. landed an army in Epirus hi the hope of fLandor has an Imaginary Conversation* surprising Antony s fleet in the Ambracianbetween Achilles and Helen on Mt. Ida. Gulf. In this hope ho had been disap-The heel of Achilles is proverbial for a pointed, for Antony had succeeded invulnerable spot. bringing up his army for the defence of the fleet and establishing it at Actium.Achilles Tatius, see Novel. For several months the armies and fleetsAcis (Akis), see Galatea. of the two generals confronted each other. At last, late in August, Antony decided toAcragas (Akrag&s), see Agrigentum. fight a battle at sea; but what preciselyAcrisius (Akrisios), see Danae. were his plans is uncertain. The fightAcre/polls (Upper Town), the citadel, began at dawn on 2 September. At firststanding on high ground, of a Greek town. the heavier ships of Antony appearedThe Acropolis of Athens is a rocky plateau, to be prevailing; but presently the sixtyabout 200 ft. high and about 300 yds. long Egyptian ships forming the contingentby 150 yds. wide. It was surrounded by of Cleopatra were seen to set sail and makewalls, which, with the buildings within off southwards. Antony himself followedthem, were destroyed by the Persians in her in a swift quinquereme. Antonys
  • 17. Ad Herennium Adrastus was destroyed, andfleet his army shortly to die for him. Thefather and mother ofwent over to Octavian. Admetus having refused, his wife Alcestis consented, and accordingly died. JustAd Herennium, Rhetorica, see Rhetoriea. after this, Heracles, on his way to one ofAdelphoe (or Adelphi, The Brothers), his labours, visited the castle of Admetus.a comedy by Terence, adapted from Mcn- The latter, in obedience to the laws ofander and Diphilus (see Comedy, 4), hospitality, concealed the death of hisproduced in 160 B.C. wife, and welcomed the hero. Heracles The two sons of Demea, Aeschinus and presently discovered the truth, went outCtcsipho, are brought up, the former by to intercept Thanatos, the messenger fromhis uncle Micio in the town, the latter by Hades, set upon him and took from himhis father in the country, and the theme whom he restored to her husband. Alcestis,of the comedy is the contrast between For Euripides treatment of the storytheir methods of education. Dcmea makes see Alcestis.himself hated and distrusted by his harsh- Administration, PUBLIC, see Athens,ness and frugality; Micio makes himself 9, Rome, 12.loved and trusted by his indulgence and Adoniaziiscic, see Theocritus.open-handedncss. Aeschinus has seducedan Athenian lady of small means, loves Adonic, see Metre, 3.her dearly, and wishes to marry her. in Greek mythology, a beautifulCtesipho, whom his father a J^donia, believes "youth sprung from the unnatural lovemodel of virtue, has fallen hi love with a of Myrrha (or Smyrna) for her fathermusic-girl. Aeschinus, to help his brother, Cinyras (q.v.), king of Cyprus, with whichcarries off the girl from the slave-dealer she had been smitten by Aphrodite for re-to whom she belongs and brings her to fusing to honour the goddess. When Ciny-Micio s house. He thereby incurs the ras, discovering the crime, sought to killsuspicion of carrying on an intrigue with Myrrha, she was changed into a myrtle,this girl at the very moment when the from which Adonis was born. Aphroditelady whom he has seduced has most need (q.v.) fell in love with him and, when heof his sympathy and support. The truth was killed by a boar while hunting, causedbecomes known. Aeschinus is forgiven by the rose or tho anemone to spring fromMicio and his marriage arranged. Demea his blood (or the anemone sprang fromis confounded at discovering the pro- the tears that Aphrodite shed for Adonis).fligacy of Ctesipho. Finding that his Both Aphrodite and Persephone (q.v.)boasted method of education has earned then claimed him, and Zeus decided thathim only hatred, ho suddenly changes his he should spend part of the year withattitude and makes an amusing display each. Tho name Adonis is probably theof geniality forcing his old bachelor Semitic word Adon, lord, and the mythbrother into a reluctant marriage with is symbolical of the course of vegetation*the bride s mother, endowing her relative His death and survival were widely cele-with a farm at, Micio s expense, and brated (in tho East under the name of hisobliging the latter to free his slave and Syrian equivalent, Thamuz, cf. Milton,start him in life showing that even P.L. i. 446-52). As a feature of his wor-geniality can bo overdone. ship, the image of Adonis was surrounded The *Adelphoe was played at the with beds of rapidly withering plants,funeral games of Aemilius Paullus (q.v.). Gardens of Adonis. These are referredAdmetus (Admatos), in Greek mytho- to, e.g., in Spensers Faerie Queene, in. vi. 29, hi Shakespeares 1 Henry VI,logy, son of Pheres and king of Pheraoin Thessaly. When Zeus killed Asclepius i. vi, anjfljba Milton, P.L. ix. 440. The story of the Tore ot~Venus for Adonis is(q.v.) for restoring Hippolytus to life, tho subject of Shakespeare s poem VenusApollo, the father of Asclepius, furious atthis treatment of his son, took vengeance and Adonis.on the Cyclopes (q.v.) who had forged Adrastus (Adrastos), legendary king ofZeuss thunderbolt, and slew them. To Argos at the time of the conflict ofexpiate this crime he was made for a year Polynices and Eteocles for the kingdomthe serf of Admetus, who treated him of Thebes (see Oedipus). Polynices mar-kindly. Apollo, having learnt from the ried his daughter Argeia, Tydeus marriedFates that Admetus was destined to an her sister Deipyle; and Adrastus col-early death, from gratitude to him lected and led the army of the Sevencajoled the Fatss (with the help of wine) against Thebes. When tho expeditioninto granting Admetus longer life, pro- was defeated, Adrastus escaped, thanksvided that at the appointed hour of his to the swiftness of his horse Arion, thedeath he could persuade some one else offspring of Poseidon and Demeter. In
  • 18. Aea 6 Aemilius Paullushis old age ho led the second expedition Aegeus (Aigffus), see Theseus and Medeaagainst Thebes, that of the Epigoni (q.v.) (Euripides tragedy).and died on his way home, after its suc-cessful conclusion, from grief for the loss Aegina (Aigina), (1) a nymph, the mother of Aeacus (q.v.). (2) An island inof his son, who alone had fallen in the the Saronio Gulf which was occupied byattack. tho Dorians (see Migrations). In theAea (Aia), in the story of the Argonauts 6th c. it was a strong naval power and(q.v.), the realm of Aeetes (q.v.), later at enmity with Athens. When Persiaidentified with Colchis. threatened Greece early in the 5th c., itAeacus (Aiakos), in Greek mythology, was feared that the Aeginetans wouldson of Zous and the nymph Aegina. He support tho invaders. By tho interventionwas the father Telamon (father of the of Sparta Aegina was forced to give ofgreater Ajax) and of Peleus (father of Athens hostages for her good conduct,Achilles) (qq.v.). He was a man of great and an indecisive war between Aeginapiety, and when the inhabitants of his and Athens followed, beginning probably in 488. Aegina, as a matter of fact, foughtisland, Aegina, were destroyed by a plague,Zeus, to reward him, created human beings bravely on the Greek side at Salamis.out of ants (murmekes) to repeople it, and After the Persian Wars she opposed thethese were called Myrmidons, the name imperial policy of Athens and was sub-by which the subjects of Peleus and dued in 457-6. During the PeloponnesianAchilles are known in Homer. See also War the inhabitants were expelled and the island was colonized (c. 429) by AthenianMinos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus. * cleruchs (q.v.). The island was an impor-Aeaea (Aiatt), in the Odyssey, tho tant centre of Greek sculpture and con-island of Circe, situated in the stream tained a famous temple of Aphaia (seeOceanus (q.v.). Britomartis), of which the fine pedimentsAediles (Aedues) of the plebs, at Home, survive (at Munich). In mythology Aeginaoriginally two plebeian magistrates (named was the realm of Aeacus (q.v.)aediles* from the aedes or temple of Ceres, Aegisthus (Aigisthos), see Pelops.where they preserved the decrees of thepeople), who bad the charge of temples, Aegospotami (Aigospotamoi, Goatsbuildings, markets, and games. To them Rivers), a small river in the Thracianwere later added two Curule Aediles repre- Chersonese, off the mouth of which Athenssenting the whole people. The aediles suffered her final naval defeat in thewere charged with the corn-supply of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) in 405 B.C.metropolis until this was entrusted to see Aegyptus (Aiguptos), (1) Danaus;special officers (see Annona). (2) see Egypt.Aedon, in Greek mythology, daughter of Aelian (Claudius Aelianus) (fl. c. A.D.Pandareos and wife of Zethus king of 200), author of fourteen books (in Greek)Thebes. She was envious of Niobe (q.v.) of Historical Miscellanies (PoikUe His-her sister-in-law (wife of Amphion brother torid), showing wide but uncritical learn-of Zethus) because she had many children, ing about political and literary celebrities ;and plotted to kill them. By mistake she and of a work On the Characteristics ofslew her own child, Itylus (or Itys), and Animals in seventeen books. Both worksmourned for him so bitterly that the gods (the former partly in epitomized form)changed her into a nightingale. Swinburne survive.has a poem Itylus on this legend. Cf. thestory of Procne (see Philomela). Aelius Aristides, see Aristides.Aeetes (Aieies), in Greek mythology, Aelius Lampridius, see Historia Au-son of Helios (q.v.), king of Colchis, gusta.brother of Circe (q.v.), and father of Aelius Spartianus, see Historia Au-Medea. See Athamas and Argonauts. gusta.Aegates Insulae, islands off Lilybaeum Aemilius Paullus, LCcius (d. 160 B.C.),in Sicily, near which was fought in 242 B.C. son of the Aemilius Paullus who fell atthe naval battle in which Q. Lutatius Cannae (q.v.), was consul for the secondCatulus, the Roman admiral, defeated time in 168 B.C., when the Macedonianthe Punic fleet, thereby terminating the War, owing to the incompetence of theFirst Punic War (see Punic Wars). Roman generals and the indiscipline of theAegean Sea (Aigaios Pontos), the part army, was going ill for Rome. He restoredof the Mediterranean between Greece and discipline and in a single campaignAsia Minor. The etymology of the name is brought the war to a successful end by hisunknown. victory at Pydna. He formed, with the
  • 19. Aeneas 7 Aeneidbooks that had belonged to the Ma- families by representing their ancestorscedonian king (Perseus), the first private in the heroic age, and for recounting,library at Rome. The proceeds of the by the device of prophecy, the historicalbooty gained at Pydna were enormous, triumphs of Rome and of Augustus. Theand were scrupulously paid into the Ro- striking feature of the poem is the con-man treasury. He combined old Roman ception of Italy as a single nation, and ofvirtue with Greek enlightenment. He vas Roman history as a continuous whole fromfather of Scipio Aemilianus (q.v.). There the founding of the city to the full expan-is a life of him by Plutarch. sion of the Empire. The greatness of the theme made a profound impression on theAeneas (Gk. Ainaias), son of Anchiseaand Aphrodite (qq.v.) and a member of Roman people the dignity with which it ; Is set forth is enhanced by the poetsthe younger branch of the royal family tender contemplative spirit, his sympathyof Troy (see genealogy under Troy). In with suffering humanity, and his feelingthe Iliad he is represented as under the for nature. The poem has been criticizeddisfavour of Priam and is a secondary hi certain respects. Its mythology is stifffigure. But it is there stated (xx. 307) that* his might shall reign among the Trojans, and conventional; the Homeric Olympusand his childrens children, who shall bo was discredited in Virgils day (for theborn in the aftertime*. There was an poets treatment of religion see under Virgil). Many of the characters are saidearly tradition that he escaped when Troy to lack force and distinctness. The epis-fell, and went to some place in Italy. ode of Aeneas and Dido has been the sub-Timaeus (q.v.) appears to have been thefirst to make him the originator of the ject of the most frequent censure. It is out of harmony with our ideas of right andfuture Roman State. The tale of Aeneasswanderings to Italy was perhaps told by wrong that Dido, deserted by Aeneas, should perish, while Aeneas goes shabbilyStesichorus (q.v.), and we have it in its fully developed form in the Aeneid (q.v.) away scot-free. It is unlikely that Virgilsof Virgil. That the legend was officially contemporaries would have taken this view. A marriage with Dido, a foreignrecognized in the 3rd c. B.C. is shown bythe fact that after the 1st Punic War the woman, is not one of which they wouldAcarnanians requested the help of Rome have approved; Didos passion had en- tangled Aeneas, but the will of theagainst the Aetolians on the ground thattheir ancestors alone of all the Greeks had gods, they would have said, must prevailnot taken part in the expedition against over human passion; and the incident has many parallels in Greek mythologyTroy. The legend was adopted by l^abiusPictor in his history, and by the poets (Theseus and Ariadne, Jason and Medea, &c.). It is perhaps unintentionally thatNaevius and Ennius. See also Tabula the poet so powerfully enlists our sym-Iliaca. For the reconciliation of the pathy for Dido. Conington says thatlegend with the story of the founding of me by Romulus see Rome, 2. Virgil in this episode struck the chord of modern passions, and it vibrated moreZ" f neid (Aeneis), an epic poem in twelve powerfully than the minstrel himselfbooks of hexameters by Virgil, composed expected .in seclusion in Campania during the last Virgil, in composing the Aeneid, drew oneleven years of his life, 30-19 B.C. (that many sources; primarily on the Iliadis to say, after the battle of Actium had and the Odyssey, combining in hisfinally established the principate of poem the travel -adventures of the latterAugustus). The poem was left unfinished with the warfare of the former, andand Virgil is said, when dying, to have modelling on Homer many episodes (e.g.ordered it to be destroyed. He had read the funeral games in Bk. V, the visit toportions of the work to Augustus and his the nether world in Bk. VI, the descrip-family hi 23 B.C. tion of the shield in Bk. VIII). Virgil The poem is a national epic, designed also drew on the Homeric Hymns andto celebrate the origin and growth of the Cyclic poets, the *Argonautica* of Apol-Roman Empire, The groundwork is the lonius Rhodius, the Greek tragedians,legend that Aeneas (q.v.), after the fall and on his own immediate predecessors,of Troy and long wanderings, founded a Ennius, Lucretius, and others. His pic-Trojan settlement in Latium, the source ture of the lower world appears to be aof the Roman race (see Rome, 2). This poetic treatment of the various opinionsafforded scope for the mythical and about it, popular and philosophical,supernatural element found in Homeric prevalent in his day. The contents ofepic, for recalling the ancient beliefs and the work may be briefly summarized aepractices of magic and religion, for glori- follows :fying the Roman people and their chief Book I. Aeneas, who for seven years
  • 20. Aeneid 8 Aeneidsince the fall of Troy has been pursuing: storm; Dido and Aeneas take refuge inhis way to Latium, has Just left Sicily. a cave and are united by the design ofJuno, knowing that a race of Trojan Juno and Venus. The rumour of theirorigin will in future ages threaten her love reaches the neighbouring larbas, whobeloved city Carthage, incites Aeolus to has been rejected by Dido and who nowlet loose a storm on the Trojan fleet. Some appeals to Jupiter. Jupiter orders Aeneasof the ships are wrecked, and the fleet scat- to leave Carthago. Dido discovers Aeneasstered; but Neptune pacifies the sea and preparations for departure and makes aAeneas reaches the Libyan coast. The piteous plea. Her lovers sorry excusesremaining ships also arrive and the for his desertion call down on him DidosTrojans are kindly received by Dido, withering rejoinder. But Aeneas is stead-qiieen of the newly founded Carthage and fast. Dido, distraught by anguish andwidow of Sychaeus. She has fled from fearful visions, makes a last entreaty forTyre, where her husband had been killed delay, and when this is unavailing pre-by his brother Pygmalion, king of the pares for death. When she sees theland. Venus, though Jupiter has revealed Trojan fleet sailing away, she takes herto her the future destiny of Aeneas and own life, heaping in her frenzy curses onhis race, dreading the hate of Juno and Aeneas and his race.the wiles of the Tyrians, designs that Book V. The Trojans return to Sicily,Dido shall be smitten with love for Aeneas. landing hi the territory of their com- Book JI. At Didos request, Aeneas patriot Acestes (q.v.). The anniversaryrelates the fall of Troy and the subsequent of the death of Anchises is celebrated withevents: the building of the Trojan Horse, sacrifices and games. First, a race between the guile of Sinon, the death of Laocoon four ships. Gyas in Chimaera is leading ;(qq.v.), the firing of the city, the desperate ho heaves his pilot overboard for notresistance of Aeneas himself and his com- hugging close enough the turning point;rades, the death of Priam, and his own ho is passed by Cloanthus in Scylla.final flight by the order of Venus; how Sergestus in Centaur runs aground.ho carries off Anchises his father on his Mnestheus in Pristis presses hard onshoulders and takes his son lulus (As- Cloanthus, but the latter wins. Then acanius) by the hand; his wife Creusa foot-race, in which Nisus, leading, slipsfollows but is lost. Her ghost tells him the and falls and deliberately trips Saliusdestiny that awaita him. so as to give the victory to his friend Book III. (Aeneas continues his narra- Euryalus. A boxing match follows be-tive.) He and his companions build a tween Dares of Troy and Entellus offleet and set out. They touch at Thrace Sicily the former is worsted and Aeneas ;(where Aeneas hears the voice of his stops the fight. Finally a shooting-match,murdered kinsman Polydorus from his and a riding display by thirty -six youthsgrave) and Delos. The Delian oracle led by Ascanius (see Ludus Troiae)* Mean-bids them sock the land that first bore while the Trojan women, incited by Junothe Trojan race. This is wrongly inter- and weary of their long wanderings, firepreted to mean Crete, from which they the ships four are destroyed, but a rain- ;are driven by a pestilence. Aeneas now storm quells the fire. When the Trojanslearns that Italy is meant. On their sail away, Palinurus the helmsman, over-way the Trojans land on the island of come by sleep, falls into the sea and is lost.the Harpies (q.v.) and attack them. Book VI. Aeneas visits the CumaeanThe Harpy Cclacno prophesies that they Sibyl, who foretells his wars in Latium.shall found no city till hunger compels After plucking by her direction the Goldenthem to eat the tables at which they Bough (see Di,ana) he descends with her,feed. At Buthrotum in Chaonia they through the cave of Avernus, to the netherfind Helenus the seer (son of Priam) and world. They reach the Styx and on theAndromache, and the former instructs hither side see the ghosts of the unburiodAeneas in the route he must follow, visiting dead; among them Palinurus (q.r.), whothe Cumaean Sibyl and founding his city recounts his fate and begs for burial. Thewhere by a secluded stream he shall find Golden Bough gains for Aeneas permissiona white sow with a litter of thirty young. from Charon to cross the Styx. CerberusAeneas pursues his way and visits the (q.v.) is pacified with a drugged honeycountry of the Cyclops (q.v.) hi Sicily; cake. Various groups of dead are seen:his father dies at Dropanum. Thence he infants, those unjustly condemned, thosereaches Libya. who have died from love (among whom Book IV. Dido, though bound by a Dido receives in silence the renewed ex-vow to her dead husband, confesses to her cuses of Aeneas), and those who haveBister Anna her passion for Aeneas. A fallen in war. They approach the entrancehunting expedition is interrupted by a to Tartarus, where the worst criminals
  • 21. Aeneid 9 Aeneidsuffer torments; but turn aside to Ely- and urges alliance with the Etruscans.sium, where the blest enjoy a care -free He leads Aeneas through the city and ex-life. Here Aeneas finds and vainly seeks plains the origin of various Roman sitesto embrace Anchises. Ho sees ghosts and names. Vulcan, at the request ofdrinking at the river Lethe (q.v.) and Venus, forges armour for Aeneas. TheAnchises expounds to him the reincarna- shield is described, on which are depictedtion of souls after a long purgation (a various events in the future history ofPythagorean doctrine drawn by Virgil Rome, down to the battle of Actium.perhaps from the Orphic and Eleusinian Book IX. While Aeneas is thus absent,traditions). Among these souls he points Turnus blockades the Trojan camp.out to his son those of men who are in the He sets the Trojan ships on fire, butfuture to be illustrious in Roman history, Neptune turns them into sea-nymphs.from Romulus and the early kings to Nisus and Euryalus pass through thothe great generals of later days, Augustus enemy lines at night to summon Aeneas.himself, and his nephew Marcellus (q.v.), They slay some of the enemy in theirto whose brief life the poet makes touching drunken sleep, but fall hi with a hostileallusion. Aeneas and the Sibyl then leave column and are killed, Nisus gallantlythe lower world through the Ivory Gate, striving to save his friend. The Rutuliansthrough which false dreams are sent to assault the camp ; Ascanius performs hismortals (perhaps a hint that what the first exploit; Turnus is cut off withinpoet has described is no more than a the rampart, but escapes by plunging intodream). This book contains the memor- the river.able lines (851-3) on the destiny of Rome, Book X. The gods debate in Olympus,the central thought of the whole poem : and Aeneas secures tho alliance of Tar-Tu regero imperio populos, Romane, me- chon, king of the Etruscans, and returns mento ; to the scat of war, accompanied by PallasHae tibi crunt artes: pacisque imponere (son of Evander) and Tarchon. Turnus morem, opposes them on the shore, to prevent theParcere subjectis, et debellaro superbos. junction of the Trojan forces. In the Book VII. The Trojans reach the mouth battle Turnus kills Pallas; he pursues aof the Tiber hero the Harpys prophecy ; phantom of Aeneas contrived by Juno(see Bk. Ill above) is fulfilled, for the and is borne away to his city. AeneasTrojans eat cakes of bread which they wounds Mezentius, whose son Lausus trieshave used as platters. Of this land, to save him ; Aeneas reluctantly kills theLatium, Latlnus is the king. His daughter lad. Mezentius addresses his gallant horse,is Lavmia. The goodliest of her wooers Rhaobus, and again faces Aeneas; horseis Turnus, king of the Rutuli; but her and man are killed.father has been divinely warned to marry Book XI. Aeneas celebrates the Trojanher to a stranger who shall come. The victory and laments Pallas. A truce withembassy sent by Aeneas is welcomed by the Latins is arranged. The Italian chiefsLatinus, who offers alliance and the hand debate. Drances proposes that the issueof his daughter. Juno calls out the Fury shallbe settled by single combat betweenAllecto, who stirs Amata (tho mother of Turnus and Aeneas, and Turnus accepts.Lavinia) and Turnus to fierce hostility The debate is interrupted by a report thatagainst the Trojans. Tho wounding of a Aeneas and his army are moving againststag from the royal herds by Ascanius the city. A cavalry engagement followscauses an affray; Latinus is overborne, in which Camilla takes the lead. Tarchonand the Italian tribes gather to expel the plucks Vonulus from his horse and carriesTrojans. Virgil enumerates these and their him off before him on his saddle-bow.leaders; notable among them besides Camilla is killed by Arruns and is avengedTurnus are Mezentius scorner of the by Opis, messenger of Diana.gods, a tyrant hated by his people, Book XII. The Latins are discouraged,Messapus, Virbius (son of Hippolytus, and Turnus decides to meet Aeneas alone.q.v.), and the Volscian warrior-maid, Latinus and Amata try in vain to dis-Camilla (q.v.). suade him. A compact is made for the Book VIII. Aeneas faces war reluc- single combat. But Juturna, sister oftantly, but is encouraged by the god of Turnus, stirs up the Rutulians, and thethe river Tiber, who sends him to seek general fighting is resumed. Aeneas isthe alliance of the Arcadian Evandcr wounded by an unknown hand, but healed(q.v.), the founder of the city on tho by Venus. The Trojans, seeing tho city ofPalatine hill, part of the future Rome. Latinus loft unguarded, attack and fireOn the bank of the Tiber Aeneas sees a it. Amata takes her life. Turnus returnswhite- sow with her litter, as foretold from his pursuit of Trojan stragglers andby Helenus. Evander promises support the opposing forces suspend their struggle
  • 22. Aeolians 10 Aeschineswhile he and Aeneas fight. Aeneas wounds Demosthenes. His parents were in rivalTurnus. Even now he would spare him; modest circumstances (his father Atro-but he sees on his body the spoils of metus was a schoolmaster). As a youngPallas and in fierce anger buries his sword man he won some distinction in militaryin his enemys body. service and then became a tragic actor The Aeneid was edited after Virgils and a public clerk. He first appears indeath by his friends Varius Rufus (q.v.) political life in 348 as an envoy sentand Plotius Tucca. For famous editions by Eubulus (q.v.) to the Peloponnese toand translations see under Virgil. It may organize Hellenic resistance to Philip.be of interest to recall that the two pas- But, with Eubulus, he soon abandonedsages of the Aeneid which Dr. Johnson this policy and became an advocate ofpicked out for their wonderful quality peace with Macedonia. He formed partwere the descriptions of the tomb of of the embassies sent to Philip for thoPolydonis dripping blood (Hi. 19 et seq.), negotiation of the Peace of Philocratesand of the Trojan ships turned to sea- and in 343 was impeached by Demos-nymphs (ix. 77 et seq.). thenes (q.v.) for his conduct on theseAeolians (Aidleis), see Migrations and occasions. His defence (which we possess)Dialects. was successful and he was acquitted. Demosthenes was to have been associatedAeolis, the northern portion of the coast with one Timarchus in the accusation ofof Asia Minor, from the Troad to the river Aeschines, but Aeschines had retorted byHennus, which was occupied by Aeolian bringing a charge against Timarchus ofGreeks (see Migrations). immoral life. His speech against Timar-Aeolus (Aiolos), (1) described in the chus (345), which was successful, is theOdyssey* as the son of Hippotes and first of the three speeches of Acschinesfriend of the gods, who lives an agree- that have survived. He next came intoable life in the floating island Acolia. He prominence in 340, when, at a sessiongave Odysseus a leather bag in which of the Amphictyonic (q.v.) council, thewere secured the winds adverse to the Locrians of Amphissa, at the instigationlatters voyage, and thus he later came to of Thebes, were to bring an accusationbe regarded as the god of the winds. Virgil of sacrilege against Athens. To forestall(Aen. i. 50-9) depicts him as keeping the this, Aeschines accused the Locrians them-winds imprisoned in a cave. (2) A son of selves of sacrilege (see Sacred Wars).Hellen (see Hellenes and Deucalion) and A Sacred War was decreed against Am-the legendary ancestor of the Aeolian race phissa, and it was this war which pro-(see Migrations) and father of Sisyphus, vided the pretext for the invasion ofAthamas, Salmoneus, Alcyone (qq.v.), Philip of Maccdon (q.v.) that culminatedCalycS (mother of Endymion, q.v.), and in the battle of Chaeronea (q.v.). Thoother children, action of Aeschines on this occasion was made the ground of part of DemosthenesAepytus (Aiputos), see Merope. denunciation of Aeschines in his speechAerarium, the treasury of the Roman On tho Crown*. The rivalry betweenrepublic. It was maintained under tho the two statesmen finally manifestedempire, but distinguished from the fiscus itself when Ctesiphon in 336 proposed that(q.v.) or imperial treasury. Its chief Demosthenes should be publicly crownedsource of income in imperial times was the for his services to the state. Acschinesrevenue of the senatorial provinces, and indicted Ctesiphon for tho alleged illegalityit appears to have borne the cost of main- of this proposal, and in his speech sixtenance of public buildings, of the con- years later, which survives, attacked thestruction of roads, and of State religion; whole career of Demosthenes as injuriousit issued tho copper coinage. Though to Athens. The jury by an overwhelmingnominally under the management of majority acquitted Ctesiphon. Aeschinesthe Senate, the control of the emperors retired into exile and died there.over it increased with time, till the two The speeches of Aeschines reveal histreasuries were in practice almost indis- Ho was Inferiority to his great rival.tinguishable. The aerarium was housed in excessively vain, and deficient in nobilitythe temple of Saturn beside the Capitol. of character and political sagacity, butSee Rome, 14. there is no proof of the corruption of The aerarium mUitare was a pension which Demosthenes accused him. Hisfund for disabled soldiers instituted by speeches are in a lighter, livelier style thanAugustus in A.D. 6. those of Demosthenes; he had had noAeschines (Aischinfe), a famous Athen- special rhetorical training, but his stageian orator, was born about 390 B.C. and experience had given him a good deliverywas thus a few years older than his great and a wide acquaintance with literature.
  • 23. Aeschylus 11 Aesopus Among Landers Imaginary Conversa- ous language and bold metaphors. Histions is one between Aeschines and lyrics, which play a more important partPhocion.(q.v.). in his tragedies than in those of his suc- cessors, reached the highest point in thatAeschylus (Aischulos) (525-456 B.C.), a branch of poetic art. His plays are per-great Greek tragic poet, born at Eleusis, meated with the religious spirit; he ac-near Athens, of a noble family. He took cepts the traditional mythology withoutpart in the Persian Wars; his epitaph criticizing it in the manner of Euripides,(composed, it is said, by himself) represents but tries to reconcile it with morality.him as fighting at Marathon, and his Among the ideas prominent to his playsdescription of Salamis in the Persians are those of destiny or fatality, workingsuggests that he was present at that battle through the divine will and human pas-also. He visited Syracuse at the invitation of sion ; of the heredity of crime, both in theHieron I (see Syracuse, 1) more than once sense that crime provokes vengeance inand died at Gela in Sicily; an anecdote the next generation, and in the sense ofrelates that an eagle dropped a tortoise on the inheritance of a criminal taint; andhis bald head and killed him. He appears of the vengeance of the gods on over-at some time in his life to have been weening pride (hubris). His principalprosecuted on the charge of divulging characters are drawn without complexitythe Elcusinian mysteries, but to have ex- or elaboration, governed by a singleculpated himself. Pericles was his choregus dominating idea, such as vengeance (e.g.(see Chorus) &t some uncertain date; perhaps Clytemnestra in the Agamemnon). Forin the production of the Persians in 472, Aristophanes estimate of Aeschylus, seeor possibly later. Aeschylus was honoured Frogs.as a classic soon after his death and special Quintilian, while commending the sub-privileges were decreed for his plays. limity, dignity, and eloquence of Aeschy-Ho had a son, Euphorion, like himself a lus, thought him at times uncouth andtragic poet. lacking in harmony. Aeschylus wrote some ninety plays Aesculapius, the Latin form of the(including satyric dramas), of which seven Greek name Asclepius (q.v.). The firsthave come down to us: Suppliants, temple to him was founded at Rome inPersians, Seven against Thebes, Pro- 293 B.C., in consequence of a severemetheus Vinctus (qq.v.); and Agamem- The temple, with a sana- pestilence.non, Choephoroe , and Eumenides, torium, stood on the island of the Tiber.forming the Orcsteia (q.v.) trilogy.He also wrote paeans, elegies, and epi- Aeson (Aison), see Argonauts.grams, of which very scanty fragments Aesop (Aisopos), the traditional com-survive. He was the rival in his early poser of Greek fables about animals, isdays of Pratinas, Phrynichus (qq.v.), said by Herodotus to have lived in theand Choerilus (of Athens, /Z. 482), and in reign of Amasis of Egypt (middle of thelater life of Sophocles. He won his first 6th c. B.C.), and to have been a slave ofprize in 484, was successful again with ladmon, a Thracian. Many stories aboutthe Persians in 472, was defeated by animals, adapted to moral or satiricalSophocles in 468, and won his last victory ends, circulated under his name, and wewith the Oresteia* in 458. are told that Socrates, when in prison, Aeschylus generally regarded as the put some of these into verse. A collection isreal founder of Greek tragedy: by the of them was turned into choliambic versointroduction of a second actor ho madetrue dialogue and dramatic action pos- by Babrius (q.v.), and five books of Latin fables after Aesop were published bysible. Though Aristotle says that Sopho- Phaedrus (q.v.). An apocryphal life ofcles introduced scenery, Aeschylus musthave used some primitive spectacular Aesop was written by Maximus Planudes, a 14th c. Byzantine monk. Landor hasdevices, e.g. in the Prometheus. He two Imaginary Conversations betweenalso developed the use of stage dress. His Aesop and his fellow-slave Rhodope (q.v.).plays show rapid progress in dramatictechnique: the Suppliants, an early Aesopus, CLAUDIUS, a celebrated Romanplay, is simple, lacks action, and has no tragic actor hi the 1st c. B.C. Horaceindividual characters; the Oresteia has places him on an equality with Rosciusoutstanding individual characters and a (q.v.), the great comic actor. He was awell developed plot. Aeschylus chose friend of Cicero, and during the latter sthemes of the utmost grandeur, often exile contributed to move popular feelingsuperhuman and terrible, generally from in his favour by allusions to him on themythology (the Persians is an excep- stage. Cicero says that he had great powertion), and delighted in picturesque, sonor- of facial expression and gesture.
  • 24. Aethiopica 12 AganippeAethiopica, (Aithiopika), see Novel. Antiochus III in his war with Rome (see Selcucids) ; and his defeat in 190 broughtAethiopis (Aithiopis), a lost poem of tlie about the Leagues virtual extinction.Epic Cycle (q.v.), ascribed to Arctmus ofMiletus, a sequel to the Iliad. It con- Afranius, Lttcius (b. c. 150 B.C.), atained the story of the coming to Troy of writer of Roman comedies (togatae, q.v.),Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, and of which only fragments survive. He ap-her slaying by Achilles. It told also of pears to have desired to found a nationalthe coming of the Ethiopian Memnon comedy, and his plays depicted Italian(whence the name of the poem), who like- life and characters. He had a long popu-wise was killed by Achilles; and of the larity, and Horace in Ep. 11. i. 57 saysdeath of Achilles himself. that admirers compared him to Menandor Afrani toga convenisse Monan-Aethra (Aithrd), the mother of Thesous (Dicitur dro*). Afranius acknowledges hi5 indebt-(q.v.). edness to Menander, but the extent ofAetna, a Lathi didactic poem in 644 this is unknown.hexameters attributed by its MS. and Donatus ^Vgamedes, see Trophonius. buL Jdoubtfully by to Virgil,probably not by him. It was perhaps by*^ Agamemnon (Agamemnon), in Greekmy-Lucilius, the friend to whom Seneca the thology, son of Atreus, brother of Mene-Philosopher addressed his Letters*. It laus, husband of Clytemnestra (qq.v.), *describes and purports to explain the erup- king of Mycenae, and leader of thetions of Mt. Etna. These are due, not to Greek host in the Trojan War (q.v.).Vulcan or Enceladus (see Giants), but He is represented in the Iliad* as ato the action of wind in cavities of the valiant fighter, a proud and passionateearth on subterranean fires (substantially man, but vacillating in purpose and easilythe same explanation as that of Lu- discouraged.cretius, vi. 680 et seq.). The poem closes When the Greek expedition againstwith an Illustration of the moral character Troy had assembled at Aulis occurred theof the forces of nature. On the occasion incident of the sacrifice of Agamemnonsof a sudden eruption the inhabitants of daughter Iphigenia (q.v.). During thea neighbouring town hastily fled, each siege the most famous event in whichcarrying the property ho thought most Agamemnon was involved was his disas-precious. But they wore overwhelmed. trous quarrel with Achilles (see Iliad).A certain Amphinomus and his brother, When Troy at last was captured, Aga-however, who carried away nothing but memnon returned safely home with histheir aged father and mother and their captive, Cassandra (q.v.). But now thehousehold gods, were spared by the flames. curse of the house of Pclops (q.v.) over- took him. Clytemnestra had never for-Aetolian League, a confederacy of given the sacrifice of her daughter Iphi-cities or districts of Aetolia, developed genia, and during Agamemnons absenceafter the death of Alexander. It was Aegisthus had become her paramourgoverned at first by an Assembly of all (see Pelops). She now received Aga-free Aotolian citizens (including the citi- memnon with a show of welcome, andzens of federated cities adjoining Aetolian then, with Aegisthus, murdered him andterritory) at the head of it was a general ; Cassandra. It was to revenge his deathelected annually. There was also a that his children, Orestes and Electra, laterCouncil, possessing little power, composed killed Clytemncstra and Aegisthus (seeof delegations from the League cities pro- Orcsteia, Orestes, Electra).portionate to their military contingents. a tragedy by Aeschy-When, with the expansion of the League, Agamemnon, (1) Aadministration by the Assembly became lus ; see Qresteia. (2) tragedy by Seneca the Philosopher, perhaps based on theimpossible, a small committee of the of Aeschylus, or moreCouncil was formed which, with the Agamemnon*general, became the real government of probably on some later play. It is far to the tragedy of Aeschylus andthe League; the Assembly, however, re- inferiortained the decision of peace and war. From shows variations of detail. The ghost ofabout 290 the League occupied Delphi, Thyestes is introduced urging Aegisthusand it gradually extended its territory till to the crime, and Aegisthus confirms a weaker Clytemnestra in her purpose.by 220 it controlled the whole of central Cassandra is not murdered withGreece outside Attica, and became the Aga-chief rival of Macedonia in the peninsula. memnon, but later. Electra appears and effects the escape of her brother Orestes.But the Aetolians were a predatory peopleand the League was not a source of Aganippe, a spring sacred to the MusesHellenic unity and strength. It joined on Mt. Helicon (q.v.). Cf. Hippocrene.
  • 25. Agathocles 13 AgoraAgathocles (Agathoktts), see Syracuse, up again after Mariuss army reforms.$3. The creation of a professional army meant that some sort of a pension system had toAgathon (AgatMn), an Athenian tragic be devised, and until Augustus pensionspoet, the most important of the successorsof the three great tragedians. His first took the form of grants of public land. Hence the land legislation of Saturninus,Tictory was gained in 416 B.C. It is the Sulla, and Julius Caesar (in his first con-banquet held at his house to celebrate this sulship). The proposed agrarian law ofvictory that forms the setting of Platos Rullus (63) had a different object, becauseSymposium* (q.v.). Later ho wont to the it was really an attempt by Crassus andcourt of Archolaus of Macedonia and diedthere (c. 400). Only fragments of his work Caesar to strengthen their position againstsurvive. Agathon was an innovator: ho Pompey. There seems to have been no serious problem in connexion with thewas the first to construct a tragedy on an ager publicus in the early empire.imaginary subject with imaginary charac-ters; he made the songs of the chorus Ager Romanus, see Rome, 4;mere interludes (embolima) without refer-ence to the subject of the play, thus pre- Agesilaus (Agesildos) (c. 444-361 B.C.), king of Sparta from about 398. He wasparing the way for the division of the chosen king in place of his nephew, whotragedy into acts ; and he also introduced was the direct heir, by the influence ofsome changes hi the character of the Lysander (q.v.). He was lame, and hismusic. His lyrics are satirically described opponents drew attention to the warningby Aristophanes in the Thesmophoria- of an ancient oracle against a lame reignzusae as like the walking of ants. at Sparta. But ho was a man of greatAristophanes also makes fun of Agathons energy and intelligence. His successfuleffeminate appearance. campaigns against the Persians in 396-5Agave (Agauc), the mother of Pentheus and his victory over the Thebans at(see Bacchae). Statins is thought, from a Coronea are related by his friend Xeno-passage in Juvenal (vii, 82 et seq.), to phon in his Hellenica*. He was lesshave written a libretto * Agave for the successful in the wars of Sparta withpantomimic dancer, Paris. Thebes 379-362. Sparta needed money, and in order to earn a subsidy for her,Agenor, In Greek mythology, king of Agesilaus conducted an expedition in aidTyro, and father of Cadmus and Europa of an Egyptian prince against Persia in(qq.v.). 361. In this he met his death. There isAger publicus, land acquired by con- a life of him by Ncpos, and see below. from States conquered by Rome.fiscation Afjcsilaus, one of the minor works ofIn theory it belonged to the Roman Xenophon, an encomium on his friendPeople, in actual practice it was looked Agesilaus (see above). Its authenticity asafter by the Senate and magistrates a work by Xenophon has been questioned,consul, censor, quaestor. There wore two but is generally accepted. Xenophonchief types of tenure. (1) It might be held relates in some detail the campaign ofon lease at a yearly rental, e.g. the fertile Agesilaus against Tissaphernes in 395 andAger Campanus ;the censors wore respon- the march back to Greece through Ma-sible for this rental.(2) It might bo held cedonia and Thessaly, and gives a fullby squatters (posscssores) against a rental, description of the battle of Coronea, wherebut not on lease. They wore therefore at Xenophon may have fought underliberty to go when they liked or liable to Agesilaus against his own countrymen.bo expelled at the States pleasure. This The remaining events of his reign arerental was collected by the local govern- touched on more briefly. The author thenments and paid to the censors. There was passes from his deeds to his virtues, anda tendency after the Punic Wars for such illustrates his piety, justice, wisdom, andsquatters to absorb largo tracts of waste patriotism.land and in time to regard it as their own,despite the Licinian (q.v.) laws, which Agon (contest), (1) see Comedy, 2;limited the amount of land which could (2) at Athens, also an action at law ; (3) atbe held. Hence arose the evictions and Rome, an athletic or musical contestdisputes in connexion with the legislation forming part of the public games, seeof the Gracchi, who desired to resume the Ludi, 2.public land in order to create settlements Agora (Agora), in Greece, an assemblyfor distressed citizens. Stability was of the people, as opposed to tho Councilrestored by a law of 111 (for which see (Boule, q.v.). In tho constitution ofE. G. Hardys Roman Laws and Char- Cleisthenes (q.v.) the name was applied toters), but the question of public land came the assembly of the people hi each tribe
  • 26. Agricola 14 Agricultureand dome. It was also the name of the place fifth of the total area of the country waaof assembly, which might serve besides as cultivable, and this in part explains thea market-place. This place was adorned constant search of the Greeks for morewith temples and statues and planted with fertile lands to colonize. The deficiencytrees. In the Athenian agora stood the of rainfall, aggravated by the destructionfamous Stoa (q.v.) Poikile and the Stoa of the forests that at one time clothed theBasilikS, the Council-house of the Five Greek mountains, was made good byHundred, statues of various heroes, certain groat attention to irrigation, and the mis-temples, and a row of Hermae (q.v.), in- appropriation of water was punished bycluding a statue of Hermes Agoraios (* of ancient laws. Agriculture was regardedthe Market-place). Here in the open as an honourable occupation for freemenspace the peasants sold their produce, fish- (except at Sparta) from Homeric times,mongers and bakers had their stalls, and when old Laertes busied himself in hisbankers and money-changers their tables. garden, to those of Philopoemen, whoIt was a general place of meeting and used to work along with his vine-dressersconversation. Of. Forum. and ploughmen. Xenophon in the Oeoonomicus* praises agriculture as theAgricola, a laudatory monograph byTacitus on the life of his father-in-law, most honoured and the most beneficent of the arts. It retained its prestige atCn. Julius Agricola, published aboutA.D. 98; Agricola had died in A.D. 93. Athens even when that city had become Tacitus recounts Agricolas distin- a rich commercial and industrial centre, partly, no doubt, because foreigners woreguished ancestry and early military ser-vice in Britain in the troubled times when excluded from it as being incapable ofSuetonius Paulinus was governor (the days owning land.of Boadicea), his advancement to the In certain aristocratic States, such asquaestorship and the praetorship, to the Thcssaly, the system of large estates tilledcommand of the 20th Legion in Britain, to by serfs prevailed. In democratic Statesthe governorship of Aquitania (A.D. 74-6), land was held in smaller lots. Attica wasto the consulate, and finally to the a country of small estates, of which thegovernorship of Britain (A.D. 77 or 78). average size tended to diminish with theThen follows an account of Britain and its breaking up of properties on inheritance. In order to be a Zeugites (see Athens, 2)tribes, the continual rain and cloud, the an Athenian had to own some 50 acres oflong days and short nights of summer.Tacitus is very hazy about its geography, corn-land (assuming that it yielded theand even seems to regard the earth as moderate amount of eight bushels the acre and was fallowed alternate years)flat. He briefly narrates the history of or a much smaller acreage of vineyard.the successive stages of the conquestof Britain by the Romans, culminating in Seventy-five acres of corn-land wouldthe achievements of Agricola, who in 80 provide the qualification of a knight, while 125 acres would bring the owneror 81 secures the country as far north into the richest class. The son of Aristidesas the line Clota-Bodotria (the Clyde and received as a grant from the Statethe Forth). In 82 or 83 he passes beyondthis line and invades Caledonia, winning a property of 45 acres; Demosthenesin 83 OP 84 the decisive battle of Mt. thought this a relatively large area. TheGraupius, the site of which remains un- average value of eight properties referred to in speeches of Attic orators in thecertain. Readers of Scotts The Anti- 4th c. is under 7,230 drs. (Glotz) or sayquary* will remember that Monkbarns 250. The process of subdivision of estatesclaimed to have found the scene of thebattle on his land in Forfarshire. It is each lot was too small to support tillin the speech of a chieftain before the the owner led to the indebtedness of thebattle that Tacitus places the well-known peasantry, and facilitated in turn a pro- cess of concentration of land in the handssaying omne ignotum pro magniflco. of wealthy purchasers, who lived in theThe narrative passes to Agricolas returnto Rome and to the prudent conduct by city and had overseers to manage theirwhich he disarmed Domitians jealousy. property.It ends with his death and an eloquent Agriculture gradually became more scientific during the 5th and 4th c., andapostrophe a to great Roman. SQQ Britain. a three-year rotation of crops on corn landAgriculture. was adopted. The vine, the fig, and the 1. In Greece olive were especially suited to the stony The territory of Greece was in large soil, and Athens paid great attention to thepart mountainous and sterile, and fertile production of a good quality of olive oil.plains were few. Where possible the hill- The destruction of vines and olive-trees bysides were terraced, but only about one- the Spartans in the Peloponnesian War
  • 27. Agriculture 15 Agrippawas a severe blow to Attica. Vegetables most exclusively agricultural countriesand even flowers (which were in demand (Rostovtzeff). Moreover agriculture wasfor religious ceremonies) were cultivated in extended in regions where it had pre-the neighbourhood of Athens. Oxen were viously hardly existed. The tendency to-scarce, but pigs were plentiful. The sheep wards the concentration of land in theof Attica produced an exceptionally fine hands of absentee proprietors and of thewool. State was general throughout the empire. For the system of land tenure at Sparta The tillage of corn land was improved,see Sparta, 2. and attention was increasingly given to the vine and the olive, vegetables and fruit, 2. Italy stock-breeding and poultry. Agriculture in Roman territory was at The importance attached to agriculturefirst domestic and elementary, carried on in the early Roman community is attestedby the family of the landowner on a small by the large number of religious festivalsscale and by primitive methods, and de- connected with it, such as the Cerealiavoted mainly to the production of grain. (see Ceres), the Vinalia, the Fordicidia, theItwas tho only respectable vocation for a Robigalia (qq.v.). That it continued inRoman citizen. When the Volscian and high estimation is shown by the treatisesSabine hills were brought into tho Roman devoted to the subject, from the *Deterritory in the 4th c., they provided Agri Cultura* of Cato, to Varros De Resummer pasture during the months when Rustica, Virgils Georgics, and thethe grass was dried up in the plains. works of Columella and Palladius (qq.v.).Sheep- and cattle-breeding then becameprofitable, at least for the rich farmer Agrigentum, the Roman name of Ac-possessed of capital. The Punic Wars ragas (modern Girgenti, recently changed tobrought contact with the more scientific Agrigonto), a city on the S. coast of Sicily founded by Gela (a Rhodian and Cretanagriculture of Carthage and introducedtho age of great farms and slave gangs colony, also hi tho S. of Sicily) about 580 The small B.C. It attained great wealth and splen-working under overseers. dour under Theron (q.v.). Its prosperitypeasant-proprietors tended to disappear;many were ruined by compulsory service was cut short by the Carthaginians, whoin the frequent wars and sold their farms, sacked it hi 406 ; and although it was re-and many emigrated. They surged, how- founded by Timoleon (see Syracuse, 3), it never regained the position it held inever, in reduced numbers in most parts of the 5th c. The ruins of several beautifulItaly. On the other hand slaves were abun-dant, and there were wealthy capitalists temples are still to be seen there. Acragaswilling to take up large areas and work was the birthplace of Empedocles (q.v.).them with slave labour. Another tendency Agrippa, Marcos Julius. See Herod (2).was to substitute, in suitable districts ofItaly, the more remunerative culture of tho Agrippa, MARCUS VIPSANIUS (c. 62-12 a friend of Octavian in his youth, B.C.),vine and olive for the production of grain.The latter could bo obtained cheaply from and the holder of important military commands under him in the Civil War.Sicily and, after the destruction of Car- He was one of Octavian s principalthago, from Africa. Ranches for cattle and advisers, especially in military matters,sheep became very common in S. Italy. when the latter reached the principate.Frequent attempts were made to restore He carried out some notable publicthe small cultivator, but without success. works at Rome and in the provinces (seeThe Gracchi failed to solve the problem; also Maps). By his first marriage, withthe settlement of Sulla did more harmthan good owing to the confiscations it Pomponia, daughter of Atticus (q.v.), he had a daughter Vipsania Agrippina, whominvolved. In imperial times cultivation by Tiberius married. Among the childrenslave labour gradually gave place to the of his third marriage, with Julia, daugh-system of coloni, tenants who paid part ter of Augustus, were the elder Agrippinaof their produce as rent. This was perhaps (q.v.), wife of Germanicus, and Gaiusbecause slave labour was found not to be and Lucius Caesar, who were adopted byeconomical, or because it needed closer Augustus but died young. See the ge-supervision and was more troublesome.But the coloni sank into mere serfs, and nealogy under Julio-Claudian Family. He wrote an autobiography which is lost.this system proved little more satisfactorythan that of cultivation by slaves. Agrippa, POSTUMUS (12 B.C.-A.D. 14), son Nevertheless, agriculture was of capital of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (see above)Importance in the economic life of the and Julia. He was passed over by Augus-early empire. It is no exaggeration to tus for the throne because of his boorishsay that most of the provinces were al- ways, and put to death, possibly by
  • 28. Agrippina 16 Albinovanus Pedoorder of Tiberius, soon after the old em- Ajax (Aids), TBLAMONIAN, sometimesperors death in 14. called the Greater Ajax, son of Telamon (q.v.) and leader of the Salaminians at theAgrippina. (1) VIPSANIA AGRIPPINA,daughter of Agrrippa (q.v.) and Pompo- siege of Troy, depicted by Homer as a man obstinate in his bravery to the point ofnia, and wife of Tiberius. (2) AGRIPPINATHE ELDER, daughter of Agrippa (q.v.) stupidity. After the death of Achilles,and Julia, and wife of Gormanicus (see Ajax and Odysseus contended for theGermanicus Julius Caesar). She was pre- heros arms. When these were awardedsent at his death -bed in Syria and to Odysseus, Ajax, maddened with resent-brought back his ashes to Home. Tacitus ment, slaughtered a flock of sheep hi thehas a moving description of the arrival belief that they wore his enemies, andat Brundisiurn and the general grief afterwards from shame took his own life.(Ann. iii. 1-2). The bitter hostility to Ajax (Aids), son of Oilelis, and captain ofTiberius that she subsequently showed led the Locrians at the siege of Troy, ato her exile and her death by starvation, man, according to Homer, *far less* thanA.D. 29. She was mother of the emperor Telamonian Ajax (q.v.). He was ship-Caligula. (3) AGRIPPINA THE YOUNGER, wrecked on his way home, but swimmingdaughter of (2), wife first of Cn. Domi- ashore with Poseidon s help, boasted thattius Ahenobarbus, by whom she was he had escaped in spite of the gods.mother of Nero, secondly of the emperor Whereupon Poseidon threw down thoClaudius, who adopted Nero. She is said rock on which he stood, and Ajax wasto have poisoned Claudius, but this is drowned. (See also Cassandra).improbable. She was a haughty, imperious (Aids), a tragedy by Sophocles, ofwoman and opposed her sons inclination Ajax uncertain date, perhaps the first of hisfirst for the freedwoman Acte, then for surviving plays.Poppaea Sabina, whom Nero proposed to Ajax, the son of Telainon (see above),marry by divorcing Octavia. To remove demented by resentment because thethis opposition Nero had Agrippina mur- arms of Achilles have been awarded todered. An attempt to scuttle the ship in Odysseus, has vented his wrath bywhich she was returning from a visit to slaughtering a flock of sheep, taking themNero having failed (for she swain ashore), for his enemies. Ho is first seen inshe was killed by assassins in the villa his madness, then after hia recovery,where she had taken refuge (A.D. 5 .)). stricken with ( grief and shame, while hisThe memoirs that she left were used by slave, Tecmessa, and the chorus of Sala-Tacitus as a source for his Annals. minian sailors try to soothe him. He For all the above, see the genealogy calls for his son ICurysaces, gives him hisunder Julio-Claudian Family. shield, and leaves his last injunctions forAhenobarbus (later AENOBARBUS), his brother Toucer. He then takes hisred-beard, the name of a distinguished sword, to bury it, as he says, and goes toRoman family of the Domitian gens. purge himself of his guilt by the sea.Legend related that the Dioscuri (q.v.) had Teucer has now returned from a foray andannounced to an early member of the has learnt from tho seer Calchas that, tofamily the victory of Lake Regillus avert calamity, Ajax, who has angered tho(496 B.C.), and to prove their supernatural gods by his arrogance, must be kept withinpowers had stroked his black beard, which his tent for that day. But it is too late.had immediately turned red. Cn. Domi- Ajax is found transfixed by his own sword.tius Ahenobarbus, after fighting against Mcnolaus forbids his burial, as an enemyCaesar at Pharsalus (48) and being subse- to the Greeks, and Agamemnon confirmsquently pardoned by him, was one of the tho edict, but is persuaded by Odysseusrepublican leaders after Caesars death. to relent, and Ajax is carried to his grave.He was later reconciled to Antony, ac- A Latin version of this tragedy wascompanied him in his expedition against played at Cambridge before Queen Eliza-the Parthians, and was with him hi beth in 15G4.Egypt. He finally joined the cause of Albinovanus Pdo, a Roman poet ofOctavian. Ho figures in Shakespeares the time of Augustus and Tiberius, and a* Antony and Cleopatra. friend of Ovid. Seneca tho Rhetorician Another, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, has preserved a passage from what ap-consul in A.D. 32, married Agrippina pears to be an epic by him on the Roman(q.v. (3)), daughter of Germanicus, and wars against the Germans, describing awas father of the emperor Nero (see Julio- storm which the Roman fleet encounteredClaudian Family). in the North Sea. The majority of Ger-Aides, Aiddneus, variant forms of man authorities are of opinion thatHades (q.v.). the epic dealt with the expeditions into
  • 29. Alcaeus 17 AlcibiadesGermany of Germanicus (A 2 In the perhaps even more concerned, in a prac-article Germanicus and Drusus) to whom tical way, for the future of her children.Albinovanus Pedo was praefectus equitum Heracles is an attractive character, relax-in A.D. 15. Some authorities regard the ing between the labours that form theextant fragment as referring to the first main business of his life, to revel a littlenaval expedition in the North Sea, com- and do a good turn for a friend.manded by Drusus the Elder (A 1 in the This is the play that Balaustion recites,above-mentioned article). An epic on the hi II. Brownings * Balaustion s Adven-sons achievements would not preclude ture.mention of similar exploits by the father.Tacitus (Ann. ii. 23) has described a storm Alcibiades (Alkiblades), an Athenian ofwhich shattered the fleet of the son. noble family, born shortly before 450 B.C.,Albinovanus also wrote a Theseid, epi- a man of remarkable beauty and talent,grams, and elegies, which have not sur- but arrogant, unscrupulous, and dissolute.vived. He was educated by Pericles, and was aAlcaeus (Alkaios), (1) a lyric poet of the friend of Socrates. He became a dexterous7th-6th c. B.C., born at Mytilono in Lesbos, politician and joined the democratic party.a contemporary of Sappho. He took an His experience in the army at Potidaeaactive part in the war with Athens which and Delium led to his election as strategus in 420. His influence contributed to thefollowed the seizure by the latter of theLesbian fortress of Sigeum at the entrance renewal of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) after the Peace of Nicias, and to theof the Hellespont, and in the local When Pittacus launching of the Sicilian Expedition, ofstruggles against tyrants.was given dictatorial power, he went into which ho was appointed one of the three leaders. The mutilation of the Hermaeexile. His poems, of which only fragments (q.v.) just before its departure was laidremain, dealt vividly with political as well at the door of Alcibiades and his accom-as personal themes, wine, love, his suffer- plices. It was nevertheless decided thatings and hatreds. Where public affairs are he should embark and be tried later.concerned he shows a passionate energy.One of his odes, of which the opening When summoned back to Athens for thissurvives, was addressed to Sappho. Wo purpose, ho escaped, and was condemned to death in his absence and his propertyalso possess a fragment of what may bo confiscated. Alcibiades went to Sparta,her reply. He also wrote hyrnns to various where he urged vigorous measures againstgods. His name is especially associatedwith the Alcaic stanza (see Metre, the Athenians, the sending of a Spartan 3),which he invented or adopted and fre- general to aid the Syracusans, and the occupation of Decolea in Attica as aquently used. Horace (Od. iv. ix. 7-8)speaks of his minaces Camonac, and permanent threat to Athens. In 412 heuses his metre more frequently than any went to Ionia and with a Spartan squad-other. ron supported the Ionian revolt against (2) In Greek mythology, a son of Athens, but an intrigue with the wife ofPerseus and father of Amphitryon (qq.v.). the Spartan king Agis and his dealingsSee also Alcides. with Tissaphornes, the Persian satrap, made him suspect at Sparta. In 407 theAlcaic, see Metre, 3 and 5. restored democracy at Athens recalledAlcestis (Alkcstis), a drama by Euri- Alcibiades, hoping to find hi him a cap-pides. It was the fourth play in a tetralogy able commander and a means of allianceproduced in 438 B.C. and accordingly con- with the Persians, but the defeat oftains a certain burlesque element (see Notium (407) lost him his prestige. HeSatyric drama), provided by the character retired to the Chersonese, where the goodof the genial Heracles and by Euripides advice he gave to the Athenian comman-general treatment of the subject. ders before Aegospotami was disregarded. For the story which forms the subject Ho was finally assassinated by Persianof the play, see Admetiis. Admetus, the order hi Phrygla (404).husband of Alcestis, is presented at first The chief authority for the career ofas an ingenuous egoist, fond of his wife, Alcibiades is Thucydidcs. Alcibiadesdeeply grieved to lose her, and indignant figures in the dialogue of Plato (q.v.)with his father for refusing to make the that bears his name and also in his Sym-required sacrifice in her place. But Ad- posium (q.v.), and there are lives ofmetus returns from his wifes burial com- him by Nopos and Plutarch. There is an pletely changed, having learnt his lesson. interesting reference to him hi Aristo-Alcestis is a simple, unromantic woman, phanes Frogs (1009 etseq.): Euripidesdevoted to her husband, and accepting as condemns the man who is slow to helpnatural the duty of dying for him, but and quick to injure his country, while 4339
  • 30. Alcibiades 18 Alexander of PheraeAeschylus thinks it wiser not to rear a self tyrant. He was besieged by Megacles,lions whelp, but if you do, you must but escaped, with his brother, to Megara.accept its ways. Two speeches of Lysias His associates took refuge at the altar ofand one of Isocrates (against the son of Athene Polias. They were lured away onAlcibiades) refer to the fathers career. promise of their lives, and slaughtered.Alcibiades, a dialogue by Plato (q.v., 2). The Megarlans, urged by Cylon, made war on Athens, occupied Salamis and deva-Alcides (Alkeides), (1) in Greek mytho- stated Attica. This reverse was attributedlogy, meaning descendant of Alcaous , a * to the sacrilege committed against Athene,name used to designate Heracles, whose and the Alcmaeonids were banished. Theystepfather, Amphitryon (q.v.), was son of returned under Solon (q.v.), withdrewAlcaous. (2) A Spartan admiral In the again during the tyranny of Pisistratusearly part of the Peloponnesian War. (q.v.), and returned once more after theAlcin6us (Alkinoos), in the Odyssey fall ofHippias. Among famous Alcmaeo-(q.v.), the king of the Phaeacians. nids were Cleisthenes the law-giver, and Pericles and Alcibiades, who both throughAlciphron (Alkiphrdn) (c. A.D. 200), aGreek writer, author of fictitious letters their mothers belonged to the family. At(of which we have about a hundred) pur- the beginning of the Peloponnesian War,porting to bo by Athenians of various Sparta called upon Athens to expel theclasses of society, depicting Athenian life Alcmaeonids, having Pericles particularlyin the 4th c. B.C. in view. For their reconstruction of the temple of Apollo at Delphi, see Delphi.Alcmaeon or Alcmeon (Alkmaion orAlkmeon), in Greek mythology, son of Alcman (AlJcmdn), a Greek lyric poet ofAmphiaraus (q.v.). In accordance with the second half of the 7th c. B.C., born athis fathers command he took part in the Sardis, who came to Sparta and thereexpedition of the Epigoni (q.v.) against composed choral lyrics for the festivals.Thebes. On his return, in further execu- Of these his parthenia (q.v.) were espe-tion of his fathers commands, he avenged cially celebrated. He was an innovator inhim by slaying his own mother Eriphyle. metre, generally abandoning the hexa-For this murder he was (like Orestes) pur- meter for various systems of a lighter,sued from place to place by the Furies. tripping character. Only fragments ofAt PsSphis hi Arcadia he received partial his work survive, one of them part of apurification from Phegeus, and married parthenion.his daughter Arsinoe. To her he gave the Alcmena (Alkmene), see Amphitryon.necklace of Harmonia (see Cadmus (1)).But the crops of the country began to Alcuin, see Texts and Studies, 6.fail, and Alcmaeon set out again to dis- Alcyone (Alkuone), in Greek mythology,cover a land on which the sun had not (1) a daughter of Aeolus (q.v. (2)) and wifeshone when he murdered his mother. of Ccyx (Keux), son of the Morning Star.This he found in an island newly thrown They were changed into birds, she into theup at the mouth of the river Achelous halcyon (kingfisher), he into the bird of(between Acarnania and Actolia). Here his name (perhaps a tern or gannet), eitherhe married Callirhoo, a daughter of because he was drowned at sea and herOencFQs (see Meleager) king of Calydon. despair was so great that the gods re-She in turn begged for the necklace of united them, or because of their impiety.Harmonia, and Alcmaeon obtained it Halcyon days were fourteen days of calmfrom Phegeus on a false pretence. When weather supposed by the ancients to occurPhegeus discovered that he had been about the winter solstice when the hal-cheated, he caused his sons to waylay cyon was brooding.Alcmaeon and kill him. The sons of (2) One of the Pleiades (q.v.).Alcmaeon, Acarnan and Amphoteros, Aldine Classics, see Editions.avenged their father by killing Phegousand his sons; and the fatal necklace was Alecto, soeAllecto.dedicated to Apollo at Delphi. A later Alexander of Aphrodisias (ft. c. A.D.story tells that it was stolen by a Phocian 200), the most important of the earlyat the time of the war with Philip of commentators on Aristotle. Of his com-Macedon, and brought ill luck on the thief. mentaries (in Greek) a few survive, andAlcmaeonidae (Alkmeonidai), a noble his works are largely quoted by laterfamily at Athens, which came into promi- writers.nence in 632 B.C. when Megacles, an Ale- Alexander of Pherae, nephew of Jasonmaeonid, was archon. A young aristocrat, (q.v.) of Pherae and tyrant of Pherae inCylon, with a band of supporters, seized Thessaly from 369 B.C. He allied himselfthe Acropolis with a view to making him- with Athens to oppose Theban expansion,
  • 31. Alexander the Great 19 Alexander the Greatand when Pelopldas (q.v.) visited him on The whole of the above campaigns hadone of his expeditions, detained him as a occupied little more than a year (336-5).hostage until ho was rescued by a Thebanexpedition in 368. In 364 Pelopidas march- 2. Invasion of Asia: the Granicus (334)ed against him and defeated him at Cynos- Alexander now devoted himself to thecephalae, but was himself killed. Later, conquest of Persia (See PI. 7), ruled at thatAlexander became the ally of the Thebans, time by Darius Codomanus, a mild, ami-defeated the Athenians at sea and raided able prince, unequal to the struggle beforethe Piraeus (362). It was this humiliation him. Though overwhelmingly strongerthat caused the Athenians to sentence than Alexander in men, ships, and wealth,Callistratus (q.v.) to death. Alexander his forces lacked efficient leadership andwas assassinated in 358. military science. In 334 Alexander crossedAlexander (Alexandras) the Great, to the Troad, where the MacedonianAlexander III of Macedon (356-323 B.C.), general, Parmenio, had maintained ason of Philip II and Olympias. footing. By his victory on the Granicus Alexander first showed the superiority of 1. Education, accession, and campaigns the Macedonian over the Persian army. in Europe He next subdued Sardis and such Greek Alexander had Aristotle for instructor, cities of the coast as did not open theirand learnt military science in his fathers gates to him. After the seige and destruc-school, being present at the ago of eighteen tion of Halicarnassus, he subdued Lycia,at the battle of Chaeronea, where ho com- and marching north through Pamphyliamanded the cavalry. He was an enthusias- arid Pisidia, reached Gordium, the capital *tic admirer of Homers Iliad, of which of Phrygia. It was hero that ho is said tohe carried a copy on his campaigns in a have cut the *Gordian knot (q.v.) andcasket taken from the spoils of Darius. applied the legend about it to himself;His fathers marriage with Cleopatra (see but the story is poorly attested.Philip, 3) imperilled his own succession,and his position on his fathers death (336) 3. Campaign of 333 : battle of Issuewas full of dangers. But Cleopatra, her In the spring of 333 Alexander marchedchild, and her father were before long south through Cappadocia to the Cilicianmurdered, the first two by Olympias, the Gates and reached Tarsus. The King oflast by Alexanders order. The numerous Persia was now advancing to meet him,attempts at revolt among the peoples but Alexander, before facing him, subduedwhom his father had subjugated were Western Cilicia. Darius attributed thepromptly crushed. Alexander first dealt delay of Alexander to fear, and instead ofwith Greece and rapidly brought it to awaiting him in the broad expanses oforder. The Congress at Corinth appointed Syria, which would have favoured hishim, though without enthusiasm, to his larger army, crossed Mt. Amanus andfathers place as leader of the Greek was brought to battle (333) in the narrowfederation. (It was while ho was at Corinth plain of Issus. While the event was stillthat Alexander, according to an anecdote, undecided, the flight of Darius himselfsaw Diogenes lying in the sun. Alexander started a panic and caused the rout ofasked what he could do for him. Dont * the Persian host. The mother, wife, andkeep the sun off me, was the reply. If children of Darius were captured andI were not Alexander, I should wish to humanely treated.be Diogenes, Alexander remarked.) Alex-ander next turned to the north and with 4. Conquest of Syria and Egyptamazing speed subdued the tribes that (332-331)were threatening his N. and NW. frontiers. Before undertaking the final destructionOn a report that Alexander had been of the Persian king, Alexander proceededkilled in Thrace, Thebes revolted and to the conquest of Syria and Egypt, so asblockaded the Macedonian garrison in its not to leave these Persian territories, andcitadel. With the same astonishing rapid- particularly the bases of the Phoenicianity Alexander was upon the insurgents fleet, unsubdued in his rear. Tyre, anand captured their city. The Congress at apparently impregnable fortress on anCorinth decided that Thebes should be island half a mile from the shore, offeredrazed to the ground (the house of Pindar a prolonged resistance, and its capturebeing spared by Alexanders order). From called forall theingenuityand perseveranceAthens, which had given Thebes some of Alexander. A mole was constructedsupport, Alexander required the surrender across to the island and the stronghold fell,of Demosthenes and of others who had after a six months siege, in the summer ofbeen obstinate in their hostility to Mace- 332. After its capture and that of Gaza,donia, but did not persist in his demand. the occupation of Egypt was an easy
  • 32. Alexander the Great 20 Alexander the Greatmatter. Its most notable incident was the parable to Hannibals crossing of thefoundation (331) of the city of Alexandria Alps.<q.v.). The new city was designed to be Meanwhile a change had come abouta Greek, as distinct from a Phoenician, in tho policy and position of Alexandercommercial centre in the eastern Medi- himself. He had set out to subjugate theterranean. While in Egypt, Alexander barbarians to the Greeks. But althoughvisited the temple of Ammon (q.v.). There ho had from the first shown tolerance tohe was recognized by the oracle as son the religions and institutions of the for-of Ammon. (Among Landors Imaginary mer, he had before long gone farther, andConversations* is one between Alexander begun to treat his European and Asiaticand the priest of Ammon.) It may have subjects on a more equal footing, hadbeen before this that Darius sent an em- received Persian noblemen into his con-bassy to Alexander offering as a basis of fidence, and had adopted the dress andpeace to surrender all his territory west customs of an Oriental court. (Alexanderof the Euphrates, to give him his daughter recognized the importance of the co-for wife, and to pay a great ransom for operation of tho Iranian element in thethe members of his family. Parmenio, the organization of his empire. The failurestory goes, said that if he were Alexander to secure this later on contributed to thehe would accept the terms. So should I, empires dissolution). This change ofif I were Parmenio, Alexander replied. attitude had caused deep dissatisfaction 5. Victory ofOaugamela (331) and among his Macedonians, and tho smoul- death of Darius (330) dering resentment broke out in 327, when at a banquet Cleitus, one of his friends and In 331 Alexander started for the heart the brother of his foster-mother, tauntedof the Persian empire. He crossed the Alexander, and the latter killed him withEuphrates and the Tigris high up, at a spear. Deep remorse followed theThapsacus and Bezabde, and turned drunken act. Before this, Philotas, sonsouth towards Babylon. Darius, with an of Parmenio, had been executed for con-even larger host than at Issus, met him spiracy against Alexander, and Parmenioat Gaugamcla (near Arbela, from which himself, by a questionable act of author-the battle is sometimes named). Once ity, had been put to death. In 327 theremore Darius fled, and the Persian army were further executions of noble Mace-was routed. Darius escaped N. to donians for plotting against the kingsEcbatana in Media, but Alexander pur- life; and also of Callisthenes (nephew ofsued his way to Babylon and Susa, and Aristotlo), who was following the cam-in the palaces of the Persian kings at paigns as their historian, as being privyPersepolis found an immense treasure. to tho plot. In the same year also Alex-During his sojourn there it is said that ander marriedafter a carouse, at the suggestion of the Roxana, daughter of Oxy- artes, a Sogdian chief.Greek courtesan Thais, he set on fire anddestroyed the palace of Xerxes. In the 7. The conquest of India and thelate spring of 330 he resumed his pursuit return (327-325)of Darius to Ecbatana and eastwards, but Alexander now undertook the invasionwhen Darius wished to stand, his followers of India, a country of whoso configurationturned against him. Bessus, his kinsman extent little was known. His followersand satrap of Bactria, with other con- and saw in the adventure a repetition of thespirators seized and bound him, and when of India by DionysusAlexander drew near, stabbed the king legendary conquest (q.v.). He again crossed the Hindu-Kushand made off. Alexander found Darius in the late summer of 327, and whiledead. Hephaestion with part of the army took 6. Campaigns of 330-327. Alexanders the Khyber Pass, ho himself entered tho policy rugged country to the N. and engaged the The campaigns of tho years 330-327 fierce tribes of the hills. His greatestresulted in the submission of the vast achievement in this advance was theregions of Hyrcania, Areia, Drangiana, capture of the rock of Aornus on the rightBactria, and Sogdiana, and the capture bank of the Indus, above the junctionand execution of Bessus. Candahar is with the Cabul river. In 326 he crossedperhaps a corruption of Alexandria, the the Indus and reached the Hydaspescapital that Alexander founded in Ara- ( Jhelum). There by skilful dispositions hechosia. He reached Maracanda (Samar- defeated Porus, king of the land betweencand), and on the Jaxartos founded the Hydaspes and the Acesines (Chenab),Alexandria Ultima (Eschate"), Khodjend. a courageous ruler at the head of a largeOn his way he crossed in early spring army, rendered more formidable by athe Hindu-Kush mountains, a feat com- contingent of elephants. His advance
  • 33. Alexander the Great 21 Alexandriathrough the remainder of the Punjab their independence, and with it the specialwas a comparatively easy matter; but atmosphere in which their literary master-when he arrived at the Hyphasis (Beas) pieces had been produced. Hellenic civi-and contemplated proceeding to the lization, as it extended to new regions,Ganges and thus reaching what he con- became exposed to new influences, andceived to be the extremity of the earth, the Hellenistic Age (q.v.) came into being.his weary Macedonians at last turned 10. The literature concerning Alexanderagainst him and refused to go farther. The principal authority for tho historyAlexander was forced to yield and aban- of Alexanders Arriandon his hope of bringing the whole earth campaigns is (q.v.), who drew on the narratives of Aristobulusfrom the western to the eastern ocean and Ptolemy, companions of Alexander.under his sway. The Macedonians, sotting Authentic materials were also availabletheir faces westward, descended the in Alexanders official journals, on whichHydaspes in a fleet of transports com- Ptolemy drew. There was also the historymanded by Nearchus, while Onesicritus, of Callisthenes (see above, 6). A fabulouswho wrote an account of the expedition, element was introduced by another writer,had charge of Alexanders ship. Having- Cleitarchus (probably c. 300 B.C.), andreached Patala at the head of the deltaof the Indus at midsummer 325, Alexan- many further legends grew up in the East round the name of the conqueror. Theseder started on a land-march homewards, crystallized, probably in the 3rd c. A.D.,leaving Nearcmis to explore the sea-route in a Greek narrative falsely attributed toup the Persian Gulf. Callisthenes. There were also later Ar- 8. Alexanders last measures and his menian, Syriac, Ethiopia, and Arabic ver- death (325-323) sions (the Syrians made Alexander a At Susa, where the army arrived in the Christian). Of the narrative attributedwinter of 325-4 after suffering terrible to Callisthenes several Latin versions werehardships in the deserts of Gedrosia, made, and the legends thence passed intoAlexander set about punishing the many tho French poetry of tho llth and 12th cc.satraps and other officers who had failed (see Julius Valerius). One of these Frenchin their duty. Harpalus, his treasurer, poems, written in twelve-syllabled lines,had appropriated a large sum and with- perhaps gave its name to the Alexandrine,drawn to Tarsus. He now fled to Greece, the French heroic verse of six feet. Therewhere his intrigues involved Demosthenes are also two Old English works of the(q.v.) in a discreditable affair. Alexander llth c. based on tho Latin legend, a Let- also extended his policy of fusing the ter from Alexander to Aristotle and TheEuropean and Asiatic portions of his Wonders of the East. From the Frenchempire, by colonization, by mixed mar- poems tho Alexander-saga passed into theriages (he himself married Statira, daugh- English metrical romances of the Middleter of Darius, and his friend Hephaestion English period (1200-1500), notably themarried her sister), and by unification alliterative poem King Alisaunder , and toof the military services. (This policy of them may be traced tho frequency of theequalizing the Greek and Eastern races, Christian name * Alexander (Sandy) init may be noted, was censured by Aris- Scotland. It may be noted that Fluellen,the *totle). He also cherished schemes for the Welsh officer in Shakespeares Henry V/development of a commercial sea-route is represented as having a fairly detailedbetween the Indus, the Euphrates and knowledge of the history of Alexander. SeeTigris, and the Gulf of Suez. As Nearchus also Curtius Rufus. There is a succinctwas about to set out on a voyage of ex- and striking summary of the reign ofploration to further this scheme, Alexan- Alexander and of the struggles of hisder, who had been saddened by the death successors over his inheritance, writtenof his intimate comrade, Hephaestion, in from the Jewish standpoint, m the first324, himself died of fever at Babylon in nine verses of the First Book of thethe summer of 323. He was only 32 years Maccabees.old. Alexandra, see Lycophron (2). 9. Alexanders achievement Alexandria (Alexandria, L. Alexandria We owe to Alexander, a man of genius or Alexandria), a city on the N. coast ofat the head of a military monarchy, what Egypt, near the Canopic or western mouthno Greek city-state would have been able of the Nile, founded by Alexander theto achieve, the extension of Greek civi- Great in 331 B.C., the capital of thelisation over the East. As a result of his Ptolemies and famous as one of the chiefconquests the character of that civiliza- intellectual centres of the Hellenistic world.tion itself was changed. Greece sank into It was laid out on tho sandy neck of landa secondary position; her city-states lost that runs E. and W., separating Lake
  • 34. Alexandrian 22 AlphabetMareotis from the sea. A broad street ran 47 B.C. when Caesar was in Alexandria,E. and W. through the centre of it and was some 40,000 volumes which were storedcrossed by another running N. and S. On near the Arsenal, perhaps with a view tothe island of Pharos, which Alexander their shipment to Rome, were accidentallyconnected with the mainland by a mole burnt. It is improbable that the librarynearly a milo long, Ptolemy II erected a itself was destroyed. The story that itlighthouse, said to be the first of its kind, was finally burnt in A.D. 642 by Amrou,to guide mariners to the greater of the two general of the Caliph Omar, is now dis-sea-harbours, that lying on the eastern credited.side of the mole. Another harbour on The first great librarians of AlexandriaLake Mareotis received the traffic from were Zenodotus (fl. c. 285 B.C.), Erato-the Nile. Near the eastern sea-harbour sthenes (fl. c. 234), Aristophanes of By-lay the quarter known as Brucheion zantium (fl. c. 195), and Aristarchus (fl. q.in which stood tho royal palace, the 180) (qq.v.). Callimachus and ApolloniusMuseum and the great Library, and the Rhodius (qq.v.) are sometimes mention-spondid tomb to which Alexanders body ed as among the librarians, but there arewas brought from Asia by Ptolemy II. chronological difficulties in the way ofTo the SW. of this, in the quarter called admitting them.Rhakotis and near what is to-day known Alcxandrianism or ALEXANDRINISM,as Pompeys Pillar, stood the Serapeum a term used of tho influence of the Alex-(the great temple of Serapis). Here, andrian school of Greek poets (see Hel-and extending beyond tho walls, was the lenistic Age) on Roman poetry. Tho chiefnative quarter. A canal brought fresh features of the school were artificiality, anwater from tho Nile. By 200 B.C. Alex- excessive display of mythological learning,andria was the largest city in the world and beauty and elaboration of form. The(later it was surpassed by Rome). The influence seen, for instance, in some of ispopulation, apart from the native Egyp- the of Catullus (e.g. Attis % * Pelcus poemstians, was divided into politeumata or and Coma Berenices), in Pro- Thetis*,corporations based on nationality, of port ius, and, in a less degree, in Virgil andwhich the Greek was the most important ; Ovid.and the whole city was under Ptolemys Alexipharmaca, see Nicander,governor. Intermarriage between Greeksand Egyptians began in tho 2nd c. B.C. Alexis, see Comedy, 4.and the mixed population (with the excep-tion of the Jews and some of tho Greeks) Al(l)ecto (Gk.Allektd), see Furies.gradually blended into a more or less homo- Allegory, the presentation of a subjectgeneous whole. See Alexandrian Library, (in narrative or other form) under theMuseum, Hellenistic Age, Ptolemies. guise of another suggestively similar ; e.g. Horaces Ode I. xiv (O navis, referent inAlexandrian or HELLENISTIC AGE of mare te novi fluctus), where the RomanGreek literature see Hellenistic Age. ; State is presented under the guise of aAlexandrian Library, THE, was founded storm-tossed ship.by Ptolemy I (see Ptolemies) and greatly in- Allia, a small tributary of the Tiber,creased by Ptolemy II. It was housed in a near which the Romans suffered a memor-building in the Brucheion or royal quarter, able defeat by the Gauls in 390 B.C.supplemented by a subsidiary building tho beginning with thenear the Sorapeum (see Alexandria). In Alliteration,the time of Callimachus (q.v.) the larger same letter of two or more words in close connexion. It was a constant device inlibrary is said to have contained 400,000 Saturnian (q.v.) verse, and was adoptedvolumes, and in the 1st c. 700,000. It is thence by later Roman poets includingsaid that Ptolemy II purchased the library Ennius and Virgil as where Ennius writes :that Aristotle had formed; and (by ; Fraxinu* frangitur atque abies conster-Galen) that Ptolemy III (Euergetes) ap- nitur alta.propriated the official copy of the text of Pinus proceras pervortunt.Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides (see It is carried to grotesque excess by EnniusLycurgus), forfeiting the large deposit he in the lino,had paid when borrowing it from theAthenians. Galen also states that vessels O Tito tute Tati tibi tanta tiranne tulieti.entering the harbour of Alexandria were Almarje&t, see Ptolemy.required to surrender any manuscripts Aldidae (Aloeidai), see Otus.that they had on board. There was keenrivalry between the kings of Alexandria Alphabet, (I) GREEK. The Greek alpha-and Pergamum in the enlargement of their bet was probably derived from some formrespective libraries (see Books, 5). In of the Phoenician alphabet, with additions
  • 35. Alpheus 2 I Ambrosesuch as distinctive symbols for the vowel in War, and the Trojan their queen,sounds, and certain letters such as </>, t tfi Ponthesilea, was killed by Achilles. Onefrom other sources (perhaps the Cretan of the Labours of Heracles (q.v.) was toscript). (Alpha is the equivalent of the secure the girdle of Hippolyte, queen ofPhoenician aleph, meaning *ox% the name the Amazons. According to Athenianof one of the Phoenician breaths.) At * legend, Attica once suffered an invasionfirst there was no single alphabet common of Amazons, which Theseus (q.v.) repelled,to all the Greek States the local varities ; capturing the Amazon queen, Hippolytehad elements in common but differed in (or AntiopS).certain respects. Finally, about the end of Ambarvalia, at Rome, a solemn annualthe 5th c. B.C. the Ionic type prevailed and purification of the fields by the severalwas generally adopted. See also Digamma. farmers, while a purification of the boun- (2) LATIN. The Italian alphabet was daries of the State was performed byprobably derived from that of the Greek special priests, the Arval (q.v.) Brethren.inhabitants of Italy and Sicily, with cer- The ceremony included the leading oftain modifications, such as the rejection victims round the boundaries of the fieldsof the symbols for </>, %, i/i, and the early that were to be purified ; hence the name.abandonment of the symbol for C, ono . The victims sacrificed were the principalof the forms of the Greek gamma, was agricultural animals, pig, sheep, and oxemployed for the sounds of both G and K, (suovctauriiia). In the ancient hymn of theand when intended to represent the sound Arval priests, Mars is invoked as an agri-of gamma was modified into G. The old cultural deity. In later republican daysspelling of the abbreviations C. and On. the deity concerned is Ceres, and hi im-for Gaius and Gnaeus was retained when perial times the earth deity, Dea Dia.this new form G was introduced. The The celebration of the Ambarvalia isletters Y and Z were not adopted until depicted hi the first chapter of Patersthe last century of the Roman republic, Marius the Epicurean.when they were required for the transcrip-tion of Greek words such as Zephyrus*. Ambiorix, leader of the Gaulish tribe of the Eburones in their revolt against the As to the direction in which letters were Romans in 54-53 B.C. See Commentarieswritten, from right to left or left to right,etc., see Epigraphy, 2. (Gallic War, Bks. V and VI). Ambrose, ST., (Aurttius Ambrosius)Algheus (Alpheios), ono of the largest A.D. 340-397) was born of a Christianriverierin" Greece, rising in Arcadia, and (c.after receiving many tributaries (including Roman family ; his father was Prefect of Gallia Narbonensis. He was educated atthe Erymanthus and the Ladon), flowingthrough Blis. The plain of Olympia (q.v.) Rome and entered on an official career,is situated by the side of it. See also and at an early age was made governor ofArethusa. It is referred to by Milton in Milan with the title of consul. On the * death of Auxentms, the Anaii bishop ofLycidas: Return, Alpheus; the dreadvoice is past That shrunk thy streams. Milan, Ambrose was chosen to replace him by popular acclamation, and actuallyAlthaea (Althaitf), in Greek mythology, received baptism and the priesthood aftermother of Meleager (q.v.). his appointment. Ho had a high concep-Amalthea (AmaUheia), in Greek mytho- tion of the importance of his now func-logy, the goat that suckled the infant tions, and showed himself not only aZeus (q.v.) in Crete; or a nymph (accord- patriotic Roman, but a wise and resolute,ing to one version the daughter of Melis- if kindly, ccelesiastic. His greatestsus, king of Crete) who fed Zeus with the achievements were in the practical field,milk of a goat. Zeus gave her the horn of notably in the affair of the Altar of Victorythe goat ; it had the power of producing (see Symmachus) in which his advocacywhatever itspossessor wished, and was of the Christian cause (Ep. xvii and xviii)known (hi Latin) as the cornucopias (horn was ono of the final blows to the paganof plenty). religion. Ambrose did not shrink from reproving the emperor TheodOeius inAmata, in the Aeneid, the wife of church, and even from imposing penanceLatinus and mother of Lavinia (qq.v.). on him (after a punitive massacre orderedAmazons (Amdzones), a legendary nation by Theodosius at Thessalonica). Amongof women-warriors, supposed to have lived his important writings is a treatise on theIn heroic times in the neighbourhood of duties of priests ( De Officiis Ministrorum)the Euxine. The name means breastlcss , modelled on the De Offlciis of Cicero.and it was said that they removed their He also published explanatory commen-right breasts in order the better to handle taries on many parts of the scriptures, dogmatic treatises ( Do Fide, De Spirltu the bow. They were allies of the Trojans
  • 36. Ammianus Marcellinus 24 AmphlctyonySancto ), and minor treatises on the ascetic moods, from that of the simple, constantlife. Many of his works had first taken the lover to that of Don Juan. They are arti-form of sermons and show an oratorical ficial, literary, the product of fancy ratherstyle. We also have a large number of his than of passion. Corinna* is a prominentletters, mostly on church matters. The figure in them, but if she had real exis-influence of his Roman education is tence, she was probably one of many loves.evident in many quotations from, and Some of the poems throw an interestingreminiscences of, the great Roman and light on contemporary life a scene at theGreek authors. Of the hymns attributed Circus, or a festival of Juno ; one of themto him, a few are certainly authentic, (in. ix) is a beautiful lament for the deathbut he was not the author of the Te of Tibullus.Deum, as tradition relates. The Ambrosian in GreekLibrary at Milan (founded in 1609) is Amphiaraus (Amphiaraos), mythology, an Argive hero and seer, whonamed after him. took part in the Calydonian boar-huntAmmianus Marcellinus, born at (see Meleager) and the expedition of theAntloch about A.D. 330, wrote in Latin at Argonauts (q.v.). Ho married Eriphyle,Rome about A.D. 390 a continuation of the whom Polynices bribed, by the gift ofhistory of Tacitus, in 31 books, of which the fatal necklace of his ancestress Har-we possess Bks. xiv-xxxi. These cover monia (see Cadmus (1)), to persuade Am-the period A.D. 353-378, from Constantius phiaraus to take part in the expeditionto the death of Valcns. Ainmianus was of the Seven against Thebes (see Oedipus),a patriotic Roman and a philosophic his- though the scor knew that none of the Seventorian, with a high conception of the role except Adrastus would return from it alivo.of history, and ho aimed at truthfulness He set out reluctantly, but before startingand accuracy. He himself served under laid on his children the charge that theyJulian against the Persians and his ex- should avenge his death by killing theirperience lends vividness to some of the mother, and by making a second expedi-campaigns he describes. There are inter- tion against Thebes. Amphiaraus perished,esting digressions on a variety of subjects, as he foresaw, at Thebes (he was swallowedsuch as the Egyptian obelisks and their up in the earth as he retreated), and was inhieroglyphics, earthquakes, lions in Meso- due course avenged by his son Alcmaeonpotamia, the artillery of his time; and (q.v.). A shrine was erected to him nearimpartial judgements on the various Oropus, where oracles were given bynations dealt with, on the Christians (he means of dreams. The fee for consultingwas a pagan but opposed to the persecu- the oncle was nine obols (say, one shil-tion of Christians), and on the emperors ling). Sulla, in fulfilment of a vow madethemselves. Latin was not his native during his campaign in Greece, conse-tongue, and his stylo is marred by clumsi- crated to the god Amphiaraus the reven-ness, Graecisins, and bombast. ues derived from Oropus by the Romans. But later the Roman tax-gatherers con-Amrnon (Ammdn or Hammon), an Egyp- tested this diversion of the revenue, ontian god, represented sometimes as a ram, the ground that Amphiaraus was no god.sometimes as a man with rams head and The question was tried before the consulscurved horns. He had a famous oracle in in 73 B.C. (Cicero was one of their asses-an oasis (Siwah) in the Libyan desert, sors) and the ordinance of Sulla waswhich was visited by Alexander the Great upheld.(q.v., 4). The Greeks identified Ammonwith Zeus. Amphictyon (Amphiktuon), see Amphic* tyony.Amoebean verses (amoibaia melc, fromGk. amoibe, change), verses sung alter- Amphictyony (Amphiktuoneia), a reli- gious association of Greeks worshipping atnately by two persons hi competition, a the shrine of the same god (from amphi-form of contest in use among Sicilian ctiones, dwellers around). The most im-shepherds hi antiquity. It was developedby Theocritus (q.v.) in some of his Idylls, portant Amphictyony was that of Delphi,and by Virgil in some of his Eclogues. whose sanctuaries were the temples of Apollo at Delphi and of Demeter at Ther-Am&res, love poems by Ovid in elegiacs, mopylae. Many of the principal peoplessome of them being among his earliest of Greece, including Thessalians, Dorians,works. There were two editions of the and lonians, belonged to it. The assem-Amores, the first in five books, the blies of this Amphictyonic League metsecond in three ; it is the second that has twice a year, alternately at Delphi andsurvived. Thermopylae. Though it might have been The poems, for the most part, are a source of union among Greek States, itstudies or sketches of love in different exercised little Influence in this direction;
  • 37. Amphion 25 Anabasisbut see Sacred Wars. Both Jason of who was held to be the son of Zeus. ThePherae and Philip of Macedon (qq.v.) legend has been made the subject ofattached importance to it as a means of amusing plays by Plautus, Moliere, andadvancing their schemes of Greek hege- Dryden. Amphitryons association withmony. The foundation of the Amphic- gastronomy is purely modern and arisestyony was attributed to one Amphictyon, from a line in Molieres play. The servanta legendary person, son of Deucalion of Amphitryon, perplexed by the resem-(q.v.) and brother of Hellen (the ancestor blance of the two who both claim to boof the Greeks). his master, hears Zeuo invite some friends to dinner, and is thereby convinced he isAmphion (Amphlon), see Antiope. the genuine Amphitryon Le v6ritableAmphitheatre, a circular or elliptical Amphitryon est 1Amphitryon oft Tontheatre, in which the seats of the spec- dine.tators completely surrounded the arena.The earliest built at Rome were wooden Amulius, see Rome, 2.structures; a stone amphitheatre was Amycus (Amukos), in Greek mythology,erected in 29 B.C. but was destroyed in a son of Poseidon and king of the Beb-the flre of Rome during Nero s reign. The ryces (a people of BIthynia), a mightygreat Flavian Amphitheatre, known as boxer. When the Argonauts came to histhe Colosseum, whose enormous ruins country, Pollux accepted his challengesurvive, was built by Vespasian and his and knocked him out. The Bebrycessuccessors to take its place. It stood at broke into the ring to avenge their king,the foot of the Esquiline Hill, oast of the but were routed by the Argonauts. TheForum (see PI. 14). Displays of wild beasts episode is treated by Apollonius Rhodiusand gladiatorial shows wore held there; and by Theocritus (xxiii).and the arena could be flooded for mimicsea-fights (naumachiae, q.v.). Amymone (Amttmone), in Greek mytho- logy* one of the fifty daughters of DanausAmphitrite, a Nereid (see Nereus), wife (q.v.), rescued from a satyr by Poseidonof Poseidon (q.v.). and loved by him. Milton (P.R. ii. 185 ct seq.) includes her among the heroinesAmphitruo, a comedy by Plautus, per- of legend thus loved by the gods :haps an adaptation of a play by Philemon to waylay(see Comedy, 4), on the legend of Zeustaking the appearance of Amphitryon to Some beauty rare, Calisto, Clymene,visit the latter s wife, Alcmena (see Am- Daphne or Semelo, Antiopa,phitryon). Plautus designates the play a Or Amymone, Syrinx, many more . . .tragico-comoedia because of the unusual Anabasis (Kurou Anabasis), a proseblend of contrasting elements, the charac- narrative in seven books, by Xenophon,ter of the chaste and dignified Alcmena of the expedition (lit. going up from theon the one hand, and the burlesque situa- sea-coast to the interior) of the youngertion on the other. The gross and irrever- Cyrus, son of Darius II, against his brother,ent presentation of Jupiter and Mercury ia Artaxerxes II, king of Persia. The worknoteworthy. Moliero and Dryden followed was published as by Themistogenes ofPlautuss play in their comedies on the Syracuse, for motives which can only besame subject. conjectured.Amphitryon (Amphitruon), Greek in Cyrus, who was satrap of Lydia, wasmythology, son of Alcaeus and grandson disappointed that ho was not chosen toof Perseus (q.v.), and nephew of Eloctryon, succeed his father, partly as the favouriteking of Mycenae, to whose daughter, Alc- son, partly as having been born aftermene, he was betrothed. Having had the his fathers accession to the throne. Hismisfortune to kill Electryon by accident, resentment against his brother was in-Amphitryon took refuge at Thebes, creased, according to Xenophon, by thewhore he was followed by Alcmene. By fact that shortly after his accessionher wish he set out to war with the Artaxcrxes arrested him on a false accusa-Teleboans, in order to avenge her brothers, tion of conspiracy. Cyrus thereafter madewho had been killed in a quarrel with careful preparations to attack Artaxerxes,them. On the night of his return, Zeus, recruiting an auxiliary force of ten thou-who had been captivated by the charms sand Greeks for the purpose. Xenophonof Alcmene, introduced himself to her describes the long march of the expedi-disguised as the victorious Amphitryon, tionary force in 401 B.C. from Sardis toand was shortly followed by Amphitryon the neighbourhood of Babylon; he accom-himself. Alcmene gave birth to twin chil- panied it in a private capacity at the in-dren, Iphicles who was regarded as vitation of his friend Proxenus, one of theAmphitryons son, and Heracles (q.v.) Greek generals. The march was interrupted
  • 38. Anacharsis 26 Anaxagorasby the reluctance of some of the troops quidem poetae prodidenmt (nam apudto proceed when the true object of the Homerum . . . talis de Ulixe nulla suspicioexpedition, which had been concealed est),sed insimulant cum tragoediae simu-from them, became known. However, the latione insaniae militiam subterfugeregreat bulk of the force was induced to go voluisse (Cicero, De Off. in. 26. 97).on, and was present at the battle of Anacreon (Anakredn) (6th c. B.C.), aCunaxa near Babylon, where Cyrus him- lyric poet born at Teoa in Ionia, whenceself was killed, and his Asiatic troops ho migrated to the Tcian colony of Abdera ;took flight. but he spent most of his life elsewhere, first This disaster reduced the Greeks to at the court of Polycrates (q.v.) of Samos,great perplexity and distress, but there and later at Athens under Hipparchus.was no yielding to the attempts of There are grounds for thinking he endedArtaxerxes to induce them to surrender. his days in Thessaly, but the date andThe perplexity increased when Tissa- place of his death are unknown. Hisphernes, who had been conducting the poems, of which wo have only shortnegotiations on the Persian side, lured fragments, were chiefly light and playfulthe Greek generals into his quarters, songs of love and wine, without depth ofwhere they were seized and beheaded. passion ; some of them were mocking andAt this point Xenophon came forward, satirical. They are written with perfectinduced the remaining officers to reor- clearness of expression and rhythm, inganize the force and take the measures various metres, but he avoids the alcaicnecessary for its safo retreat. Thereafter and the sapphic. Anacrcon also wroteCheirisophus commanded the van and iambics, elegies, and epigrams. He wasXenophon the rear, the most dangerous much imitated in all periods, and wepost. By his advice on the choice of route, possess a collection of some sixty of theseby his resourcefulness, and by the example imitations, known as Anacroontea*.of his courage, he enabled the Greek Among Landers Imaginary Conversa- army, after great hardships and severe tions* is one between Anacreon and Poly-fighting in the mountains of Armenia, to crates.reach the Euxine. His description of thescene when the Greeks, climbing Mt. Anacrusis, see Metre, 2 and 3.Theches, at last beheld the sea and cried Anagndrisis, see Tragedy, 3.*Thalassa, tnalassa! is famous (iv. 7. Priora and Posteriora, Analytica20-6). They now reached Trapezus treatises on by Aristotle (q.v., 3). logic(Trebizond), a Greek colony on the coast,and were comparatively safe; but diffi- Anapaest, see Metre, 1.culties had to be surmounted, and still repetition of a word or Anaphora, thegrave dissensions arose among the troops phrase in several successive clauses; abefore they reached Byzantium. After a rhetorical device frequent in oratory, e.g.winter spent hi the service of the treach- Verres calumniatores apponebat, Verreserous Seuthes, a Thracian, Xenophon adcsso jubcbat, Verres cognoscobat . . .handed over the remnant of the Ten (Cicero, Verr. n. 2, 10.) The rhetoricianThousand to the Spartan Thimbron, for Demetrius quotes as an example of ana-the war against Persia. Xenophon s piety phora the beautiful lines of Sappho :is a noticeable feature in the narrative;ho takes no important decision without "EaTTp irdvra <f>pajv oaa (frauoXis eWe- Sacr* AVOJS,sacrificing to the gods and being guidedby the omens. <t>pis oiv, (f)pis afya, <f>epis O.TTV pdrepi, TrcuSa.Anacharsis, a Scythian sage, who, Anaxagoras (Anaxagords) of Clazomenaeaccording to Herodotus, visited manycountries in the 6th c. B.C. to study their in Ionia, a Greek philosopher born about 500 B.C. Ho went to Athens about thecustoms, and endeavoured to introducethese into Scythia, but was put to death year 460, spent some thirty years there, and became the friend of Pericles (q.v.).by the Scythian king. According toPlutarch, he made at Athens the acquain- Fragments survive of his book Ontance of Solon, and Lucian has a dialogue Nature 1 , written in the Ionian dialect, between the two. He is and in a simple, sober style. According(* Anacharsis) to his explanation of the universe, thesaid to have invented, among other things,the potters wheel and the true anchor permanent elements of which it is con-with arms. stituted are unlimited in number, and are combined In bodies in changing propor-Anacoluthon (Gk. not following), a tions, as the result of a system of circula-change of construction in the course of a tion (Trepixwpyais) directed by Spirit orsentence, e.g. Utile videbatur Ulixi, ut Intelligence (Novs), a supreme independent
  • 39. Anaximander 27 Andriaforce. This last was a conception destined mutilation of the Hermae (seeto revolutionize Greek philosophy. It is nesian War), and having with his fatherthe ultimate origin of what is now known and several of his relatives been denouncedas dualism, the doctrine that mind and and imprisoned, he was persuaded to tellmatter exist as two distinct entities. all he knew in order to save these andAnaxagoras was also a scientist; he was other innocent victims. He acknowledgedthe first to explain solar eclipses. his own guilt (but subsequently repudiatedAnaximander (Anaximandros) of Mile- the confession) and named certain othertus, a practical scientist and philosopher participants in the outrage. A decree of tifimia (disgrace), virtually equivalent toof the early part of the 6th c. B.C., con- was passed on him. Wetemporary of Thales (q.v.). He is said banishment, of histo have constructed a sun-dial and a possess three speeches, the first,map of the world. He sought the basis of On his Return, delivered in the Ecclesia, *the universe in an indefinite, unlimited probably in 410, when ho unsuccessfullysubstance other than the forms of matter sought permission to return to Athens; the second, On the Mysteries*, made inusually recognized, but capable of being 399 when, having been readmitted in 403transformed into them. Ho left a writtenaccount of his philosophical opinions, to his city, he was accused of impiety (forwhich has perished. He is said to have having contrary to the decree of atimiabeen the first Greek author to write in attended the Mysteries); the third, a political discourse urging peace withprose. Sparta in 390, the fourth year of theAnaximenes of Miletus, a philosopher of Corinthian War. The date of his death isthe 6th c. B.C., later than Anaximander unknown. Andocides was not, like the(q.v.). He found iu air the primary basis other orators, a trained or professionalof the universe and thought that this, by rhetorician, but a man of ability and ;condensation and rarefaction, gave rise to shrewdness, who excelled rather in aother forms of matter. natural and persuasive eloquence than inAnchlses, a member of the royal house style, clearness, or fire.of Troy (see genealogy under Troy), withwhom Aphrodite fell in love. The child Andria (The Woman of Andros), aof their union was Aeneas (q.v.). Anchises comedy by Terence, the earliest of hisboasted of the goddesss favour and was plays, produced in 166 B.C., adapted fromBtruck blind or paralysed by the thunder- two plays by Menander.bolt of Zeus. We are told in the Aencid Pamphilus, a young gentleman ofthat he was carried out of burning Troy Athens, has seduced Glycerium, supposedon his sons shoulders, and accompanied to be the sister of a courtesan fromhim in his wanderings, dying hi Sicily, Andros, and is devoted to her. His father,where he was buried on Mt. Eryx. Simo, has arranged a match for him with the daughter of his friend Chromes. ButAncilia. A shield (anclle) was said to Chremes has heard of the relations of Pam-have fallen from heaven at Rome in the philus and Glycerium and withdraws hisreign of Numa, and an oracle declared consent to the match. Simo conceals this,that the seat of empire would lie wherever pretends to go on with the preparationsthat shield should be. Thereupon Numa for an immediate marriage, and hopes bycaused eleven other shields to be made this means to put an end to the amour.like it, so that, if a traitor should wish to Pamphilus, learning from his cunningremove it, the genuine shield could not be slave, Davus, that the intended marriagedistinguished. These shields were pro- is a pretence, temporizes and offers noserved in the Temple of Mars in the cus- objection. Simo now persuades Chremcstody of the Salii (q.v.), and were carried to withdraw his objection; and Pam-round the city yearly in solemn procession philus is reduced to despair. At this stagein the month of March. On a declaration Glycoriurn bears a son to Pamphilus,of war, the Roman general moved the and Davus * arranges that the fact shallshields, with the words, Awake, Mars ! become known to Chromes, who nowAncus Marcius, one of the legendary finally breaks off the match. An acquain-kings of Rome (see JRome, 2). tance just arrived from Andros reveals to Chremes that Glycerium as a child wasAncyranum Monumentum, see Monu- shipwrecked at Andros in circumstancesmentum Ancyranum. which show that she is a daughter ofAndocides (Andokidls) (b. c. 440 B.C.), Chremes. Chremes and Simo consent toa member of a distinguished Athenian the marriage of Pamphilus and Glycerium,family, and one of the earlier Attic orators. and all ends happily.He was implicated in the affair of the The play contains the often-quoted
  • 40. Andromache Annalsphrases, nine illae and aman- was entrusted by him to Lavinia. But lacrlmae*tium irae amoris integratiost*. It was Lavinia was jealous of her, and Anna fledtranslated into English and printed early to the river Numicius and was taken by theIn the 16th o. Steeles The Conscious river-god into his care.Lovers is largely based on it. Anna Comnena (b. 1083), daughter of theAndromache, in mythology, Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, a Greekdaughter of Eetldn (king of Thebe in learned and ambitious woman. She mar-Cilicia), wife of Hector (q.v.), and mother ried Nicephorus Bryennius, and after herof Aetyanax. In the Iliad she is the fathers death conspired to place him ontype of the true wife and mother, noble the throne hi place of her brother. Thein misfortune, smiling in her tears. After conspiracy was defeated and she wasthe capture of Troy she fell to the lot of banished. In her exile she wrote a life ofNeoptolemus (q.v.). Her separation from her father, the Alexiad, in fifteen books,her child, whom the Greeks ordered to be the first Greek historical work written bykilled, forms the most tragic incident in a woman. It includes an account of thothe Trojan Women* (q.v.) of Euripides, First Crusade (1095-9).Later she married the Trojan seer Hclenus, Anna Perenna, an ancient Roman deitya son of Priam. of the whoso festival was celebrated year,Andromache, a tragedy by Euripides, of March. This was a feast at on the Idesprobably produced about the beginning the full moon in what was then the firstof the Peloponnesian War (431 B.C.). month of the year. She was probably a The play deals with that period in the moon-goddess, but her attributes are notlife of Andromache (see previous article) clear. Of the six explanations of her givenwhen she was living as the thrall of by Ovid, quia mensibus impleat annum*Neoptolemus in Thcssaly. She had borne (Fast. iii. 657) is regarded as the mosthim a son, Molossus, and after ten years probable, and it is thought likely that sheNeoptolemus had married Hermione, was Anna ac Pcrenna, she who beginsdaughter of Monelaus. Hermione re- and ends tho year.mained childless, and suspected as the Annales. The Annales Ponlificum OPcause of this the arts of her hated rival, Annalcs Maximi were records of impor-Andromache. Aided by the contemptible tant events kept by the Pontifcx Maximus,Menelaus, Hcrmione takes advantage of who displayed annually a white table onthe absence of Neoptolemus on a journey to which these and the names of the magi-Delphi to draw Andromache, by the threat strates for the year were set out. Theof the murder of Molossus, from the shrine early records are said to have beenof Thetis where she has taken refuge, in destroyed in tho fire of 390 B.C. Muciusorder to kill both mother and child. They Scaevola (consul in 133 and Pontifexare saved by the intervention of the agod Maximus in 130) collected such of thePeleus, the grandfather of NeoptolcumH. Annales Pontiflcum as were available andOrestes (q.v.), who has contrived the published them hi 130 B.C., accordingmurder of Neoptolemus at Delphi and who to Servius in eighty books.arrives unexpectedly, carries off Hermione, Early Roman historians, sometimesto whom, before her marriage to Neopto- spoken of as annalists, includo Fabiuslemus, he was betrothed. The death of Pictor (q.v.) who wrote in Greek, M.Neoptolemus is announced. Thetis appears Porcius Cato (q.v.), L. Calpurnius Pisoand arranges matters. The odious charac- Frugl (consul 133 B.C.), L. Caelius Anti-ter which the poet attributes to Monelaus pater (late 2nd c. B.C.), Q. Claudiusis in accord with the feeling against Sparta Quadrigarius (1st c. B.C.), and C. Liciniusthat prevailed at this time at Athens. Macer (q.v.).Andromeda (Andromedt), see Perseus. Annales, (1) of Ennms, see Ennius; (2) ofAndronicus, Ltrcius LIvius, see Livius Tacitus, see Annals; (3) of Fencstella, seeAndronicus. Fenestella.Androtion (Androtion), Against, a Annals (Annales or Ab Excessu Divispeech in a public prosecution by Demos- Augusti), a history of the reigns ofthenes. See Demosthenes (2), 3 (a). Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, by * Tacitus, written after the HistoriesAnecddta see Procopius. (q.v.). There evidence that Tacitus isAnimdlium, Historia, a treatise by was writing the work c. A.D. 115-17. TheAristotle (q.v., 3). surviving portions are Books I-IV, partsAnna, sister of Dido (q.v.). According of V and VI, and XI-XVI (incompleteto Ovid, Anna, after Aeneas had estab- at the beginning and end). The work islished himself in Italy, came there, and notable for its style, concise to the point
  • 41. Annals 29 Annalsof obscurity (in strong contrast to the of Agrippina his mother (33). The <Ciceronian amplitude), its sustained less bloodshed at Rome, by executions anddignity and vividness, its epigrammatic suicides. The death of Tiberius (37), andsayings memorable for their irony or a summary of his life.melancholy. The record of these reigns Bk. XI (A.D. 47-49), resumes the narra-is in the main a gloomy and depressing tive after the hiatus, in the seventh yearone, and although Tacitus bears witness of Claudius (A.D. 47). The principal sub-here and there to the efficient civil admini- jects of tho book are tho excesses ofstration of the empire, the emphasis seems Messallna, her marriage with Silius, thoto bo rather on the crimes, tho syco- perturbation of tho emperor, and thephancy, the delations, and the oppression, execution (48) of Silius and Messalina atthat marked this period at Rome. Though the instance of the frccdman Narcissus.Tacitus claims to write without partiality Bk. XII (A.D. 49-54). Claudius marriesand prejudice, to aim at saving worthy (49) his niece, Agrippina (daughter ofactions from oblivion while holding up Germanicus). Through her influence herevil deeds to the reprobation of posterity son (the future emperor Nero) is adopted(iii. 65), he is in fact influenced by a re- by Claudius, preferred to his own son,publican bias. It is generally recognized Britannicus, and married to Octaviathat the impression he gives of Tiberius is (daughter of Claudius). Silanus, to whomunduly dark, and that in particular the Octavia had been betrothed, is broughtlife of debauchery imputed to him in his to ruin and death (49) by Agrippina.last years at Capri is inherently improbable. Seneca is recalled from exile to be NerosThe matters of most interest or impor- tutor. The insurrection in Britain and thetance hi the several books are as follows : defeat (50)of Caratacus, king of tho Bk. I (A.D. 14-15), after a rapid review Silures, who is brought to Rome andof the reign of Augustus, passes to the pardoned. Claudius is poisoned by Agrip-reign of Tiberius, relating the suppression pina. Accession of Nero (54).by Germanicus of the mutiny of the Bk. XIII (A.D. 55-58). The promisinglegions in Pannonia and Germany (A.D. beginning of the reign of Nero, who is14), and his first two campaigns (14-15) restrained by Seneca and Burrus (prefectagainst the Germans. There is a notable of the praetorians). Cn. Domitius CorbulOdescription of the visit of tho Roman is sent to the East to resist Parthian ag-army to the scene of the disaster of Varus. gression (54). Agrippina, whoso influence Bk. II (A.D. 16-19). The third cam- is weakened, takes up the cause of Bri-paign of Germanicus (16), in which he tannicus. Nero has Britannicus poisoneddefeats Arminius. His expedition to the 55) and Agrippina removed from theEast with Cn. Piso (17), and his death (19), palace. Nero in love with Poppaea Sabina.suspected to have been duo to Piso. Bk. XIV (A.D. 59-62). Tho attempted Bk. Ill (A.D. 20-22). The return of destruction of Agrippina by scuttling herAgrippina, the widow of Germanicus, to ship, followed by her brutal murder (61).Italy, and tho trial (20) and suicide of The great rising (61) in Britain underPiso. The growth of luxury and syco- Boudicca (Boadicea), and its suppression.phancy at Rome. London is mentioned as much frequented Bk. IV (A.D. 23-28). Sejanus, his charac- by merchants and trading vessels. Armeniater and career. In league with Livia, the is recovered from tho Parthians by thewife of Drusus (son of Tiberius), he causes Romans under Corbulo. The death of Bur-Drusus to be poisoned (23), and plots rus (62) and retirement of Seneca. Neroagainst the children of Germanicus. Tho marries Poppaea his former wife, the vir- ;proposal of his marriage with Livia is put tuous Octavia, is banished to Pandatariaaside by Tiberius. Tiberius withdraws to and there murdered.Capri (26). The increase in tho activity Bk. XV (A.D. 62-65). Ignominious de-of informers and in judicial murders: the feat of Caesennius Paetus in Armenia,case, for instance, of Cremutius Cordus, followed by tho reduction of the countryaccused of having in a history praised by a Roman army under Corbulo to aBrutus and Cassius. dependency of the empire (63). Tho great Bk. V (A.D. 29). The death of Julia flre of Rome (64) which devastated tenAugusta or Livia (29), mother of Tiberius. out of its fourteen districts; the rebuild-The story of the conspiracy and fall of ing of tho city on an improved plan. TheSe janus (31), which formed part of this persecution of the Christians, to whombook, is lost. Nero attributes the flre. The conspiracy Bk. VI (A.D. 31-37). Tiberius at Capri, of C. Calpurnius PIsS and putting to deathhis vicious life, anguish of soul, and of Seneca and Lucan (65).ferocity. The death of Drusus (son of Bk. XVI (A.D. 65-66). The extrava-Germanicus) by starvation in prison, and gances of Nero, who appears in public as
  • 42. Annona 30 Anthologiesa singer. The death of Poppaea (65). Antaeus (Antaios), son of Poseidon andThe suicide of the Stoic Thrasca and the Ge (qq.v.), a giant with whom Heraclesbanishment of his son-in-law, Helvidius (q.v.) wrestled. Whenever ho was thrown,(66). In one of tho last surviving chapters he arose stronger than before from contactof the book (10) Tacitus laments the with his mother Earth. Heracles, per-melancholy and monotony of the record ceiving this, lifted him in tho air andof bloodshed. The portion of tho Annals crushed him to death.relating to tho last two years of Neros Anteia, see Betterophon.reign is lost. Antenor, one of the elders of Troy duringAnnona, at Homo, tho corn supply, tho siege. He was in favour of restoringalways a source of solicitude to the Helen to tho Greeks, since sho had beenauthorities owing to tho fluctuation of taken by treachery. It was said that tho his fairness, sparedprices and the danger of famine from the Greeks, recognizingfailure of crops and the uncertainty of him and his family when the city wascommunications. From the 5th o. B.C. the captured. Later legend made him out agovernment appears to have occupied it- traitor to the Trojans.self with procuring supplies of wheat from Anthesteria, see Festivals, 4.overseas and selling it to tho people, theaediles of tho plebs being charged with Anthologies.this duty. Tho details of tho legislation 1, Greek Anthologieson the subject at various later dates are The ancient Greek anthologies were col-still a vexed question, and tho following lections of Greek Epigrams *, i.e. short ele- *statements only indicate the more recent giac poems, of from one to four distichsviews on the subject. O. Gracchus caused on various subjects and by various au-a certain quantity of corn to be sold at a thors. Mcleager of Gadara (1st c, B.C.) com-moderate price, probably to each adult piled such an anthology from tho workscitizen who applied for it; the price of forty-six poets. It is now lost, butappears to have been 6J asses per modius served, with other similar compilations,(nearly two gallons), but what relation as the basis of tho famous collectionthis bore to the open-market price we do of Coiistantinus Cephalas (c. A.D. 917).not know. This special price may have This is known as the Palatine Anthology,been reduced by the law of Saturninus because it was discovered (by the great(q.v.) of 100 B.C. Sulla seems to have French scholar Salmasius at the age of 19)abolished corn distributions, but immedi- in the Palatine Library of Heidelbergately after his death Lepidus reintroduced in the 17th c. It includes poems by 320them, at tho rate of five modii a month authors. Tho Antholorjia Planudea wasgratis. By the lex Terentia Cassia of 73 B.C. made by the monk Maximus Planudcscorn was supplied to a restricted number in the 14th c. it was an abridgement (with ;40,000 gratis. In 63 B.C. the Gracchan a few additions) of the anthology oflaw was revised and some charge was Cephalas. The modern Greek Anthology again made. Clodius (q.v.) in 58 B.C. gave is composed of tho Palatine Anthology, corn free of charge to the proletariat. with the additional poems supplied byJulius Caesar appointed two Aedilcs that of Planudes, and further epigramsCerialcs specially to look after the dis- found in other Greek authors or in in-tribution; tho recipients, greatly reduced scriptions. It contains over six thousandin number, were entered on a register. epigrams, many of them poems of greatBetween A.D. (> and 14 Augustus ap- charm, ranging in time over seventeenpointed a ipracfectus annonae who regula- centuries, from the 7th c. B.C. to the 10thted the price and distribution. He had c. A.D., and over a great variety of sub-In 22 B.C. taken over tho cilra annonae, jects. There are epitaphs (including theand from that date it was under imperial famous epitaphs attributed to Simonides),control. The expense, which was con- dedications, reflections on life and deathsiderable, had hitherto been met by the and fate, poems on love, on family life,aerarium or State treasury. It was now on great poets and artists and their works,met by tho imperial revenues, but the and on the beauties of nature. A certainaerarium may also have contributed. The proportion are humorous or satirical,harbour built at Ostia by Claudius was to making fun of doctors, rhetoricians, ath-enable tho corn ships to have direct com- letes, &c., or of personal peculiarities, suchmunication with Rome instead of unload- as Nicons long nose.ing at Puteoli, whence tho corn had to be The dedicatory poems form perhaps theconveyed overland a distance of 138 miles. group that throws most light on ancientFurther harbour improvements were car- Greek life there are dedications not only :ried out by Trajan. of arms, but of many kinds of implements
  • 43. Anticlea 31 Antiopeof daily use. A maiden about to wed poems in elegiacs, collected title under theoffers up her and toys, a traveller Lyde, which were to some extent the dollshis old hat, a small gift, but given in forerunners of poems of the Alexandrianpiety. school. The Anthologia Latina 2. Antinous (Gk. Antinoos), (1) in the The Anthologia Latina is a collection Odyssey (q.v.), the most arrogant ofof some 380 short Latin poems, most of the wooers of Penelope. He is the first ofthem of very late date, compiled in the these that Odysseus kills. (2) A BithynianVandal kingdom of Africa in the first half youth of great beauty and a favouriteof the 6th c. A.D. It includes the Pervi- of the emperor Hadrian. He drownedgilium Veneris* (q.v.) and some poems by himself in the Nile in A.D. 130. HadrianSeneca the Philosopher. founded the city of Antinoopolis on the Nile and erected temples in his memory.Anticlea (Antikleia), in Greek mytho- Antinous was frequently represented inlogy, the wife of Laertes and mother of sculpture, and some of these representa-Odysseus (q.v.). tions survive.Anticlimax, see Climax. Antioch (Antiocheia), on the Orontes,Antidosis. A wealthy Athenian was the capital of Syria, founded by Seleucus Irequired to undertake certain public ser- (see Seleucids) about 300 B.C., and namedvices (see Liturgy). To avoid one of these, after his father. Antiochus the Greathe might challenge some other citizen, (223-187 B.C.) adorned it with works ofwhose means he thought greater than his art, a theatre, and a library. It was aown, either to undertake the service or trade centre and a pleasure city, never ato make an exchange (antidosis) of pro- centre of learning, though Aratus of Soliperties. This might lead to a lawsuit, if lived for a time at the court of Antiochus I,the other citizen refused. and Euphorion was appointed librarianAntidosis, On the, see Isocrates. of the public library. Antiochus IV Epi-Antigone (Antigone), see Oedipus. phanes, an ardent Hellenist, made Antioch for a time a centre of Greek art. ManyAntigone, a tragedy by Sophocles, of other cities, besides the capital, foundedunknown date, probably an early work. Creon, ruler of Thebes, has forbidden on by the Seleucids bore the name Antioch.pain of death the burial of the body of Antiochus (Anttochos), (1) the name ofPolynices (see Oedipus). Antigone resolves several of the Scleucid kings of Asia; seeto defy the outrageous edict and perform Scleucids. (2) of Ascalon, see Academy,the funeral rites for her brother. She is ad fin.caught doing this and brought before the in Greek mytho-infuriated king. She justifies her act as Antiope (Antiope) (1)In accordance with the overriding laws logy, daughter of Nycteus, son ofof the gods. Creon, unrelenting, condemns Chthonios, one of the Spartoi (see Cad-her to be immured alive in a cave. Her mus) of Thebes. Antiope was loved by who has refused to share inZeus and became the mother of the twinsister, Ismene,her defiant act, now claims a share hi her brothers, Amphion and Zethus. To avoid her fathers anger she fled to Sicyon.guilt and in her penalty, but is treated byCreon as demented. Haemon, Creon s son, Nycteus in despair killed himself, but first charged his brother, Lycus, who wasbetrothed to Antigone, pleads in vain withCreon. He goes out, warning his father king of Thebes during the minority ofthat he will die with her. The seer Tiresias Laius (q.v.), to punish Antiope. Lycusthreatens Creon with the fearful conse- captured Sicyon and imprisoned Antiope ; her treatment was made more cruel byquences of his defiance of the divine laws. the jealousy of Dirce, the wife of Lycus.Creon, at last moved, sets out hurriedlyfor the cave where Antigone has been At last Antiopo escaped and joined herimmured. He finds Haemon clasping her sons, now grown to maturity. Thesedead body, for Antigone has hanged her- revenged her by tying Dirce to the horns of a bull, so that she was dragged toself. Haemon thrusts at Creon with his death ; and they killed or deposed Lycus.sword, but misses him, and then killshimself. Creon returns to the palace, to Amphion and Zethus now became rulersfind that Eurydice, his wife, in despair has of Thebes and built its walls. Amphiontaken her own life. was a harper of such skill that the stones were drawn into their places by his music.Antigonus and Antigonids, see Ma- He married Niobe (q.v.). Zethus marriedcedonia, 2 and 3. the nymph Thebe, whence was derivedAntimachus (Antimachos) of Colophon, the name of Thebes.see Epic, 1. He also wrote short love (2) See Hippolyte.
  • 44. Antipater 32 AntonyAntipater (Antipatros), a Macedonian Italian bourgeois of the senatorial class,general, left by Alexander the Great who had no intellectual tendencies, but(q.v.) as regent of Macedonia during his a sound common sense, and a gift ofeastern campaigns. See under Macedonia, humour* (Rostovtzeff). Ho was father of 2, and also Athens, 7. Faustina (q.v.). It was in his reign (in 142) that the wall of turf known as theAntipater (Antipatros) of Sidon (fl. c. Wall of Antoninus was built by his lieuten-100 B.C.), a Greek writer of elegiac poetry, ant Lollius Urbicus between the Forth andsome of which is preserved in the Palatine tho Clyde (see Britain, 2).Anthology (q.v.). AntSnius, MARCUS, (1) (143-87 B.C.), oneAntiphanes, see Comedy, 4. of tho greatest orators of his day, consulAntiphon (c. 480-411), the first of the in 99, a member of the party of Sulla, andAttic orators whoso speeches in part sur- put to death by the Marians. Ho wasvive, a representative of the older and grandfather of Antony the triumvir. Hemore austere form of pleading. He was is one of the chief interlocutors in Cicerosthe first professional writer of speeches to De Oratore* (q.v.). (2) See Antony.be spoken by the actual litigants (logo- Antonomasia, a rhetorical figure, ingraphos, in the second sense of the word, which a descriptive term or phrase is sub-q.v.). Ho was also a teacher of rhetoric, stituted for a proper name, e.g. Tydidcsand Thucydides is said to have been his for Diomcdes, or Divum pater forpupil. Though living in obscurity, he was Jupiter. Cf. Metonymy.the soul of the oligarchic conspiracy whichin 411 established the rule of the Four Antony, MARK (Marcus Antdnius) (c. 82- 30 B.C.), grandson of M. Antonius (q.v.)Hundred (see Athens, 5). When thesewere overthrown, Antiphon was tried, the orator. After serving under Gabiniusfound guilty of treason, and put to death, in the East and under Caesar in Gaul, hoin spite of a plea for his life which Thucy- was one of tho tribunes in 49, when hodides declares unequalled down to his supported Caesars cause, joined himtime. Antiphon is said to have been un- before tho crossing of the Rubicon, and held a command in the ensuing campaignspopular owing to a repute for cleverness.He excelled as a pleader in cases of in Italy and Epirus. After Pharsalus (48) he remained in Italy as Caesars Master ofhomicide, and his dignified style wasbetter suited to the Areopagus than to tho Horse and held tho chief power therethe Ecclesia. Wo have three of his during tho lawless period of Caesars absence. He was consul at tho time ofspeeches for murder trials, and also throeTetralogies, exercises in which the author Caesars Assassination and his eloquencegives two speeches for the accuser and won over the populace to his side andtwo for tho defendant in imaginary cases made him ruler of Rome. Civil war brokeof homicide one, for instance, where a boy ; out. It was at this time that Cicero de- livered his Philippics against Antony,practising with the javelin kills anotherboy who runs between htm and the target. and powerfully contributed to raise the republican opposition to him. AntonyAntiquitdtZs RSrum Humtfnarum ct was defeated at the battle of Mutina (43).Dfvfwarum, see Varro (M. T.). Octavian had attached himself to theAntisthenes, see Cynic. republican party, but after Mutina theAntistius Labeo, MARCUS, see Labco. differences between him and Antony were composed, and Octavian, Antony, andAntithesis (placing opposite*), such Lcpidus formed the Triumvirate. Pro-choice or arrangement of words as em- scriptions followed, in which Cicero andphasizes a contrast; e.g. Dominetur in his brother were sacrificed to Antonyscontionibus, jaccat in judiciis* (Cic., Pro desire for vengeance. After Philippi (42),Cluent. 2, 5). where Antony shared the command withAntdninus Pius (Titus Aurclius Fulvus Octavian, a division of tho Roman worldBoionius Arrius Antoninus, after adop- was made, hi which tho East was assignedtion Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus) to Antony. But hostilities soon broke out(A.D. 86-161), Roman emperor A.D. 138- between him and Octavian, temporarily161 in succession to Hadrian, by whom he composed by the treaty of Brundisium inhad been adopted as heir. Ho belonged 40, and tho marriage of Antony withto a Roman family which had settled in Octavians sister Octavia (Antonys firstGaul his father had been consul suffectus. wife Fulvia, q.v., had died in 40). Antony ;Antoninus maintained good relations with now fell under the influence of Cleopatrathe Senate and his reign was peaceful and (q.v.), queen of Egypt, whom he had metorderly, without striking incident. He when he visited Cilicia in 41. Both stoodwas diligent, tolerant, frugal, a good to profit by close alliance Antony would ;
  • 45. Anubis 33 Apiciushave at his disposal the resources of Egypt him. See Painting. To Apelles is attri-to further his scheme of obtaining com- buted by Pliny a saying which has becomeplete power over the East; Cleopatra proverbial. A cobbler had criticized thewould be confirmed in her rule over drawing of a sandal in a picture byEgypt, which was none too secure. But Apelles; Apelles altered the sandal asthe campaign which Antony undertook desired. Next day the cobbler wentagainst the Parthians hi 36 was unsuccess- further and criticized the drawing of theful. After subduing Armenia in 34 he leg. To this Apelles replied, no sutorreturned to Alexandria, where he lived supra crepidam*, the origin of our alike an oriental ruler. He made donations cobbler should stick to his last*.of large parts of the Eastern provinces to Apellcs figures in Lylys Alexander and form kingdoms for Cleopatra, Caesarion Campaspe (1584).(q.v.), and his three children by Cleopatra.In 32 he divorced Octavia, and war broke Aphaia, see Britomartis.out once more between Octavian on the Aphobus (Aphobos), Against, speechesone side and Antony and Cleopatra on the by Demosthenes against his fraudulentother, and was decided by Octavians guardian. See* Demosthenes (2), 2.victory at Actium (31), when Cleopatrassixty ships sailed away, followed by Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, identified by the Romans with VenusAntony himself. In 30 Octavian invaded (q.v.). Homer makes her the daughter ofEgypt, and Antony, after defeat, took Zeus and Diono (q.v.). According tohis own life. Antonys fatal entangle-ment with Cleopatra is the subject of Hesiod she sprang from the foam (aphros) of the sea that gathered about the severedShakespeares historical play Antonyand Cleopatra*. (This play is based on member of Uranus when Cronos (q.v.) mutilated him. Her name Cypris (thePlutarchs life of Antony, which may Cyprian, see Cyprus) and many of hergive a romantic and distorted view of the attributes indicate her partially orientalfacts.) origin and her kinship to the Asian god-Anubis, in Egyptian religion, the dog- dess Astarto. This is borne out by theheaded god who conducted the souls of legend that she first landed either atthe dead to the region of immortal life; Paphos in Cyprus or at Cythera (an islandidentified by the Greeks with Hermes. off the Laconian coast), whence herAonia. The Aonians were, according to title Cytherean*. She was the wifelegend, ancient inhabitants of Boeotia, of Hephaestus (q.v.), but was unfaithfulwhom Cadmus (q.v.) allowed to remain to him; her amorous intrigue with Aresin the country along with the immigrant (q.v.) was discovered, and the pair werePhoenicians. Aonia is sometimes used by caught in a net by Hephaestus and ex-learned poets for Boeotia, and Aonian posed to the ridicule of the assembledfor Boeotian (a name which carried with gods. In later literature she is the motherit a shade of contempt). of Eros (q.v.). For other legends about her see Adonis, Anchises, Paris (JudgementApaturia (Apatouria), see Phratriai. of). She was worshipped in Greece bothApella (Apelld), the assembly of the as Aphrodite Crania, goddess of thepeople at Sparta (q.v., 2). sky, and as Aphrodite Pandemos, god- dess of all the people* (a goddess ofApelles, the greatest painter of anti-quity, born at Colophon in Ionia in the marriage and family life). Later the dis- tinction acquired a new meaning: Aph-first half of the 4th c. B.C. He studied rodite Urania became the goddess ofunder the Ephesian painter Ephorusand the Sicyonian Pamphilus, and later higher, purer love Aphrodite Pandemos ;worked at Corinth, Athens, and at the the goddess of sensual lust. Aphrodite hadMacedonian court. The distinctive quality a famous sanctuary on Mt. Eryx on theof his work was grace and charm, coupled NW. coast of Sicily. This the Romans espe-with ease of execution. He painted mainly honoured, because Aphrodite, as the cially mother of Aeneas (see Anchises), passedportraits, but his most famous picture wasthat of Aphrodite Anadyomene, wringing for their ancestress. The title of Venusfrom her hair the water of the sea from Erycma, who had a temple at Rome out- side the Colline Gate, was derived from thewhich she has just risen. This pictureAugustus acquired for 100 talents. Apelles sanctuary on Mt. Eryx.was the favourite painter of Alexander the Apicius, QUINTUS (?) GJLvius, a gourmetGreat, of whom he painted several por- of the reign of Tiberius. His culinarytraits, generally in some allegorical situa- receipts were written down; but thetion, e.g. wielding a thunderbolt, or riding work on cookery which bears the namein triumph, with War a captive behind of Caelius Apicius is thought to be a 4339 D
  • 46. Apocolocyntosis Apollonius Dyscoluscompilation of a much later date. It is Marpessa, Marsyas, Niobe, Pan, Sibyl,sometimes entitled * Do opsSniis et condl- Tityus.mentis sive de re culmaria libri decom. Apollo, though a younger ImmigrantPerhaps the name Apicius was added to among the Greek gods, held a prominentensure a ready sale. place among thorn and was widely wor- The chief centres of his cult wereApocolocyntosis, a work bearing in the shipped.MSS. the title Ludus de Morte Claudii, Delphi, the island of Delos, and, for theascribed traditionally to Seneca the Philo- Greeks of Asia, Didyma near Miletus. Ho was regarded as a type of moral excellence,sopher, who according to Dio Cassiuswroto an apocolocyntosis or pumpkini- and his influence, as propagated fromfication* (a parody of Apotheosis) of Delphi (see Delphic Oracle), was a benefi-Claudius after his death. It is a tasteless cent and elevating one; for it prescribedif amusing lampoon, in the form of a purification and penance for the expiation of crime, and discouraged vengeance (itMenippean satire (a medley of verso and is, e.g., Apollo who defends Orestes againstprose), on the recently deceased emperor the Furies). The Homeric Hymns to theClaudius, describing the proceedings inheaven on his death; his arrival there, Delian and the Pythian Apollo relate thethe difficulty of ascertaining who ho is story of his birth and of the founding of hia In modern literature seeowing to his inarticulate speech, the Pythian temple.debate whether he shall be made a god, Shelleys Hymn of Apollo. See also Paean.and Augustuss motion that ho shall 2. In Roman religionbo deported from heaven for the murders Apollo, or Phoebus Apollo, was adoptedhe has committed. Claudius is haled offto the lower regions, where ho meets his among the Roman gods from Greek sources, according to tradition by Serviusvictims, and is brought before Aeacus for or at any rate at a very earlytrial. Aeacus (following Claudiuss own Tullius, date. He was known to the Etrurians,system) hears the case against him, but and the Romans hadrefuses to hear the other side, and sen- early dealings with Delphi. He was first introduced as a godtences him. Claudius is finally made law- of healing, but soon became prominentclerk to one of his own freodmen. as a god of oracles and prophecy. InApollinaris Sidonius, see Sidonius. Virgil ho figures in both these characters, but especially as the giver of oracles ; theApo115 (Gk. Apollon). Cumaean Sibyl was his priestess. In the % I. In Greek Mythology Eclogues Apollo appears also as the patron Apollo was the son of Zeus and Loto of poetry and music. The oldest temple(q.v.), and brother of Artemis; the god to him in Rome was erected in 432 B.C.of medicine, music (especially the lyre), Games (Ludi Apollinares) were institutedarchery* and prophecy; the god also of in his honour in 212 B.C. after Hannibalslight (whence his epithet Phoebus, the capture of Tarentum, and later were madebright) and youth; sometimes identified annual on 13 July in consequence of awith the sun. He was also associated with pestilence. His cult was further developedthe care of flocks and herds, whence the by Augustus, who took him as his specialepithet nomios (of the pastures). The patron and erected to him a great templesense of the frequent title Lyceius (lukeios) on the Palatine.is disputed it may mean Lycian, or have ; (Apolloddros) of Athens (c.some reference to wolves. Apollo Smiri Apollodorus 140 B.C.) was author of a long treatise intheus, referred to in Horn. II. i. 39, was Greek prose On the Gods, and of aso called either from the name of a place Chronicle (Chronike Suntaxis), a chrono-in the Troad whore he was worshipped, logical work of some importance, writtenor from sminihos, a mouse, as the Mouse- in iambic trimeters, covering the periodkiller, the god who protected farmers from the fall of Troy. Only fragmentsagainst mice. of these survive. The BibliothekS , a Apollos first feat was the seizure of valuable extant compilation of myths,Delphi (q.v.) for his abode, and the de- wrongly attributed to him, dates prob-struction of its guardian, the dragon ably from the time of the Roman Empire.Python, personifying the dark forces ofthe underworld; an act which Apollo ApollSnius (Apollonios) Dyscolus (Dus-had to expiate by exile and purification. kolos, crabbed) (2nd c. A.D.) was theThis myth was celebrated in pantomime author of Greek treatises which first placedat the Delphic festival of the Stcpteria, Greek grammar on a scientific basis. Heand explains his title Pythian . For other lived in poverty at Alexandria and wrotelegends of Apollo see Admetus, Aristaeus, numerous works, most of which are lost,Aactepius, Cassandra, Daphne, Hyacinthus, on the parts of speech and on syntax. His
  • 47. Apollonlus of Tyana 35 Appianwritings were much used by Prlscian in obedience to the divine voice, to preach(q.v.). He was father of Aelius llerodianus the necessity of virtue. If they kill him,(q.v.), who wrote on Greek accents. they will be injuring themselves, for he is the gadfly sent by the god to stirApolldnius of Tyana in Cappadocia (b. Athens to life.c.4 a B.C.), wandering Pythagorean philo- Socrates is convicted and the deathsopher and mystic who attained so great penalty is proposed. His speech assumesa fame by his protended wonder-working a more lofty tone. Why should ho proposepowers that divine honours were paid to an alternative penalty ? As a benefactorhim. Ho wrote a life of Pythagoras and of Athens ho ought to bo rewarded. Im-other works, of which hardly anything has prisonment, exile, a fine, would bo certainsurvived. His own life waa written by evils, whereas of death ho docs not knowPhilostratus (q.v.). whether it is an evil or a good. However,Apollonius of Tyre, see Novel. he suggests a fine of thirty minae, for which his friends will offer surety, for heApoll5nius RhSdius (Rhddius) (c. 295- himself has no money. He is sentenced215 B.C.), a native of Alexandria who spent to death. In his final words he prophesiespart of his life at Khodcs, is said by Suidas thatto havo succeeded Eratosthenes as head many will arise after his death to condemn his judges. Ho comforts hisof the Alexandrian Library ; but this pre- friends with regard to his own fate, forsents chronological difficulties. Ho wrote death is either a dreamless sleep or a Argonautica* in four books, a Greek epio journey to a place of true justice, where,on tho story of Jason and tho Argo- moreover, ho will be able to converse withnauts, which survives. It lacks the epio Hesiod and Homer and tho heroes of old.fire, but contains a beautiful descrip- Nothing evil can happen to a good mantion of the love oi Jason and Medea if ; he is to die, it is because it is better for(imitated by Virgil in tho story of Dido him. He forgives his accusers and judges.in tho 4th Aeneid) and some other goodepisodes. Thoso of the loss of Hylae and Apology (Apologia Sokratous), an accountthe fight of Pollux with Amycus (q.v.) were by Xcnophon of Socrates defence hi hisrehandled by Theocritus as short, separate trial on the charge of impiety. Xcnophonpoems. For tho quarrel between Apollonius at tho time was taking part in tho expedi-and Callimachus, see under Callimachus. tion of Cyrus (see Anabasis) and he relies on the authority of Hermogencs, a friendApology (Apologia) of Socrates, the of Socrates, mentioned hi Platos Phaedo* speech made by Socrates, as related by as present at the execution. It is designedPlato, in answer to the charge of impiety to bring out especially that Socrates wasthat was brought against him. How farit represents the words actually used by willing to die, not for tho spiritual reasons * hi Platos Apology, but in orderSocrates is unknown. (Plato, it appears, given to escape tho disabilities of old age. Hiswas present at the trial.) are stated with lees elaboration than Socrates distinguishes between the old, pleasvague accusations (that he speculated by Plato.about physical questions and made the Aposiopesis, a rhetorical artifice, inworse cause appear tho better) and the which tho speaker comes to a sudden haltspecific charge of impiety now brought by in the middle of a sentence, as if unableMeletus, and, answering the former first, or unwilling to proceed. The best-knownexplains that he is neither a sophist nor a instance is Virgil, Aen. i. 133-5:natural philosopher; his only wisdom con- lam caelum torramque meo sine numine,sists in knowing that he knows nothing. Venti,Instigated by an oracle, ho has sought Miscere et tantas audctis tollere moles ?constantly to find a wiser man than him- Quos ego Scd motos pracstat compo- !self, but has found none. He has gone nere fluctus.to those who had a reputation for wis- (Gk. apostrophS, turning-dom, and finding they had none, he has ApostrophS away), a rhetorical figure by which thetried to convince them of this, thereby speaker interrupts the thread of his dis-provoking their enmity and giving rise coUrse to address pointedly some personto these vague charges. He next turns present, or supposed to be present e.g. ;to Meletus and cross-examines him on his [Extulit] haeo Decios, Marios, magnosqueaccusations, using a sophistical form of Camillos,argument which seems to us unsatisfac- Scipiadas duros bello, et te, maximetory. He then addresses the judges and Caesar. (Virg. Georg. ii. 169-70) declares himself unrepentant. Ho will persist in the practices complained of, for Appian (Appidnos) of Alexandria (fl.he must remain at his post and continue, c. A.D. 160), who practised as a lawyer ha
  • 48. Appius Claudius 36 ApuleiusHome, was a compiler of narratives in Platonic doctrine of God and the daemonsGreek of the various Roman wars from (De Deo Socratis); a free translationthe earliest times to the accession of Ves- (De Mundo) of the Uepl Koopov at-pasian, in 24 books. Of these, 10 books tributed falsely to Aristotle ; and a certainand portions of others survive, including number of verses. His philosophical writ-those dealing with the Punic Wars and ings show a bent to religious mysticism.the Civil Wars (from Marius and Sulla to But the work for which lie is famous is34 B.C.). his Metamorphoses or Golden Ass, a Latin romance in eleven books. The plotAppius Claudius, consul in 451 B.C.and one of the decemvirs appointed at was based on an extant Greek work,Rome in that year to draw up a code of AOVKIOS TI ovos doubtfully attributed tolaws. The decemvirs, led by Appius Lucian, or an earlier lost work which was the common basis of both. This originalClaudius, appear, when reappointod fora second year, to have become oppressive. was remodelled by Apuleius and enlargedThe attempted outrage by Appius on by many incidental talcs.Virginia (q.v.) is said to have led to their The romance takes the form of a narra-overthrow (Livy iii. c. 33). tive by one Lucius, a Greek, of his adven- tures, beginning with a visit to Thessaly,Appius Claudius Caecus, a famous the reputed home of sorceries and enchant-Roman censor (312-308 B.C.), a man of ments. There, while staying at the houseoriginal and broad views, proud and of one Milo, ho sees the wife of his host,obstinate, who endeavoured to renovate a sorceress, turn herself by means of anthe governing class by admitting rich ointment into an owl, and, desirous ofplebeians and oven freodmen to the imitating her, induces the maid to procureSenate. As censor, while war with the him the ointment. But the maid givesSamnites was in progress, he built the first him the wrong ointment, a,nd Lucius isof the great Roman roads, the Via Appia ; turned by it into an ass, falls into thealso the first of the aqueducts bringing hands of robbers, and becomes an un-water to Rome. In his old age, when willing and much beaten partaker in theirblind, he resolutely opposed the proposals exploits. Some of the robber stories areof Pyrrhus (q.v.) for peace (280 B.C.). excellent, as that of the robber chiefHe composed aphorisms in Saturnian Lamachus, who, thrusting his hand{q.v.) verno, of which a few have been through a hole in the door of a housepreserved. Cicero says that he was a ho is going to rob, has it seized and nailednotable orator, and that even in his day to the doorpost by the house -owner, sosome of Appiuss funeral orations were that his companions have to cut off hisextant. arm to secure hie escape and the romantic ;Apuleius (J[puleius the quantity of the tale of the young man Tlcpolcmus, who, ;second syllable appears to bo doubtful), pretending to be the renowned thiefLOCTU8 (fl. c. A.D. 155), was born at Haemus the Thracian, gets himself madeMadaura, on the borders of Nuinidia captain of the robber band in order toand Gaetulia. On a journey to Alexan- rescue his betrothed, whom the banditsdria, when a young man, he fell ill, was have carried off. But the most beautifulnursed by a rich widow named Aemilia and famous of the talcs recounted is thePudentilla, and married her. Iler rela- fairy etory of Cupid and Psycho (seetives brought an action against him on Psyche). After many vicissitudes, in thethe charge of having won her by the course of which ho serves one of theuse of magic. His Apologia or speech strange bands of wandering priests offor the defence survives. From this wo Cybelo, and becomes a famous performinglearn that he had inherited a considerable ass, Lucius is transformed back intofortune but had wasted it, that ho was human shape by the favour of the goddessdeeply interested in natural science, and Isis, and appears to become Apuleiusthat the accusation of magic was founded the author himself. The last portion ofon trivial grounds. That Apuleius was in the work refers to his initiation into thefact much interested in magic appears mysteries of Isis and Osiris and bearsfrom many passages of his Metamor- witness to his interest in oriental religions,phoses (see below). He subsequently at this time the object of popular favour.settled at Carthago and travelled among In the whole story some see an allegorythe African towns, lecturing in Latin on of human life (the sensual abasement ofphilosophy. We possess a collection made the soul and its recovery), and in theby himself of purple passages from these fable of Cupid and Psyche an allegory oflectures, under the name Florida; also the soul in relation to love. The style ofa treatise on the philosophy of Plato ( Do Apuleius is lively, picturesque, and highlyPlatone et ejus dogmate) and one on the polished. The many realistic details that
  • 49. Aquarius 37 Aqueductshe gives vividly illuminate the popular fine bridge of Ponte Lupo, and for thelife of his time. last 61 miles of its course to the city was The Golden Ass* was translated into carried on arches, the ruins of which areEnglish m the 16th c. by W. Adlington. still visible. It entered the city at theFor translations of the fable of Cupid and Porta Praenestma (now the Porta Mag-Psyche, see Psyche. and terminated near the Viminal, giore) with branches thence in various direc-Aquarius, the Water-bearer*, in Greek tions. In spite of a warning in theHydrochoos, one of the sigros of the zodiac, Sibylline Books, Marcius carried a branchvariously thought by the ancients to have to the Capitol, probably by means of abeen Ganymede transported to the sky,or Deucalion. The sun entered Aquarius siphon. The water of the Marcia wasin January (Simul inversum contristat exceptionally cold and sparkling. ThisAquarius annum, Hor. Sat. I. i. 36). aqueduct and the Anio Vetus each had the large capacity, as calculated from theAqueducts (Aquae). The aqueducts of figures of Frontinus, of some 40 millionRome were among the most important of gallons hi 24 hours.the States public works. For our know- Agrippa (q.v.), probably in 40 B.C.,ledge of their history we are chiefly in- constructed the aqueduct called JULIA,debted to Frontinus (q.v.); in a less degree having its source hi the Alban Hills nearto notices in other authors, to inscriptions, the Via Latina, and a length of 15 i miles,and to modern archaeological research. 6^ of which were on the same arches asThey supplied Rome with water, whoso the Marcia. Agrippa also, in 19 B.C., builtpurity was praised by Galen (q.v.), by the AQUA VIRGO, drawing on springs at themeans of conduits in some cases as much eighth milestone of the Via Collatina.as 60 miles in length, hewn in the rock or It had a length of 12 miles, mostly under-carried over arches. The total supply ground. It was called Virgo, Frontinusprovided by the aqueducts under the early states, because a little girl pointed out theempire cannot be stated with any cer- springs to soldiers seeking water. Thetainty, but it has been deduced from the aqueduct supplied the baths of Agrippafigures of Frontinus that the system was in the Campus Martius. Ovid in his exilecapable of delivering no less than 222 mil- recalls with regret the view of the greenlion gallons in 24 hours (Ashby, The Campus with the Aqua Virgo (Ex Pont,Aqueducts of Ancient Rome, Clarendon I. viii. 33-8).Press, 1935). At the present time a supply Augustus built the ALSIETINA (alsoof 40 million gallons a day would be con- called AUGUSTA) to supply his Naumachiasidered sufficient for a city of a million (q.v.) on the right bank of the Tiber. Itsinhabitants. water, drawn from the Lacus Alsietinus The of the aqueducts was the first (Lake Martignano), 20 miles from Rome,APPIA, built in 312 B.C., during the Sam- was unwholesome and not intended fornite Wars, by the censor Appius Claudius private consumers. This was the lowestCaecus (q.v.). Its source is stated by of the aqueducts and its course has neverFrontinus to have been near the Via been determined.Praenestlna between the seventh and Gaius (Caligula) began two further aque-eighth milestones, but it has not been ducts, which were completed by Claudius,identified. The conduit was almost en- the CLAUDIA and the ANIO Novus. Thetirely underground, was eleven miles long, former drew its supply from springs nearand terminated near the Porta Trigemina the source of the Marcia, and had a course(between the Aventine and the Tiber). of 46 miles. For a distance of 9 miles it Forty years later, in 272-269 B.C., the was carried on fine arches, great stretchesANIO (or as it was later known, the ANIO of which survive. It entered the city nearVETUS) was constructed by the censors the modern Porta Ma#giore (where thereout of the booty captured from Pyrrhus. is an inscription of Claudius recording itsThe source was the river Anio above Tibur construction and that of the Anio Novus)(Tivoli), and its conduit was 43 miles long, and had its distributing station close by.almost entirely underground. This and The Anio Novus had its source origi-the Appia were low-level aqueducts. nally in the Anio at Sublaco later, as the ; A larger water-supply having become result of an improvement carried out bynecessary, a now aqueduct, the MARCIA, Trajan, its water was drawn from a lakewas built in 144-143 B.C. by the praetor, above Subiaco formed by a dam acrossQ. Marcius Rex. This was a high-level the Anio built by Nero near his villa. Itaqueduct. It had its source in springs in was 59 miles long, being carried in thethe Anio valley and a length of over latter part of its course on the same arches60 miles, of which some 7 miles were as the Claudia, but above it. These twoabove ground. It crossed a valley by the had the highest level of all the aqueducts,
  • 50. Aqueducts 38 Aratusand their capacity, on the basis of the their land. Pliny the Elder (N.H. 31. 42)figures of Frontinus, has been calculated also tells of the Roman aqueducts, givingat over 40 million gallons a day each. much praise to the Marcia water, and Further aqueducts were built at Rome deploring the loss of the Marcia and Virgoby Trajan, Caracalla, and Alexander Se- to the city, because private persons hadYerus. There were also important aque- diverted the supplies to their villas andducts in the provinces. The most striking suburban residences.survival of these is that known as the Aquilo, the north wind (Gk. Boreas).Pont du Gard, near Nlmes in southernFranco. Aquinas, THOMAS, see Texts and Studies, The channel (specus) of a Roman aque- 8.duct, where it ran underground, was tun- Ara Maxima, the altar of Hercules (q.v.)nelled by means of shafts (putei) sunk at at Rome, stood in the Forum Boariumshort intervals. Above ground it was (q.v.). It was here that, as related bybuilt of stone slabs keyed together, Virgil (Aen. viii. 102 et seq.), Aeneasor of concrete faced in brick or stone, found Evander sacrificing. The spot wasand was lined with fine cement; it connected with the legend of Herculeswas roofed against rain and sun. The and Cacus (q.v.). Tithes of booty, ofnormal arrangement was that the channels commercial profits, &c., were offered atterminated in main reservoirs (castdld), this altar.whence the suppiy was carried in part Ara Pads, Altar of Peace, in Rome,to public fountains and public baths, in was dedicated by order of the Senate inpart to secondary reservoirs. From these 9 B.C. in honour of the peace restored bysecondary reservoirs water was distributed Augustus. It was erected in the Campusin pipes to private consumers, who paid Martius. The walls of the small cpurta water rental. surrounding the altar were covered with Under the republic the maintenance of beautiful sculptures in relief, of whichthe aqueducts was let out by the censors fragments survive in the museums ofto contractors and supervised by the Rome, Florence, and Paris.censors, and when there were no cen- in Greek mythology, a womansors, by the aediles. These magistrates Arachne,also had control of the distribution of of Lydia, who challenged Athene (q.v.)the water. After the death of Agrippa, to a contest in weaving. She depicted inwho had her web the amours of the gods, and personally looked after thepublic works, a new organization was Athene, angered at her presumption and A board was appointed choice of subject, tore the web to piecesadopted (11 B.C.).consisting of a curator of consular rank and beat the weaver. Arachne in despairand two assistants of senatorial rank, hanged herself, but Athene turned her intoto have charge of the water supply. a spider.These were unlikely to have technical Aratus (Ardtos), (1) a Greek of Soli inknowledge. Under Claudius a procurator Cilicia (b. c. 315 B.C.), who came toaquarum of equestrian rank was estab- Athens and became acquainted with Cal-lished, who probably did most of the real limachus, and subsequently spent part ofwork. The post of curator was one of his life at the court of Antigonus Gonatas,great importance and authority. The king of Macedonia, where he wrote hymnsboard had under them a permanent staff, for the marriage of the king. Ho was the composed at first of 240 skilled slaves author of an extant poem entitled Phaino-bequeathed to Augustus by Agrippa, and mena (in 1154 hexameters) describingmaintained by the aerarium or State the stellar regions (the relative positions,treasury. To these Claudius added a that Is, of the chief stars and constella-further 460 slaves, at the charge of the tions, their risings and settings, withflscus (q.v.). This permanent staff carried little mythological allusion), based on anout the minor jobs, important work being earlier astronomical work by Eudoxus.lot out to contractors. The aqueducts The last 400 lines of the poem, dealingwere in constant need of repair, for leaks, with signs of the weather, were sometimesespecially in the stone-built channels, given the separate title of Diosomlai*wore caused by excessive heat or frost. The poem was translated into Latin byThe arches near the city also gave a great Cicero in his youth, and the latter part ofdeal of trouble. Frontinus, who was it also by Germanicus and Avienus (qq.v.)appointed curator aquarum in A.D. 97, (see also Hipparchus (2)). Ciceros trans-brought to light many abuses in con- lation is thought to have had consider-nexion with the system, notably the able influence on the style of Lucretius.tapping of the channels by unauthorized Other poems, which have not survived,persons to secure a supply of water for were ascribed to him. He has sometimes
  • 51. Arbela 39 Architecturebeen thought identical with the Aratus migrate to Thasos, and he was at ono !of Idyll vii of Theocritus ; but this has time a mercenary soldier. He fell hi lovenow been disproved by inscriptions. (2) Of with Neobule, daughter of Lycambes, butSIcydn, see Achaean League. her father forbade the marriage, and Archilochus avenged himself with suchArbela, a town in Assyria near it was ; biting satires that father and daughter,fought in 331 B.C. tho battle of Gaugamela according to tradition, hanged themselves.(sometimes called battle of Arbela) in He is said to havewhich Alexander the Great (q.v., perished in a battle 5) between Parians and Naxians.finally overthrew Darius. Ho is chiefly famous for his iambicArcadia (Arkddid), a region in the centre poetry (q.v.), but ho also wrote elegiesof the Peloponnese, very mountainous, and hymns and is said to bo the author ofespecially in the north, where Cyllene, various metrical inventions. His iambicErimanthus, and Aroanius towered to poems show a great variety of talent,nearly 8,000 feet. The largest plains were mockery, enthusiasm, melancholy, and ain the southern part, about Mantinca and mordant wit. Some of them celebrateMegalopolis. Its inhabitants claimed to Neobule. Eustathius spoke of him asbo tho oldest people in Greece and resisted scorpion-tongued*. Only fragments ofthe Dorian invasion (see Migrations) and his work survive. See also Epode.later Spartan aggressions; they retaineda dialect which may have represented tho Archimedes (c. 287-212 B.C.), born at Syracuse, one of the greatest mathema-original Achaean language. Arcadia has ticians of an astronomer, and anmany associations with Greek mytho- inventor antiquity, and mechanics. Ho hi physicslogy. According to one account Zeus was studied at Alexandria and subse-born there, on Mt. Lycaeus. Hermes and probablyPan were originally Arcadian deities. quently lived at the court of Hicron II of where he was killed at the cap-Through Evander (q.v.), said to have Syracuse, ture of the city by Marcellus, a capturebeen an Arcadian, Arcadia is connected which his devices had helped to postponewith the origins of Rome. Lake Stym- for two years. He left a number ofphalus lay among the lofty mountains treatises on statics andof northern Arcadia, and Styx was the hydrostatics, on thename of a little river falling down a circle, are and on the * Sphere and Cylinder*,tremendous cliff on Mt. Aroanius (tho which still extant. He invented themodern Mt. Chelmos). Arcadia also con- compound pulley and tho Screw of a contrivance for raisingtains the famous temple to Apollo at Archimedes*, water which may still be seenBassae near Phigalia, m a lonely and irrigation in use on the canals of Egypt. *Givo meimpressive situation which heightens tho aeffect of the beautiful ruins. The frieze place to stand, and I will move tho earth , * is a saying attributed to him. Eureka*of the cclla, representing the battle of the have found it) is said to have beenCentaurs and the Lapithae and tho battle (I his exclamation when ho discovered, byof the Greeks and the Amazons, dis- in his bath the water displacedcovered in 1812, is now in the British observing his body, the means of testing (byMuseum. The Arcadians derived their byname from a. legendary Areas, Bon of specific gravity) whetherHicronmetal had been introduced into base s crown.Zeus and Callisto (q.v.). There is a good deal about Archimedes inArcesilas (Arkesilds) or ARCESILAUS Plutarchs life of Marcellus.(Arkesildos), of Pitane in Asia Minor, sec Cicero, who was quaestor in Sicily inAcademy. 75 B.C., discovered the tomb of Archi- medes near one of the gates of Syracuse,Arcesilaus (Arkesildos), tho name of fourof the kings of Gyrene (q.v.) between the overgrown with brambles and forgotten. It had on it a column on which was repre-end of the 7th c. and the middle of tho sented a sphere inscribed in a cylinder,5th c. B.C. recalling his discovery of the relationArchelaus (Archddos), see Macedonia, between their volumes (Tusc. Disp. v. 1. 23. 04-6).Archetype, see Texts and Studies, 11. Architecture. Greek architecture 1.Archiddmus, see Isocratcs. Tho remains of Greek architec- earliestArchilochus (Archilochos), a celebrated ture known to us are the so-called Cyclo-Greek poet, probably of tho 7th c. B.C., pean walls of Tiryns and Mycenae, builtmember of a distinguished family of of huge polygonal blocks fitted together.Paros, but himself the son, it is said, of a This form of building gradually gave placeslave woman. Poverty drove him to to squared blocks, of which primitive
  • 52. Architheoria 40 Aresspecimens are also seen at Mycenae. In Arcturus (Arktouros, guardian of Ark-the same ancient town may still be seen tos, the Bear), a bright star in the con-the wonderful beehive* tombs of the stellation Arotophylax (which likewiseearly princes, circular chambers built of means guardian of the Bear), situatedhorizontal courses of stone which gradu- in the heavens near the Great Bear. Theally approach till they form a vault. The name Arcturus is sometimes wronglylater development of Greek architecture applied to the whole constellation, ofis best studied in the Greek temples (see which it is one star. The Great Bear isTemples). See also Houses. Among famous also known as the Wain, in which caseGreek architects wore Mnesicles, architect Arctophylax becomes Bootes, the Wag-of the Propylaea, and Ictmus and Calli- goner*. The morning rising of Arcturus,cratSs, architects of the Parthenon. in September, was regarded as the time of the vintage and as the time when the 2. Orders of Architecture cattle left the upland pastures. See the There were three orders of Greek archi- prologue to the Rudens* of Plautus,tecture, based on the form of the column. which is spoken by the star Arcturus.(1) In the Doric order, the most ancient, For the myth of the origin of Arcturus,the column, starting without base direct see Callisto.from the floor, rose to a height about5J times its diameter at the foot, tapering Areopagiticus, see Isocrates.slightly from about a quarter of the way Areopagus (Areios Pagos), the Hill ofup. It had wide, shallow flutings, and was Ares at Athens, to the W. of the Acropolissurmounted by a capital consisting of a and separated from it by a depression (Seebasin-shaped circular moulding and plain, PL 13a). According to legend, it was sosquare slab. On this rested the architrave, called because it was there that Ares wasa quadrangular beam of stone stretching tried for the murder of Halirrhothios sonfrom pillar to pillar. Above the architrave of Poseidon, the lover of Ares daughter.was the frieze, divided into metopes According to legend again, as set forth(square spaces adorned with sculpture) in the iCuniemdes of Aeschylus (seeby the triglyphs, surfaces cut in vertical Orcsteia), it was there that Orestes wasgrooves (see Temples, 1). Above this tried for the murder of Clytemnestra,again was a projecting cornice. (2) In the Athena referring the case to a tribunalIonic order the column was taller, being of Athenian citizens. After the synoecismin height about nine times its diameter at (see Athens, 2), it was on the Areopagusthe foot, and the fluting was narrower and that the Boule or Council of State hold itsdeeper. The column stood on a base and sittings. Later, under the constitutionswas surmounted by a capital charac- of Draco and Solon (qq.v.), the name wasterized by lateral volutes (like rams applied to the body which, sitting on thishorns). The frieze was continuous, not hill, judged cases of murder, maliciousinterrupted by triglyphs. (3) In the wounding, arson, and poisoning. TheseCorinthian order the column was similar definite powers were never withdrawnto that of the Ionic order, but the capital from the Court of Areopagus, but it hadwas of an inverted bell shape, adorned also certain indefinite powers, which werewith rows of acanthus leaves, giving rise abolished by Ephialtes (q.v.), viz. ato graceful volutes. general supervision of the magistrates, For ROMAN ARCHITECTURE, see Art. guardianship of the laws, control of educa-Architheoria, see Liturgy. tion, and censorship of morals; and the competence to assume, in great emergen-Archon (ArcJion), see Athens, 2. a dictatorial authority. It was com- cies,Archytas (Archiltds) of Tarentum, a posed of the men who had dischargedPythagorean philosopher and geometri- without reproach one of the archonships,cian who flourished about 400 B.C. (and and these remained members of thethus a contemporary of Plato). He was Areopagus for life.also a military commander and repeatedly Ares (JWs), in Greek mythology, the sonled the forces of his city hi successful cam- of Zeus and Hera (qq.v.), the god of war,paigns. He is said to have invented the or rather of warlike frenzy. He is not ascrew and the pulley, and to have solved personage of great importance in mytho-(by geometry) the problem of the propor- logy, and plays no very glorious part intion between the sides of two cubes, one the stories in which he appears. He is aof which has double the content of the stirrer of strife, unchivalrous, and does notother. He was also said to have been always have the advantage in encountersdrowned at sea, a tradition perhaps with mortals (see, e.g., under Otus andfounded on Horace, Od. I. xxviii. Ephialtes). For his intrigue with Aphro-Arctinus (Arktinos), see Epic Cycle). dite, see under her name. The Romans
  • 53. Arete 41 Argonautsidentified him with Mars (q.v.), a god of death by the Assembly, and six weregreater dignity. executed, including Pericles, son of theArete (Arete), in the Odyssey, the wife great statesman, and Thrasyllua (seeof Alcinous, king of the Phaeacians. Thrasybulus). See also Socrates.Arethas, see Byzantine Age and Texts Argonautica, see Apollonius Rhodius,and Studies, 4. Valerius Flaccus, and Varro Atacinus.Arethusa one of the A/rgonauts (Argonautai), in Greek (Arethousa), (1)Hetfperiaes (q.v.). (2) Afountain in mythology, the men who sailed in theOrtygia (the "island in the harbour of ship Argo with Jason, son of Aeson, toSyracuse). Legend relates that the river- Colchis (q.v.) to recover the golden fleece of the ram that had carried away Phrixusgod Alphcus (q.v.) fell in love with thenymph Arethusa when she bathed in his and Helle (see Athamas). The story wasstream. *Hhe Sed from him to Ortygia probably built up from various sources,where Artemis transformed her into a owing to the desire of many families tofountain. But Alpheus, flowing under the claim an Argonautic ancestor, and in different lands, for its geography centressea, was united with the fountain. It wasbelieved in antiquity that there was a both in Thessaly and about the Blackreal connexion between the river and the Sea, where Miletus had settlements at anspring. The myth is the subject of early date. Pelias (see Tyro) had usurped the throne of lolcos in Thessaly, whichShelleys poem *Arjothujaa% and Miltonrefers to it in Arcades"", properly belonged to his half-brother Divine AlphetfS, vtT6, by secret sluice, Aeson, and after the latters death to Stole under seas to meet his Arethuse. Jason. Jason had been sent for safety and education to the Centaur Chiron (q.v.).Argei, bundles of rushes, resembling men When Jason reached maturity he returnedbound hand and foot, which on the 14th to lolcos. Pelias, warned by an oracleMay (according to Ovid) of each year were to beware of a one-sandalled lad (andcarried to the Tiber by pontifices (q.v.) Jason had arrived with only one sandal),and thrown into the river from the Pons promised, in order to get rid of him, toSublicius by the Vestal Virgins. The restore the throne if he would first recovermeaniDg of the rite is disputed. The the golden fleece. Jason undertook theArgei may have been scapegoats in a rite adventure and embarked in the Argo atof purification, or offerings to the river- Pagasae with some fifty of the chiefgod to pacify him and induce him to heroes of Greece (among them the Dio-tolerate the bridge across his stream (the scuri, Orpheus, and, for part of the way,pontiflces were said to have built the Pons Heracles, qq.v.), and after many adven-Sublicius, the oldest in Rome). The rite, tures (see Hylas, Hypsipyle, Phineus,again, is thought by some to have been Symplegades) reached Colchis. AeetSs,a rain-spell. There were twenty-seven king of Colchis, consented to surrendershrines of these argei throughout the city, the fleece (probably regarded as possessingand probably twenty-seven argei con- valuable magic properties) if Jason wouldnected with the shrines (the lucky number perform certain apparently impossibletwenty -seven, thrice nine, is frequently tasks. These included the sowing of amet with both in Greek and Roman dragons teeth, from which armed menritual). would arise, whoso fury would be turnedArges, see Cyclopes. against Jason. With the help of the magic arts of Medea (q.v.), the kings daughter,Argiletum, at Rome, a district NE. of who fell in love with Jason, the tasks werethe Forum, between the Esquiline and successfully accomplished, and Jason andthe Quirinal (see PI. 14). It was occupied Medea and the other Argonauts returnedby artisans and shopkeepers, notably to lolcos with the golden fleece. Medea,booksellers and shoemakers. in their flight from Colchis, according toArginusae (Arginousai), islets S. of one version of the story, murdered andLesbos, off which in 406 B.C. the Athenian cut in pieces her young brother Absyrtusfleet heavily defeated that of Sparta, and scattered the fragments, that hercapturing or destroying seventy Spartan father, seeking for them, might be delayedships. The Athenians lost twenty-five in his pursuit. At lolcos Medea tookships, and, owing to bad weather, their vengeance on Pelias for the wrong donecrews were not rescued. It was thought by him to Jasons family. First sheat Athens that insufficient efforts had restored Aeson to youth by boiling himbeen made to save them, and the blame in a cauldron with magic herbs, and thenwas laid on the eight generals who had persuaded the daughters of Pclias tobeen present. These were condemned to submit their father to the same process.
  • 54. Argos 42 AristaeusBut on this occasion the right herbs were Nlcias, as a result of the efforts of Alol-omitted, and the experiment resulted in biades, she in 420 joined Athens andPeliass death. Acastus, his son, there- shared her defeat at Mantinea hi 418.upon drove Jason and Medea from lolcos, This led to a fierce conflict between herand they took refuge at Corinth. For Ja- aristocratic and democratic parties, whichsons abandonment of Medea in favour sided respectively with Sparta and Athens,of Glance, daughter of Creon, king of and the decadence of the State increasedCorinth, and its tragic consequences, see in tho course of this struggle; thereafterMedea (Euripides tragedy). Jason him- Argos exerted no considerable influenceself died at Corinth, killed, according to on tho course of events.one story, as ho sat under the old Argo, bythe falling of a piece of her woodwork. Argus (Argos), (I) the herdsman that Hera set to watch lo (q.v.); he wasFor the subsequent adventures of Medea called Argos Panoptes, having eyes allsee Theseus. over his body. When Hermes killed him, The story of tho Argonauts is the sub- Hera placed his eyes in the peacocks tail ;ject of Pindars Fourth Pythian Ode, of (2) tho craftsman who built the ship Argothe Argonautica* of Apollonius Rhodius, (see Argonauts); (3), in tho OdysseyValerius Flaccus, and Varro Atacinus (xvii. 292), the dog of Odysseus, which(qq.v.), and hi modern English literature recognizes him on his return and thenof W. Morriss Life and Death of Jason . * dies.The Golden Fleece* was tho name of afamous order of chivalry instituted by Ariadne (Ariadn$), see Theseus.Philip the Good, duko of Burgundy, in Aricia, a town hi a hollow of the Alban1429. Hills. In a grove near it was tho famous seat of the worship of Diana NemorensisArgos, a word meaning the plain, hi (see Diana).the Homeric poems designated the wholeof the plain of Argolis, roughly a triangle Arion (Ar(e)ion), (1) a semi-mythical poet of uncertain date, born according to legendflanked on the NE. and NW. by mountains at Methyrnna in Lesbos. He is said to haveana on the S. by the sea, with Mycenaenear the apex and nine miles from the sea, been a pupil of Alcrnan (q.v.), to haveand Tiryns nearer the sea on the east (see spent tho greater part of his life at tho court of Periander, tyrant of Corinth, and also toPI. 8). This was tho country of Agamem- have visited Italy, where ho amassed muchnon, which had Mycenae (q.v.) for its wealth. On his return ho was thrown over-capital; and tho word Argives was also all tho Achaeans who board b} the sailors, who desired to acquireextended to include his treasure. Hut a dolphin, charmed byrecognized him as their leader. After the song he had been allowed to sing beforethe Dorian invasion (see Migrations and his death, carried him to land. To ArionDialects), Argos was the name of thenew capital of tho conquerors of the was attributed the creation of the dithy- ramb (q.v.) as a literary composition. Heregion. They subdued Mycenae, Tiryns, isalso said to have been the inventor ofand Nauplia, and the name Argos covered the rpayiKos T/JOTTO?, probably meaningthe whole of their territory. The city of the tragic mode in music, the musicalArgos itself stood on the western sideof the plain, four miles from the sea, at mode afterwards adopted in tragedy.tho foot of a steep mountain which formed (2) Tho name of a legendary horse, theits acropolis.In the first half of the 7th c. offspring of Poseidon (q.v.) and Demeter. It belonged to Adrastus (q.v.) and itsB.C., under king Pheidon, Argos was tho swiftness enabled him to escape after themost important State in tho Peloponnese, failure of his expedition against Thebes.and the system of weights and measuresthat he introduced was adopted by tho Aristaeus (Aristaios), in Greek my-Peloponncsians. But the power of Argos thology, son of the nymph Gyrene, whomsank as that of Sparta (q.v.) rose, and Apollo loved and carried off to the regionthereafter, largely under tho influence of in Africa that bears her name. Aristaeusjealousy of Sparta, sho played a secondary was a god of various kinds of husbandry,and not very glorious role in tho history including bee-keeping, and of hunting.of Greece. At the time of tho Persian Wars He fell in love with Eurydico (q.v.) and(q.v.) she concealed her unfaithfulness to she, in trying to escape from him, trodthe Greek cause under a mask of neutrality. on a serpent, from whose bite she died.A democratic government was introduced The Dryads avenged her by killing ailand Argos allied herself with Athens the bees of Aristaeus. In this calamity,against Sparta in 461. In the first part according to Virgil (Georg. iv. 315 et seq.)of the Peloponnesian War (q.v.) she re- Aristaeus on the advice of his mother con-mained neutral. After the Peace of sulted Proteus, appeased the nymphs, and
  • 55. Aristagoras Aristophanesobtained new swarms from the carcases hymns, in a good imitation of the Atticof bulls. Aristaous married Autonod" style. Fifty-five of his compositions aredaughter of Cadmus, and became father extant.Of Actaeon (q.v.). See olao Etesian Winds. Milesian Aristides of Miletus, seeAristagoras, tyrant of Miletus, the Talcs.instigator of the Ionian revolt againstPersia of 499 B.C. Sec Persian Wars. Aristippus (Aristippos), of Cyrene, a pupil of Socrates (q.v.) and founder of theAristarchus (Aristarchos) of Samos (b. Cyrenaic school of philosophy. He re-c. 320 B.C.), an astronomer (not to bo con- garded pleasure as the only absolute goodfused with Aristarchus of Samothrace, seo hi lifo, but he distinguished betweenbelow), who first put forward the view pleasures, for some are a source of pain.that the sun was the centre of the plan- Man must therefore select his pleasures,etary system. It was on this hypothesis and this implies both intelligence and self-that Copernicus founded his researches. control. Aristippus was thus a predecessorAs, however, Aristarchus supposed that of Epicurus (q.v.). His works arc entirelythe planets revolved hi circles (instead of lost.ellipses), this theory could not be recon- AristocratEft, Against, a speech in aciled with the observations, and was aban- public prosecution by Demosthenes. Seodoned by his immediate successors, such Demosthenes (2), 3 (c).as Hipparchus. see liar-Aristarchus of Samothrace, head of the Aristogiton (Aristogcitori), modius.Alexandrian Library (q.v.) from c. 180 toc. 145 B.C. and the founder of scientific Aristophanes (c. 448-e.- 380 B.C.), thescholarship* (Sandys). Ho produced edi- great Athenian comic poet. His familytions of Homer, Ilesiod, Alcaous, Ana- belonged to the demo Kudathenaion incroon, and Pindar, and a great number of the city of Athens, but his father Philipposvolumes of commentaries and treatises on had a small property hi the island ofliterary and grammatical subjects. His Acgina, to which the family moved whencritical notes on Homer are in part Aristophanes was still a boy. The puritypreserved in the scholia of one of the of his Athenian descent appears to haveVenetian MSS. See Texts and Studies, 2. been questioned. His first comedy, now lost, Daitaleis (people of the imaginaryAristides (Arisfcides) (d. c. 468 B.C.), deme of the Banqueters), a satire on thoknown as The Just, son of Lysimachus, product of a city education as comparedand one of the democratic leaders at with the old-fashioned country training,Athens, famous for his rectitude, patriot- won the second prize in 427. The Baby-ism, and moderation. He was one of the lonians (also lost) appeared in 426, soonstrategi at Marathon, and subsequently after the reduction of the rebelliousarchon. He came into conflict with Mytileno and its bare escape from thoThemistoclcs (q.v.) when the latter rose massacre of its male inhabitants desiredto power, and as a consequence he wasostracized in 482. According to Plutarch, by Cleon (seo Lesbos). Tho play, which in- cluded a chorus of Babylonian slaves work-who has a life of Aristides, an illiterate ing in a mill, representing the Atheniancitizen requested Aristidcs to record his allies, was a vigorous attack on the policyvote in favour of the ostracism. Being of Cleon. Aristophanes was in consequenceasked whether Aristides had ever injured prosecuted by Cleon, on a charge, ithim, he replied No, but it vexes mo to appears, of alien birth and high treason.hear him everywhere called the Just. None the less, at the Lcnaea of tho follow-Aristidcs returned from exile when the ing year, 425, appeared tho Aoharnians*expedition of Xerxes was threatening, (q.v.), the first of his surviving comedies,held a command at Salamis, and led a pica for tho termination of the war, withthe Athenian contingent at Plataea. His indications of continued hostility to Cleon.greatest achievement was in the organiza- This won tho first prize. Tho above playstion of the Delian confederacy (see Delos), had not been produced in Aristophaneswhen he apportioned the tribute to the own name, why is not known; but in hisvarious confederate States, a task en- next play, the Knights (q.v.), 424, thetrusted to him on account of his rectitude author comes forward undisguised. Withand discretion. He served Athens faith- astonishing courage ho heaps invectivefully to the end and died about 468. We and ridicule on Cleon (then at tho heighthave a lifo of him also by Nepos. of his power) and satirizes the defects ofAristides (Aristeides), AELIUS (d. A.D. democracy. This play again won the first189), a Greek rhetorician who wrote prize. The Clouds (q.v.) followed in 423,speeches, letters, and a kind of prose the Wasps (q.v.) In 422, the Peace*
  • 56. Aristophanes of Byzantium Aristotle(q.v.) in 421. The plays that he produced see Texts and Studies, 2. He is said toduring the next six years are lost. In 414 have invented or regularized Greek ac-appeared the Birds (q.v.), in 411 cents; and he devised a set of criticalLysitrata (q.v.), in 411 or 410 the signs indicating passages in manuscriptsThesmophoriazusae (q.v.), about 392 suspected of being interpolations or other-the Ecclesiazusae* (q.v.), and in 388 Plu- * wise noteworthy.tus* (q.v.). Ho wrote two comedies after Aristotle (Aristoteles) (384-322 B.C.), athis, which he gave to his son Araros to great Greek philosopher.produce, but which are now lost. One ofthese, the Kokalus , we are told, started 1. Biographythe typo of the New Comedy, introducing Aristotle was born at Stageira hiromantic features which are character- Chalcidice, the son of NIcomachus, physi-istic of the plays of Menander. The life- cian to Amyntas II, king of Macedonia.work of Aristophanes, therefore, shows In 367 he came to Athens, and was ahim as the chief representative of the pupil of Plato until the lattors death inOld Comedy (see Comedy), developing 347, that is to say for twenty years. Heand intellectualizing it, then gradually then left Athens. Stageira was destroyedtransforming it in the direction of a new in the same year by Philip of Macedon,form of art. His dialogue is vivid and and Aristotle settled at Assos in the Troad,natural; his lyrics contain passages of where there was a sort of small colony ofmuch beauty ; his indecency is coarse and philosophers of the Athenian Academy,outspoken but not prurient or morbid. favoured by Hermeias, the enlightened The political plays of Aristophanes princo of the neighbouring city of Atar-show him a supporter of the country neus. There Aristotle remained for threeparty, the farmers and landowners, and years, probably lecturing and writing.a vigorous opponent of the war policy He then went to Mytilene and taughtfrom which these were the chief sufferers. there till 344. In that year ho was invitedBut he jibes at all the leaders in turn, from by Philip of Macedon (q.v.) to be tutorPericles to Cleophon. He brings out, by to his son Alexander the Great (q.v.). Tocaricaturing them, the ridiculous or evil explain Aristotles acceptance of this postsides of the opinions or customs of the it has been suggested that the appoint-moment, and no doubt the jokes and ment was perhaps made in connexionsarcasms that he levels at individuals and with some kind of diplomatic missionat institutions human and divine were from Hermeias, who was negotiating withtaken good-humouredly and not too liter- Philip against his Persian overlord. Her-ally by his audience. Plato in his Sym- meias, whose niece Aristotle married,posium* (q.v.) represents Aristophanes as presently camo under Persian suspicion,an agreeable and convivial companion was carried off to Susa, and there cruci-who gives an amusing turn to a serious fied. Aristotle wrote an epigram for hisdiscussion, and this is perhaps the light cenotaph at Delphi and a beautiful com-in which to regard much of his work. It memorative hymn. In 335, when Alex-does not appear in fact to have affected ander started on his expedition to Asia,the course of events. Aristotle returned to Athens, and opened Aristophanes had a direct influence on there a school of philosophy which cameEnglish literature, notably on Ben Jonson, to be known as the Peripatetic school fromMiddleton, and Fielding. John Hookham his habit of walking up and down (TreptTra- Frere, one of the contributors to the TLV), while conversing with his pupils, inAnti- Jacobin, translated several of his the paths of the Lyceum (a grove sacred *plays. R. Browning, in his Aristophanes to Apollo Lyceius, where there was aApology* (1875), presents Aristophanes gymnasium). He collected manuscriptsdiscussing with Balaustion, the former and formed the first considerable library ;defending comedy as the representation of also a museum of natural objects, in thereal life, and attacking the unnatural and assembling of which he is said to haveascetic Euripides, while Balaustion main- been aided by Alexander. He enjoyed thetains the superiority of the tragic poet. friendship and protection of Antipator,The Plutus* and the Peace* were acted whom Alexander had left as governor ofat Cambridge in 1 536 and 1546 respectively. Macodon and Greece. After the death ofFor an appreciation of Aristophanes char- Alexander in 323 the anti-Macedonianacter and work, see Gilbert Murray, party at Athens regained the ascendantAristophanes (Oxford, 1933). (Antlpater had been summoned to Asia), and Aristotle quitted Athens. He died theAristophanes of Byzantium, head of following year at Chalcis. His will, pre-the Alexandrian Library (q.v.) c. 195 served by Diogenes Laertius (q.v.), showsB.C. For his critical work in this capac ity him to have been of a kindly and afleo-
  • 57. Aristotle 4 5 Aristotletionate disposition, and he appears to that their author went through a processhave instilled in his school a spirit of of philosophical evolution: from being afamiliarity and friendship. disciple of Plato in sympathy with much of his teaching, he passed into a critic of 2. General character of his work some of the leading Platonic doctrines Aristotle left a vast number of works on (e.g. that of Ideas), and finally adopted aa great variety of subjects; some four wholly independent position and philo-hundred were attributed to him. But ho sophical method. Of this the principalwas primarily a teacher whose influence features were the careful analysis of cur-was exerted on his pupils by the spoken rent philosophical conceptions, e.g. theword, not a literary author. It was his analysing of a given object (robe n) inpractice to treat more difficult subjects terms of matter and form; and thewith his pupils in the morning, and to give revolutionary view that speculation mustlectures to larger audiences in the after- be based on experience of reality andnoon. The former lessons came to be systematic research, converting Ethicsknown as acroamatic (i.e. oral) or esoteric, and Politics, for instance, from abstractthe latter as exoteric. But Aristotle him- theoretical sciences into practical sciencesself did not use the word esoteric; and based on careful observation of life. Heit seems probable that he applied the thus extended philosophy to coverword exoteric to his early published universal science.writings (intended for the cultivated pub-lic outside his school), as opposed to his 3, Aristotle *8 extant workslectures. Among these published writings The surviving treatises may be classi-were dialogues on philosophical and other fied as follows :subjects, lucid, eloquent, grave, less poeti- 1. ON LOGIC, the Organon (instru-cal than those of Plato, many of them ment), as this group came to bo calledprobably composed when he was still a much later, consisting of six treatisesmember of Platos Academy or was teach- known as: Categoriae (a theory of termsing at Assos. We possess fragments of and predicates), De interpret at ione, Ana-fourteen of these, notably of a Protrepti- lytica priora and posteriora, Topica, andcus* or exhortation to philofiophy. To De sophisticis elenchis. In these Aristotlea late period of his life probably belong was the first to explore the science ofanother class of writings, collections of reasoning, both formal (hi the Prior Ana-data obtained by systematic research, in lytics) and scientific (in the Posteriorpursuance of his final system (see below) Analytics), basing himself on the syllogism,of basing philosophical speculation on a which ho discovered. Later logicians havewide ascertainment of facts. To this class added little to his conclusions on thebelonged the groat collection of the con- syllogism. The Schoolmen of the Middlestitutions of 158 cities, and the Dida- Ages summarized his teaching on thisscaliae* (q.v.) or records of dramatic per- subject in the famous mnemonic linesformances at Athens. These likewise are Barbara, Celarent, Darii, Ferioquelost, with the exception of the Polity of prioris ..., in which the vowels of thethe Athenians, discovered in an Egyptian words Barbara-Ferio, etc. indicate thepapyrus in 1890, the first of the collected nature of the major and minor premissesconstitutions. and conclusion of the various moods of The treatises, which form the bulk of the syllogism, A a universal affirmative,Aristotles surviving work, consist mainly E a universal negative, I a particularof notes or summaries of his oral lectures, affirmative, O a particular negative.written either by himself or some of his 2. ON METAPHYSICS, a group of treatisespupils, and put together by later editors, known as Mftaphysica, a name not due tosometimes without regard to the fact Aristotle (who uses the term irputrr) (/>iXoao-that various passages belong to different but to the editors who placed the <f>ia),periods of his philosophical development writings on this subject after the Physicsand do not harmonize together. They (aero, ra </>vau<d). In these Aristotle ex-disappeared not long after his death and plores the nature of the real, the essentialwere not brought to light until the 1st c. substance of the universe. At the base ofB.C. There is a story, recorded by Strabo, his doctrine is the distinction betweenthat they were disinterred in a cellar matter and form. Ho finds hi the universebelonging to tbe descendants of Neleus, a hierarchy of existences, each of which is the matter of that next above it, and *an important Aristotelian of the group atAssos. The story has been doubted, but imparts form and change to that nextIsnot improbable. below. At the lower end of the scale is A study of the surviving treatises and primary formless matter, which has nofragments of Aristotles writings shows real but only logical existence. At the
  • 58. Aristotle 4 I Aristotleupper end is the prime unmoved mover, wider sense, for the individual is essen-an eternal activity of thought, free from tially a member of society. His ethicalmatter, giving motion to the universe treatises are known as the Nicomacheanthrough an attraction akin to love; this and Eudemian Ethics. These cover muchprime mover he identifies with God. The the same ground, though with certain im-Aristotelian form, the intelligible nature portant differences of view. The relation of a thing, differs from the Platonic idea* between the two works is not certain;(at least as Aristotle conceived it) in being they are probably editions by Aristotlesimmanent in the thing and not existing son Nicomachus and his disciple Eudemusapart from it. The Metaphysica, as we of two courses of his lectures on Ethics,have it, is a medley of materials from the Eudomian earlier than the Nico-detached writings or lectures of different machcan and representing an earlier stageperiods, and is not self -consistent. in the development of Aristotles moral 3. ON NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (Physics, theory, when the Platonic influence wasBiology, Psychology), treatises known as still strong. The Nicomachean Ethics is(a) Physica, an examination of the con- generally regarded as the more valuablestituent Clements of things that exist by work. It is in the main a study of thenature (nature being an innate im- end to which conduct should bo directedpulse to movement), and a discussion of the Good. Aristotle accepts happinesssuch notions as matter and form, time, (evBaLfjiovLfi) as this end, but rejectsspace, and movement, with an exposition pleasure, honour, and wealth as the basisof the Four Causes, the Material Cause of happiness. He finds the highest happi-(that out of which a thing comes to be), ness in a life of contemplation, as being 1the Formal Cause (the intelligible nature the activity peculiar to man, in accordof a thing, that in virtue of which it is with the virtue of the best part of himwhat it is), the Moving Cause (from which (the rational principle), and manifestedimmediately originates the change), the not for short periods but in a completeFinal Cause (the end or aim of the change) ; life. By contemplation ho means con-(b) De caelOj on the movement of celestial templation of philosophic truth. Butand terrestrial bodies. Aristotle knew that such a life is beyond the reach of thethe earth is a sphere, but thought it was ordinary man, whose happiness is to besituated at the centre of the universe ; his sought in moral virtue and practical wis-view that the distance between Spain and dom. Aristotle, distinguishing between theIndia by a westerly voyage might not be moral and intellectual virtues, discussesvery great influenced Columbus; (e) De the natvre of moral virtue, and defines itgenerfitione et corruptione, on coming into as a disposition, developed by a properbeing and passing away ; (d) Mdcorologica, exercise of the capacity, to choose a cer-principally on weather phenomena. The tain mean, as determined by a man ofgroup of works on biology includes the practical wisdom, between two oppositeHistoria Animalium, an introductory col- extremes of conduct a mean, for instance, ;lection of facts regarding animal life, show- between asceticism and the yielding toing in some respects a surprising degree of uncontrolled impulses. Aristotle lays stressobservation (Aristotle knew, for instance, on the notion of moral intention; virtuethat whales are mammals) and a series of of character becomes pre-eminent instead ;treatises in which he deals with the classi- of virtue of intellect (of. Socrates).fication of animals, their reproduction, and In the eight books of the Politico,,the adaptation and evolution of their or- Aristotle discusses the science of politicsgans for ho 5ays stress on final causes in from the point of view of the city-state, ;the problems of organic life. The group is which he assumes to be that most con-closed by a treatise in three books De ducive to the fullest life of the citizen.anima, that is to say on the internal He thinks the State was developed natur-principle of movement and sensibility ally by the grouping of families in villages,which holds bodies together and gives and of villages in a State, for the purposethem life. This vital principle or soul of securing to the citizens a good and self-docs not survive the death of the body, sufficing life. Since this moral end, andthough the intelligent soul of man not material purposes, is the essentialpossesses a. portion of active reason, characteristic of the State, it is necessarywhich is Immortal, and is perhaps to bo that the power should rest, not with theIdentified with God. To the same group wealthy or the whole body of free citizens,belong a monograph On the interpreta- but with the good. He discusses citizen-tion of dreams , and the Parva Naturalia on ship, the classification of actual constitu-the general physiological conditions of life. tions, and the various types of these, their 4. ON ETHICS AN POLITICS. Aristotle diseases and the remedies; he recognizesregards ethics as a branch of politics in the the advantages of democracy, but finds
  • 59. Aristotle 47 Armythe highest type in the monarchy of the men. The writings of Aristotle reachedperfect ruler if such a ruler is available, them mainly in Latin translations ofand failing this in an aristocracy of men Arabic versions (see Texts and Studies,of virtue and enlightenment. But this, too, 8), and were used in support of Christianis difficult, and on the whole he regards theology, notably in the lectures anda limited democracy as the constitution Summa of Thomas Aquinas. The recog-best suited to the practical conditions of nition in Britain of his importance isGreece of his day. Ho regards slavery as especially seen in the writings of Johna natural institution, so far as based on of Salisbury (d. 1180, Polycraticus andthe inferiority of nature of the slave (not Metalofficus] ; Michael Scot the astrologeron right of conquest). But the master (1175 ?-1234 ?), who translated an Arabicmust not abuse his authority, and slaves summary of the Historia Animalium;must have the hope of emancipation. It Bishop Grosseteste (d. 1253), himself ais improbable that the treatise as we have powerful influence on subsequent Englishit was ever planned as a whole or sprung thought; Roger Bacon (1214?-94), Dunsfrom a single creative act of the mind* Scotue(1265?-1308?),thoughhe was partly(Jaeger). Books VII and VIII containing a Platonist; and William of Ockham (d.the discussion of the ideal State belong to 1349 ?). Aristotles philosophy was one ofan early text in which the purely construc- the principal subjects of study in ourtive method of Plato is followed. Books medieval universities. At a later date weIV-VI, dealing with actual historical see his influence on Francis Bacon (1561-States and containing an allusion to the 1626), who, though contemptuous of thedeath of King Philip, must have been ancient philosophers in general, adoptswritten later, when Aristotle had at his Aristotles division of the Four Causes, anddisposal the collection of the 158 con- entitles part of his work the Novum Orga-stitutions. Aristotles treatise on the num. In the sphere of literature, Aristotles Polity of the Athenians has already been Poetics was regarded as an authority froriireferred to. It traces the development of Elizabethan days onward, and wo find re-the Athenian constitution from the earliest ferences to it in the writings of Sidney, Bentimes (the first chapters are missing) down Jonson, and Milton; and other traces of histo the fall of the Thirty, and then describes fame occur in Marlowe, Spenser, and Shake-the matured democracy of Aristotles day. speare. Landor has an Imaginary Con-The discovery of the treatise has thrown a versation* between Aristotle and Callis-new light on a number of historical points. thenes (q. v. ) in which the author represents 5. ON RHETORIC AND POETRY. Aris- Aristotle as an enemy to Alexander the con- with the methods oftotles Rhetoric deals queror and despot.persuasion, divided into those by whichthe speaker produces on his audience a Army.favourable view of his own character, 1. Greek Armythose by which ho produces emotion, and In Homeric times the warrior, armedthirdly argument, whether by means of with spear and sword and protected byexample or of cnthymeme (the rhetorical helmet, cuirass, greaves, and an ox-hideform of the syllogism). It then discusses shield strengthened with bronze, rode outetyle (of which the leading characteristics to battle in a chariot. From this he dis-should be clearness and appropriateness) mounted to encounter some opposingand arrangement. The whole subject was champion. He used his spear as a missile,one that deeply interested the Greeks of or thrust with it as a pike, and sometimesAristotles time, and the treatise had for supplemented it by hurling a boulder.long a much greater authority than it has Bows and arrows were also used. Butto-day. there was no cavalry. The common folk, For Aristotles Poetics, see under that who were lightly armed, played a minorword. part in the battles. In later times all this was changed. The armies were drawn up 4. The influence of Aristotte in well-ordered lines of armoured hoplltes The influence that Aristotle exerted on (see below) and rushed against each other,later generations of philosophers and each endeavouring to hurl back, outflank,scientists was immense, by the stimulus or break the opposite line. As time wenthe gave, by the instrument of investi- on this simple manoeuvre was elaborated.gation ho forged, and by his actual con- More use was made of light-armed archerstributions to knowledge. In the Middle and slingors and of cavalry. EpaminondasAges this influence, after having been (q.v.) introduced real tactics; and Philipseen in Boethius and the great French of Macedon developed the phalanx (q.v.).teacher Abelard, became especially pro- At Athens in the 5th and 4th oo. B.C.minent in the works of the School- military service was obligatory on all
  • 60. Army 48 Armycitizens, and from the age of 18 to 20 they about 600 men, subdivided as before downunderwent military training as recruits to platoons. Four such moral fought(see also Ephebi). The cavalry, service in under Cleombrotus at Leuctra, but thewhich entailed heavy expense, was formed number of Spartiatae included in themmainly from the hippeis (see Athens, 2); was only about 700. With the dwindlingthe hoplites or heavy infantry, who made up number of Spartan citizens, the ranks werethe bulk of the army, were drawn from the increasingly filled with perioed (see Sparta,zeugttai and the richer metics. The thctes 2), supplemented in great emergencies byserved as light infantry or in the fleet. helots. Cavalry appears to have playedFrom 20 to 49 years of age an Athenian a subordinate part in the Spartan army.formed part of the active army. From This army was unique not only in its50 to 60 ho was included, with the recruits tactical organization (which caused Xeno-and the remaining metics, in a territorial phon amazement) but hi having a uniformmilitia. In 431 at the beginning of the and military flute-players. In all GreekPeloponnesian War, Athens had a field armies the men had to supply their ownarmy of 13,000 and a territorial army of arms and fend for themselves in provisions.16,000 men. There were also some foreign In the early part of the 4th c. the in-mercenaries, light -armed archers. The creasing use of mercenary troops, drawncavalry (1,000 in number after 446) were especially from the wilder parts of Greece,organized in ten squadrons, the hoplites became of importance. These professionalin ten regiments (taxeis), based on the ten troops, known as peltasts (from pelte, atribes. Each regiment numbered about small, light, leather shield), were armed1,300 men, was divided into battalions with a javelin and light shield, and were(lochoi),and was commanded by a taxi- more mobile than the hoplites (see PI. 3b).arch. The hoplite wore a helmet, cuirass, In the Corinthian War (see Corinth) of thisand greaves of metal, carried a shield of period, a force of peltasts, with improvedleather with a metal rim, and was armed weapons, was organized by the Athenianwith a lance six feet long (very different Iphicrates, and was used with great suc-from the Macedonian sarissa of 13 feet), cess against the Spartans. Mercenary ser-and a short sword. He received, on service, vice grew in importance during the 4thpay at two (afterwards three) obols a day, and later centuries, and Greek mercenariesand subsistence allowance at the same were largely employed by tho Persianrate (hi the cavalry the allowance was 1 kings and their satraps (Xenophon anddrachma). Military officers, strategi (q.v.), the 10,000 afford a conspicuous example).taxiarchs, etc., were elected (not chosen Demosthenes frequently protests againstby lot) annually, but unlike most of it. For t he later development of Greek mili-the civil officials might be re-elected in- tary tactics see Epaminondas and Phalanx.definitely (see also Polemarch). See PI. 3a. Alexanders military successes were prin- At Sparta (q.v.), whore the whole life cipally duo to his skilful use of cavalry (whoof the male citizens was organized with a were more numerous in his than in earlierview to the military efficiency of the State,Greek armies and were trained to chargeliability to foreign military service ex- homo). These delivered flank attacks,tended from 20 to 60 years of age, and a while the phalanx attacked the enemyhigh degree of mobility and dexterity in front. In the narrative of Alexandersthe use of weapons was attained by con- battles we constantly find him command-stant exercises. It was from Sparta that ing in person the best of the cavalry andthe institution of armoured spearmen delivering the decisive blow. The succes-fighting on foot in serried ranks (hoplites) sors of Alexander relied largely on greatspread through Greece. Our knowledge of masses of inferior oriental troops, doublingthe organization of the Spartan army is tho depth of the phalanx and thus furthernot very certain, and the details given by diminishing its mobility. Pyrrhus appearsThucydides and Xenophon, respectively, to have tried to remedy this defect in hisare not easy to reconcile. Moreover the wars with Rome by breaking up theSpartans deliberately kept the strength of phalanx into a number of columns withtheir army secret. At Mantinea in 418 B.C. bodies of Italian troops placed betweenit consisted, according to Thucydides, of them; but ho failed to overcome theseven lochoi of 512 spears, subdivided Roman resistance. The later easterndown to 16 platoons (enomotiai) of 32, adversaries of Rome, such as Philip V,each with its commanding officer, thus Perseus, and Antiochus III, were even lesssecuring rapidity of movement and flexi successful.bility. It seems probable that before the 2. Greek siege-craftend of the Peloponnesian War the or-ganization was modified, and a formation Siege-craft made no considerable pro-called a mora introduced, numbering gress before the 5th c. B.C. In earlier days
  • 61. Army 49 ArmyGreek citadels on rocky hills, or walled of twocenturies, designed to give thetowns such as Thebes, were impregnable, formation greater flexibility. It was fur-and had to be reduced by blockade, unless ther divided between heavy-armed andtreachery opened a way to the besiegers. light-armed troops (velites); and theIn the 5th c. we first hear of siege engines heavy -armed in turn into hastdti, prin-(chiefly rams, scaling-ladders, and screens cipes, and tridrii, according to their agolor the protection of the attacking force). and military experience, the hastati beingBut the defence still had the advan- the youngest soldiers, the triarii thetage, as maybe seen from the account veterans. The hastati and principes, occu-given by Thucydides (n. Ixxv et seq.) of pying the front ranks, had two javelinsthe successful resistance offered by the (pild) for throwing; the triarii, used as aPlataeans in 429 B.C. to the engines of the reserve, retained the hasta. The heavy-besiegers. A great advance in siege -craft armed troops had a bronze helmet, thewas made when, at the beginning of the light-armed a leather helmet; all had a4th c., Dionysius I of Syracuse introduced shield and a sword, a short cut-and-thrustthe use of the catapult. From a large weapon, worn, unlike the modern sword,cross-bow of increased range and power, on the right side. See PI. 4.this was developed into an engine capable The Roman cavalry, which originallyof heavy missiles against were merely mounted infantry, were under discharging During this century sieges the Servian organization drawn fromfortifications.began to be conducted more scientifically, the richest class. Equites equo publico re-with regular covered approaches, mines, ceived their horses from the State equites ;movable towers, and various types of equo privato provided their own. Romancatapults. The methods of the defence cavalry disappeared after 146 B.C., andwere likewise improved. Countermines Italians did not servo in the cavalry afterwere sunk to upset movable towers, cata- the 1st c. B.C. Thereafter the cavalrypults were extensively used against the formed part of the auxiliary troops.engines of the besiegers, and fire-arrows Before the enfranchisement of Italy theand similar devices wore employed to set Roman army proper was assisted by con-them on fire. Among the most notable tingents from tho Latin and Italian alliessieges of this century were the siege of (nominally equal, in practice often moreTyre by Alexander the Great (q.v., 4) fc numerous). Foreign mercenaries wereand the unsuccessful siege of Rhodes by freely employed for cavalry (Numidians,Demetrius Poliorcutcs (see Macedonia, Gauls, Spaniards) and special arms 2, and Rhodes). (Balearic slingers). The original Roman army was a militia 3. Roman Army of Roman citizens in which service was The earliest Roman armyis said by compulsory. But tho shrinkage in thotradition to have been an exclusively number of available citizens, in spite ofpatrician body (the Ugio) consisting of the lowering of the census-standard fromthree regiments of 1,000 infantry each, 11,000 asses to 4,000, led Marius to effectwith three centuries of cavalry. This a reorganization. There had been a gradualforce was reorganized and enlarged by transition before his time; owing to thoServius Tullius on the basis of his classi- almost continuous wars a professionalfication of the community (see Rome t 2). type of soldier was growing up. MariusIt was raised to four legions, each of about abolished tho property qualification and3,000 infantry, drawn in certain propor- abandoned conscription. The cohort (oftions from the various classes of the census three maniples) became the military unit ;but with a minimum property qualifica- there were ten cohorts in the legion; thetion of 11,000 asses (12,500 according to legion was raised (nominally) to 6,000 mensome authorities). These were required (in practice it sometimes fell to half thisto equip themselves and serve without strength), and equipment became uniform.pay. The legionaries were armed with The hasta was abandoned, and all carriedshield, sword, and long spear (hasta); the pttum. The eagle was adopted as thethere were certain differences of equip- standard of tho legion, and was carried byment according to class. The legion the first maniple of the first cohort. En-fought in mass formation, six ranks deep, listment was normally for twenty years ;with a front of 500. There wore also pay was 120 dendrii a year (increased undereighteen centuries of cavalry. Pay was Caesar to" 225 denarii) ; the cost of rationsintroduced, according to tradition, in 406 was deducted from the pay. The commandduring the siege of Veil, owing to the of each legion was exercised by one of sixprolonged character of the service. The tribunes (tribuni militum), commanding inlegion was reorganized at some date before turn (in Caesars army and under the empire the 2nd c. B.C. on the basis of the maniple* each legion had one commanding officer, tho 4339 E
  • 62. Army 50 ArmyUgQius the tribunes were retained with garrisons of the less important provinces.subordinate duties). Under these were A contingent of auxiliary cavalry (four aloesixty centurions, each commanding a of 30 men each in Hadrians time) was at-century. tached to each legion. Pay in the auxiliary Professional armies of this description, forces was at the rate of 70 denarii a year.owing their allegiance to their generals, to (C) Special corps, (a) Praetorians (q.v. andwhom they looked for rewards and chances see also Praefectus Praetorio), nominallyof booty, were at the root of the civil wars Italians till Septimius Severus; (b) fourof the 1st c. B.C. Great military comman- cohortes urbanae for police duties in theders, relying on their legions, were able to capital, recruited from freedmen; theydominate the State, and their conflicting served under the Prefect of the City,ambitions brought about the terrible ranked after the Praetorians, and receivedstruggles of that period. higher pay than the legions; (c) Vigilum The number of legions varied with the cohortes, the fire-brigade, also recruitedrequirements of the time. Augustus was from freedmen.the first to create a standing army, which The army of the empire was stationedat his death included 25 legions, per- almost entirely on the frontiers. Thesemanently existing, with fixed stations were defended by forts (castella), and,and definite members and names. Three where the frontier was not protected by alegions, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, had river, by methods which varied at differentbeen destroyed Varus (q.v.) disaster periods. Under Domitian a series of small in theand these numbers were never used again. earth forts were erected, with larger stoneTwo legions were added by Claudius, and forts at greater intervals in the rear;three more before the accession of Ves- under Trajan and his successors thepasian; and this total of 30 legions was defence consisted of a wall of stone orretained in the reign of Trajan. The origin earth with a ditch in front of it and fortsof the practice of giving names as well as at intervals. For Hadrians Wall from thenumbers to certain legions appears to be Solway to the Tyne, see Britain, 2. Forthe retention by Augustus of some of the the Roman camps, see under Castra. Seelegions of Antony as well as his own those ; also Elephants.bearing the same number in their originalarmies kept them, with a distinguishing % 4. Roman siege-craftname in addition, e.g. II Adjutrix and Siege-craft developed in the RomanII Augusta. The military establishment army in much the same way as in theof the empire consisted of: (A) Legions, Greek armies (see above, 2). Blockaderecruited nominally from Roman citizens, was increasingly supplemented or replacedbut actually often from provincials from ; by assault, as the devices of Greek en-Hadrians time, if not earlier, local re- gineers came to the knowledge of thecruitment became the rule. The term of Romans and were developed by them.service in the legions was 16 years (soon The testudo was a Roman device by whichraised to 20). Pay was at the rate of interlocked shields formed a screen under225 denarii a year (with a free ration of which a scaling party could approach thecorn), raised to 300 by Domitian, with a walls; and there were other protectivelump Bum on discharge of 3,000 denarii. devices of the same kind, such as theThe legionaries were not allowed to marry musculus (a long gallery on wheels withduring their service, but the unions they sloping roof), used by Caesar at the siegeformed during their service were legalized of Massilia. The lines of the besiegingon their discharge. (B) Auxiliary cohorts force were protected by trenches and pits(under tribuni) and dlae (under prefects against sallies of the enemy, and whenof equestrian rank), infantry and cavalry threatened by a relieving army (as atrespectively, recruited from provincials; Alesia in 52 B.C.), by an external rampartthey had a longer period of service and and palisade. A causeway (agger) mightlower pay, and acquired Roman citizen- bo built up to the walls and a huge mov-ship on discharge. They were originally able tower brought along it into a positionrecruited from special races, after which from which the assailants could drive thethey are normally called. They also for defenders from the wall and cross to it bythe most part came to be recruited locally drawbridges. The chief battering engineand Roman citizens often entered them. was the ram (arils), a beam tipped withThere wore also some cohorts of Roman iron, sometimes of great weight and swungcitizens. Some of the auxiliary infantry on ropes, hi the more developed type onretained their national weapons and were a wheeled frame. The catapult andcalled sagittdrii (archers), funditores (slin- ballista (discharging respectively largegers), etc. Auxiliary cohorts were attached arrows and heavier missiles) were a sortto the several legions, or were used for the of giant crossbow to which the propulsive
  • 63. Arnold 51 Artforce was given by the torsion of ropes; in -law. It is a rather haphazard letter ofthe onager was a large mechanical sling. advice on the pursuit of literature, andThese engines were used especially for the appears to consist largely (and this agreesdefence. with a statement by an early commenta- tor) of maxims extracted from a GreekArnold, THOMAS, see Historians (Modern). manual by Neoptolomus of Parium, aArpinum, a town in Latium, the birth- Hellenistic writer of uncertain date, eachplace of Marius and Cicero. followed by the comments of Horace himself. But the poets charm pervadesArria, (1) wife of Caecina Paetus, who, the whole, which is rendered more inter-when her husband was ordered to deathunder the emperor Claudius, taught her esting by apt illustrations and by shrewdhusband how to die, stabbing herself and criticisms on authors of tho day. After dealing with technical points on thehanding him the dagger, with the wordsPaete, non dolet*. (2) The daughter of composition of a drama (such as pro-the above, wife of Thrasea, a Stoic philo- portion, subject, metre, language) and a short passage on tho epic, Horace passessopher who was put to death by Nero. to advico en poetic composition inArrian (Fldvius Arridnus) (c. A.D. OS- general. He insists on the seriousness ofITS), a Greek of Nlcomedia in Blthynia, the poetic art: study life and human rela-a successful officer in the Roman army, tions; avoid the corrupting influences ofwho became consul and legate in Cappa- gain and flattery; do not write unlessdocia. Ho was author of various extant inspired by the Muse; submit your workworks in Greek: a valuable Anabasis of to a competent judge; keep it by you forAlexander the Great, in seven books, nine years. The work exercised a greatnarrating his campaigns, with an eighth influence in later ages on European litera-book descriptive of India and Indian ture, notably on French drama throughcustoms and relating the voyage of Boileaus translation. It was translatedNearchus in the Persian Gulf anEncheiri- ; into English by Bon Jonson. Many liter-dion or manual of the philosophy of his ary phrases, such as tho purple patch,master Epictetus (q.v.), and a record of the ridiculus mus of bathos, the refer-the Lectures (Diatribai) of the same ence to Hoiner nodding, tho labour ofphilosopher, four books of which out of the file, the abrupt entry on a subjectthe original eight survive a Periplous or ; (in medias res), have their origins in it.geographical description of the Euxino Arsinoe, see Alcmaeon. (2) The name (1 )Sea; a Kunegetikos (on Hunting) purport- of several Macedonian princesses. Theing to supplement tho treatise attributedto Xenophon and other minor works. most important was Arsinoe II, Phila- ; delphus the daughter of Ptolemy I andArs Amatoria, a poem in three books tho wife successively of Lysimachus,of elegiacsby Ovid, written shortly beforePtolemy Ceraunus, and her brotherthe beginning of tho Christian era. The Ptolemy II. She was a woman of greatterm *ars was applied to a technical vigour and ability, successful both in wartreatise, and is playfully applied to a and peace, and the years till her deathtreatise on tho devices of love. Tho firstin 270 were Egypts golden age* (Tarn).two books consist of instructions to men She was deified before her death. (3) Foron the wooing of women of easy virtue tho Egyptian town of that name see ;the third, of instructions to women on Fayoum.the seduction of men. The work is full Art. (1) GREEK, see Architecture, Paint-of humour and charm, and contains ing, Sculpture, Toreutic Art. (2) ROMAN.interesting glimpses of Roman life and Whether or not there existed an indigen-manners the circus, tho theatre, the ban- ous Italian or Romano -Etruscan art beforequet. It was very popular, and quotations the invasion of Hellenism is a matter offrom it have been found on the walls discussion. But such remains as can beof Pompeii. It was perhaps partly on claimed for it are of no high merit. Greekaccount of its immorality that Augustus art on the other hand, whose inspirationbanished tho poet to Tomi. had become exhausted and whoso expres-Ars PoStica, the title (it was not the sion had become conventional, found re-authors) by which tho Epistle to tho newed youth and fresh themes on RomanPisos* of Horace is generally known. It soil and in Roman history. Roman sculp-is addressed to a father and two sons of ture reached its highest excellence in thethe name of Piso, whose identity depends lst-2nd o. A.D., and is seen at its best inon the date to be assigned to the work portrait busts, where it showed great(see Horace); the elder was perhaps the power of expressing character, and in bas-son of the Piso who was Caesars father- reliefs, the subjects of which are largely
  • 64. Art 62 Arval Priestshistorical.Fine examples of them are seen Artemiddrus (Artemidoros) of Daldis,in the sculptures of the Ara Pacis (q.v.) see Divination (ad fin.).of the Augustan Age, and, at later stagesof development, of the Arch of Titus Aijtemis (identified by the Romans withand the frieze and column of Trajan; but iflana, q.v.), Greek mythology the inbreadth and grandeur of treatment are daughter of Zeus and Loto (q.v.), andsometimes marred by excessive crowding sister of Apollo. For the legend of herof figures and meticulous attention to birth see Apollo. She was a goddess ofdetail. There are also many examples of wild life, a virgin huntress, attended bydecoration of altars and columns with a train of nymphs, and also a goddess ofconvolutions and festoons of foliage and childbirth and of all very young things.flowers. Though the artists may, at least She was also identified with the moon.in the first period, have been mainly A famous centre of her cult was EphesusGreeks, the art was a new one. (q.v.), where her maternal character was Painting was used by the Romans prominent, and where she may have beenchiefly to decorate the inner walls of in origin the Asiatic goddess of fertility,houses. The subjects of these frescoes, identified by the lonians with the Greekof which many examples have been found Artemis ; the high priest of tlte temple atin Herculaneum and Pompeii, were prin- Ephesus was known as the Megabyzus.cipally scenes from Greek myth, or single At Brauron in Attica there was an ancientfigures such as Orpheus or a Centaur, less shrine of the moon-goddess, supposedfrequently landscapes, still life, or contem- to contain the imago of the goddessporary scenes. Many of them show much brought from Tauris by Iphigenia (q.v.).beauty of colour, line, and expression. It was so highly venerated that a sanctuary Roman was even more dis- architecture was dedicated on the Acropolis of Athens marked especially by thetinctive, being to Artemis Brauronia. Artemis had adevelopment of the arch, the vault, and special association with the bear (shethe dome. It evolved the plans of great turned Callisto, q.v., into a bear) and the little girls who were her temple-servantspublic buildings, on which our modernconceptions have been based these build- ; at Athens were called bears. She isings were remarkable for unity of design, treated with scanty respect in the Iliad*solidity of construction, and grandeur of (xxi. 489 et seq.), where Homer representsdecoration (though the latter was some- her as beaten by Hera with her own bow,times tasteless). The masonry took the and sent away weeping. See also Hecate.form of either ashlar, concrete, or brick. Artemis is involved in the myths ofThe architecture is seen at its best in Callisto, Hippolytus, and Orion (qq.v.).such buildings as the Pantheon built by See also Britomartis.Agrippa in 27 B.C. (which survives much Artemisia (Artemisia). (1) daughter ofaltered), the mighty Colosseum, and inthe plan of the Baths of Caracalla; also Lygdamis king of Halicarnassus and after his death regent of his kingdom. Withhi the great aqueducts, bridges, theatres, five ships she accompanied Xerxes in his&c., of which the remains are still to be invasion of Greece, and is said to haveseen in all parts of the Roman Empire. Mention must also be made of the art shown bravery and resource at Salamis. (2) The wife of Mausolus (q.v.).of gem-engraving which became popularat Rome in the last century of the republic Arundel Marbles, see Marmor Parium.and was further developed under theempire, both in the form of the intaglio Arval Priests (Frdtres Arvdles), a collegewhere the design is sunk, and in the cameo of twelve priests charged in ancient timeswhere it is engraved in relief. Engraved with the observance of the annual cere-gems were used for signet-rings, and the mony (Ambarvalia, q.v.) designed to pro-surviving examples include portraits of pitiate the gods of agriculture. The textCaesar, Pompey, Cicero, and Tiberius. of an Arval hymn survives, one of thoLarger examples are the splendid portrait earliest fragments of Latin literature. Itof Augustus in the British Museum; the is an invocation of tho Lares and Mars (haGemma Augustea at Vienna representing his early character of an agricultural god)Augustus, Tiberius, Germanicus, and a to protect the fields. The college of thegroup of deities, with a military scene Arval priests was revived by Augustus.below ; and the grand camee in Paris repre- As we know from inscriptions that havesenting Tiberius, Livia, and Germanicus, been recovered, they worshipped in awith various symbolical figures. The grove on the Via Campania, five milesgem-cutters were probably Greeks or from Rome. They carried on the cult ofartists from the Hellenistic East the most ; the Dea Dia, an earth goddess, and onfamous of them was named Dioscorides. solemn occasions offered sacrifices for the
  • 65. Arx 53 Asia Minorimperial house. Hence the inscriptions as kept in the sanctuary of Epidaurus, arecording their sacrifices are of historical harmless variety, are said still to beimportance. found in the neighbourhood. Sacred dogs were also kept in this sanctuary, andArx, at Rome, the NE. summit of theCapitoline Hill, the citadel proper. Hero Asclepius is represented on coins with awas the temple of Juno (q.v.) Moneta. dog under his chair. According to some authorities Asclepius after his death wasAscalaphus (Askalaphos), seo Perse- turned into the constellation Ophiuchus,phone. the snake-holder. See also Aesculapius.Ascanius or TCrLUS, the son of Aeneas,and according to legend the ancestor of Asia Minor, GREEK CITIES OF. Greekthe gens Julia (q.v.). See Acneid. cities and States (Aeolian, Ionian, andAsclepiadean, seo Metre, 3. Dorian) extended along the W. coast of Asia Minor and the adjoining islands fromAsclepiades of Samos (c. 290 B.C.), the Troad in the N. to Halicarnassus anda famous Greek writer of epigrams, of Rhodes in the S. (see Migrations andthe Hellenistic Age, a contemporary of Dialects and PI. 8). In the early stagesPhilitas and Theocritus (qq.v.). Eighteen of their history these Greek States wereof his poems are included in the Palatine in contact with the neighbouring kingdomAnthology (q.v.) and show great elegance of Lydia and the more distant Phrygia,and finish. He probably gave his name to and Greeks and Asiatics influenced onethe Asclepiadean metre (seo Metre, 3) another. The Phrygians and Lydiansemployed by Horace. adopted the alphabet of the Greeks, and theAsclepius (Asklepios, Lat. Aesculapius), Phrygian king, Midas, dedicated a thronein Greek mythology, son of Apollo (q.v.), at Delphi. The Greeks adopted the Asiaticand god of medicine. Apollo loved modes of music, introduced Eastern mythsCoronis, daughter of Phlegyas, but she into their religion, took from Lydia thewas unfaithful to him, and ho slew her. invention of coinage, and were affectedAfterwards ho was sorry, and turned the by Asia in their art, science, and technicalcrow which had told him of her infidelity skill. They came in the 6th c. under thefrom a white bird into a black. He saved dominion of Croesus of Lydia, and a littlethe child of Coronis (Asclepius) and en- later under that of the Persian Cyrus.trusted him to the wise Centaur Chiron But the Persians did not interfere much(q.v.). From him Asclepius learnt the art with their trade or internal life. Theof medicine. At the prayer of Artemis he Greek cities had been independent States,restored her favourite llippolytus to life. jealous of each other, torn by aristocraticZeus, angered at his interference, slew and democratic factions, and strategicallyAsclepius with a thunderbolt, Apollo, in weak against attack from the interior.turn, was wroth at the death of his The Persians favoured the establishmentson, and in revenge killed the Cyclopes of tyrannies, which became common.(q.v.) who had made the thunderbolt. These States were wealthy and prosperousTo expiate this murder he became for a communities. Their soil was more fertileyear the slave of Admetus (q.v.). Homer than that of Greece and they had goodrepresents Asclepius as the father of harbours. They grew corn, raised stock,Machaon and Podaleirius, the surgeons and cultivated the olive and (especiallyof the Greek host before Troy; and he in the islands) the vine. They were im-came to bo worshipped as the god of heal- portant industrial centres, for they hading, the most famous seat of his cult being raw materials, metals, wood, wool, leather,Epidaurus. Here patients coming to bo and dyes, and produced textiles, furniture,cured slept in his temple, and the cure gems, and pottery. Their trade becamewas effected in the night, or the means of active, and was facilitated by their inclu-it communicated by dreams. The sanc- sion in the Persian Empire. Prosperitytuary of Asclepius at Athens stood under developed their social and political lifethe S. cliff of the Acropolis, adjoining the and led them to send out fresh colonies,Theatre of Dionysus (q.v.). It was here especially to places from which they couldthat Plutus (q.v.) in Aristophanes play obtain corn and salt fish (see Colonization,was cured of his blindness. The attribute 2). Prosperity also encouraged a greatof Asclepius was the snake, a symbol of intellectual development, of which we seerejuvenescence (because the snake slough- the proof in the large number of philo-ing his skin was thought to renew his sophers and poets born in Ionia at a timeyouth), and sacred serpents were kept in when Greece itself was still comparativelythe temples of Asclepius; these were benighted (see Birthplaces). With thebelieved to heal the sick by licking them. coming of the 5th c. the history of GreekThe yellow snakes referred to by Pausanias Asia Minor becomes bound up with that
  • 66. Asianism 5 Atellanof Greece proper. See Persian Wars, Andromache (qq.v.), born during theAthens, 4, and the names of the principal siege of Troy, and thrown from its battle-Greek cities in Asia such as Ephesus and ments by the victorious Greeks after theMiletus. capture of tho city. See Trojan Women.Asianism, see Oratory, 1, ad fin. Astynomi (Astunomoi), see Athens, 9.AsinSHa, a farcical comedy by Plautus Asyndeton (not bound together), aadapted from the Onagos of the Greek figure of speech in which words or clausescomedian Demophilus. which in ordinary speech would be con- Demaenetus, an indulgent father, wishes nected by conjunctions, are left uncon-to help his son Argyrippus to redeem the nected; e.g. Quaero ab inimicis, sintnecourtesan Philaenium from an old procur- haec investigata, comperta, patefacta,ess ; but he is tyrannized over by his wife sublata, deleta, extincta per me* (quotedArtcmona, who keeps a tight control of the by Quintilian, probably from a lost passagepurse-strings. By a trick of one of his slaves of Cicero).ho gets possession of twenty minae which Atalanta (Atalante), in Greek mythology,were to be paid to Artemonas steward daughter either of lasos an Arcadian,for some asses which have been sold and Clymene (q.v.), or of Schoineus, a(whence the name of the play), and father Boeotian. She was a great huntress andand son spend the evening banqueting her part in the hunt of the Calydonianwith Philaenium. But a rival for tho boar is told under Meleager. She refusedgirls favours, furious at finding himself to marry any man who could not defeatanticipated, warns Artemona, who de- her in a foot-race; and any suitor whomscends on the party, and with dire threats she defeated was put to death. Hippo -carries off her guilty husband. menes (or Meilanion) took up the chal- The saying homo homini lupus is lenge, and by the advice of Aphroditederived from this play (1. 495). carried with him three apples of theAsinius Pollio, see Pollio. Hcspcridcs (q.v.). He dropped these at intervals, and as Atalanta could notAspasia (Asp&sid), see Pericles. resist the temptation to stop and pickAssaracus, the great-grandfather of them up, he won the race. The story ofAeneas (see genealogy under Troy). Virgil Atalanta and Meleagcr is tho subject ofrefers to the Lar (see Lares) of Assaracus Swinburnes beautiful drama Atalanta in (Aen. ix. 259), and Aeneas finds Assaracus Calydon (1865).among his Trojan ancestors in Elysium. Ate (from ddodai to be blinded ), in early Asterope, one of tho Pleiades (q.v.). Greek mythology the personification of Astraea (Astraia), the Starry Maid, the blind folly or tho agency which causes it. constellation Virgo, identified with Dike Tho Litai (prayers) follow after her, un- (Justice) by Aratus (q.v.). In the Golden doing the evil she has done. In the Ate is a bane or curse aveng- Age (q.v.) she lived among men, but in tragedians, the later ages, owing to the wickedness ing unrighteousness. of men, she withdrew to the sky. Ateius Capitd, GAlus, see Capita. Astrology, the art of predicting the Atellan Farces (Fdbulae Mellanae), future from signs given by tho stars, was named from tho town of Atella in Cam- introduced into Rome from the East. pania, appear to have been (for the subject It came into some repute in tho later days is obscure) ancient comic dramatic per- of the republic, and still more under the formances, representing scenes in the life empire. Attempts to repress it were re- of country towns. Certain stock charac- peatedly made by the emperors, and ters, Maccus the fool, Dossennus the astrologers were banished under, e.g., hunchback, Manducus the glutton, Pap- Tiberius, Claudius, Vitellius, and Ves- pus tho greybeard, &c., were probably pasian, not from disbelief in the genuine- introduced in ridiculous situations. Some ness of tho art, but probably from fear of of tho later titles suggest burlesques of it as likely to favour conspiracies. The mythology. Atellan plays became popular emperors themselves kept their own at Rome probably in the 3rd c. B.C. and astrologers and caused horoscopes to be were acted by amateurs. They were cast. In spite of repression, astrology con- revived in more literary form, with the tinued to be generally practised, as ap- same stock characters and with a written pears from Juvenal, Sat. vi. 535 et scq. verse plot, by Pomponius of Bononia and Novius, who probably flourished early in Astronomica, see Manttiits. the 1st c. B.C. These farces were acted by Astyanax (Asfiianax), known also as professional comedians, and continuedSKAMANDRIOB, the son of Hector and intermittently until the end of the 1st c.
  • 67. Athamas 55 AthensA.D. In this later form the Atellan farce the inventor of the flute (see Marsyaa).was played after a tragic performance. She is generally represented as a woman of severe beauty, hi armour, with theAthamas (Athamas) in Greek mythology,son of Aeolus (q.v. (2)) and king of Thebes. Gorgons (q.v.) head on her shield. She is frequently referred to as olauk&pis,By his first wife Nephele (the Cloud) which probably meant blue-eyed, andhe had two children, Phrixus and Helle.Ino (q.v.), his second wife, conceived a Pausanias remarks on the blue eyes of a statue of Athene which he saw. No certainhitter hatred of her step -children. They escaped from the death that menaced explanation of her title Pallas is known,them on a winged and golden-fleeced nor of the epithet Tritogeneia applied to her by Homer. For her great temple onram, which carried them away across the the Acropolis see Parthenon, and for thesea, Helle became giddy and fell off intothe part of the sea called, in consequence, temple there of Athene Nike or Victorythe Hellespont. Phrixus arrived safely in Athene* see Acropolis. See also Pallas. The Romans identified Athene with theirColchis, where the king Aeetes receivedhim hospitably.The ram was sacrificed goddess Minerva (q.v.).to Zeus and its golden fleece hung up in Athenians, Polity or Constitution of, The,Colchis and guarded by a dragon. For the (Athenaion PolUeia), see Aristotle, J 2continuation of this myth see Argonauts ;and 3.and for the fate of Athamas, Ino, and hertwo SODS see Dionysus. Athens (Athenai,^. Athenae), the capital of Attica (q.v.).Athenaeus (Athenaios) (fl. c. A.D. 200) ofNaucratis, a Greek writer, author of the 1. General topography in the 5th andDeipnosophislai (Sophists at Dinner or 4th centuries B a.more correctly Connoisseurs in Dining) The standing about three miles city,in fifteen bookR, in which twenty-three from the sea at its nearest point, includedlearned men (some of whom have the within its walls (built or rebuilt on thenames of real persons, such as Galen and advice of Themistocles after Plataea, seeUlpian) are represented meeting at dinner Persian Wars) three principal eminences:in Rome on several occasions, and con- the Acropolis (its fortress) roughly in theversing on food in all its aspects and on a centre, the Areopagus to the W. of this,wide range of other subjects. In reality and the Pnyx to the SW. of the Areopagus.Athenaeus was an industrious collector N. and NW. of the Acropolis and Areo-of excerpts and anecdotes, which he re- pagus was the district known as the Cera-produces in the form of conversation. The micus. This contained the Agora orwork is the source of much information market-place, on which abutted the Stoaon the literature and usages of ancient Poikile or Painted Colonnade and the StoaGreece it survives with the exception of ; Basilcios or Royal Colonnade. The Outerthe first two books and part of the third, Ceramicus outside the walls was a cem-which we have only in a later epitome. etery. The Acropolis was approached at itsAthene or Athena (in Homer Athene, western extremity by the splendid gate-from the 4th c. commonly Athena) or way of the Propylaca. At the foot of thePAIXAS ATHENE, in Greek mythology the southern slope of the Acropolis was thedaughter of Zeus and of his first wife great theatre of Dionysus. To the SE. ofMetis (qq.v.). Zeus swallowed Metis for the Acropolis stood the partially builtfear that she should give birth to a son Olympicum or sanctuary of Olympianstronger than himself. Thereafter Athene Zeus. The principal gate in the walls wassprang from the head of her father, which the Dipylon, on the NW. side of the city.Hephaestus (or Prometheus) had opened From this, roads led to Colonus and thewith an axe. Athene was probably a pro- grovo of Academus. From the adjoiningHellenic goddess, and this curious legend Sacred Gate the Sacred Way led tomay be the outcome of an attempt to Eleusis. Other gates led to the Piraeus, toreconcile her cult with that of the chief Phalcrum, to Sunium, &c. An aqueductgod of the invading Greeks. She was the dating probably from the 6th c. B.C.,patron goddess of Athens (for her conflict perhaps built by Pisistratus, broughtwith Poseidon for Attica, see Athens, 2) water to the centre of the city, perhapsand of Greek cities in general, and in this from the upper course of the Ilissue. Thecapacity had a dual aspect, as Athene houses of the citizens were grouped inPromachos or Polios, the protector and narrow, winding streets about the Acro-champion of the city, and secondly as the polis, and must have presented a meanpatroness of urban arts and handicrafts, appearance, especially as the walls of theespecially spinning and weaving (in this houses, built of sun-dried bricks, wereconnexion see Arachne). She was also usually blank on the street side. W. of the
  • 68. Athens i > Athenscity flowed the Cephisus; the bed of the were, (1) the King Archon, the kingIlissus, generally dry, lay close to the city reduced in powers and made elective,on the SE. and S. The Stadium or race- the religious representative of the State;course was outside the walls, on the left (2) the Eponymous Archon, the real headbank of the Ilissus. For the places, rivers, of the State, especially the supremo judge ;and buildings above mentioned, see under he gave his name to the year (an eventtheir names. See also Long Walls, Par- was said to have occurred in the archon-thenon, Metroum, Cynosarges, and see ship of So-and-so); (3) the PolomarchPI. 13. (q.v.), who commanded the military forces and saw to the safety of the State. Later Origins and primitive constitution 2. the demand of the lower classes for the The Athenians claimed to be autoch- publication of the laws, hitherto unwrit-thonous (original inhabitants of the ten, led to the appointment of six ad-land), but in fact there had been a pre- ditional archons, thesmothetai, codiflersHellenic population (see Migrations and and guardians of the law (later theseDialects) to which the Myccnean (q.v.) had important functions connected withcivilization had extended. To this popu- judicial procedure, q.v. 1). The Boulelation the migrations added successive supervised the magistrates and was theHellenic elements, especially Ionian, but, judicial tribunal. It was composed of theit is thought, without any violent con- men who had previously occupied one ofquest. Attica, by its position, lay outside the archonships. It held its meetings onthe stream of the Dorian invasion. Its the Areopagus (q.v.). Each of the fourpopulation in later tunes was further tribes was divided into twelve naukrariai,modified by the gradual infiltration of and each of these was required to furnishforeigners from many lands, attracted to a ship for the States navy. The presidentsit by the commercial importance of its of the naukrariai appear to have formedcapital. The country was not at first a an important administrative council. Thesingle political whole, but was divided population was further divided into eupa-into small communities. At some moment, tridai (the nobles), georgoi (peasants), andnot later than the 8th c. , a union (synoe- dcmiourgoi (artisans), and later accordingcism) of these communities was effected, to wealth into pentakosiomedimnoi (thoseassociated by the ancients with the name whose land yielded five hundred measuresof Theseus (q.v.). The precipitous hill of corn or hippeis (knights, those oil),known later as the Acropolis, which had whose property yielded three hundred suchlong been occupied, was taken as the measures, and who could therefore keepcapital of the now State. It had at some a horse), zeugitai (those whose propertyearly date been held sacred to the owl, yielded two hundred measures, and wholater to the serpent-god Cecrops (q.v.), could keep a team of oxen), and thetesthe legendary ancestor of the Cecropos, (small peasants and labourers). (For theprobably the first Greek occupants of the area of land represented by the abovecitadel. Some later change in the dominat- qualifications, see Agriculture, 1.) Theing race appears to underlie the myth definition of the three upper classes wasof the defeat of Poseidon by the god- later established on a monetary basis : thedess Athene. There was a contest be- pentakosiomedimnoi were those who hadtween Athene and Poseidon for the land an income of 500 drachmas, the hippeis ofof Attica, and the gods promised the pre- 300, and the zeugitai of 200. The magi-ference to whichever gave the more use- strates were chosen from the wealthyful present to the inhabitants. Poseidon aristocracy.struck the ground with his trident and ahorse sprang up (according to another 3. Seventh and Sixth centuries B.C.version a salt spring on the Acropolis); The accumulation of land and wealth inAthene produced the olivo-treo and was comparatively few hands, the increasingadjudged the victor. From her Athens indebtedness of the peasantry and theirtook its name. The State was at first consequent reduction to the position ofgoverned by kings, said to be descendants serfs bound to the soil, provoked a socialof Erechtheus (q.v.); the population was crisis about the middle of the 7th c. In thegrouped in families (gene), phratriai (q.v.), troublous period that ensued occurredand in four tribes (phulai). The monar- the affair of Cylon and the Alcmaeoni-chical power gradually succumbed to the dae (q.v.), followed by the legislation ofattacks of the old aristocratic families Draco (q.v.), and at the beginning of the(eupatridai, q.v.), and it was replaced by 6th c. by the legislation of Solon (q.v.). Butthe rule of three archons, elected at first the reforms introduced by the latter hadfor ten years and later annually, and a only a limited success, and the strife ofcouncil (BouU, q.v.). The three archons parties continued. They were now dif-
  • 69. Athens 57 Athensferently grouped, into the men of the territory ravaged, but with her fleetplain* (pediakoi), consisting of the nobles intact, her prestige increased, and herand well-to-do farmers whoso interests position as leader of all the Ionian Greekslay in the land, and the men of the shore * acknowledged. She had become, more-(poroZioi), the sailors, fishermen, and arti- over, since the days of Pisistratus, asans whose interests were commercial. great commercial and industrial centre,Later Pisistratus gathered about himself needing foodstuffs for her populationa third group, the men of the hills and raw materials for her industries;(diakrioi), the herdsmen and poor peasants the control of the sea was therefore ofwho had no share in either agricultural or great importance to her. She alonecommercial prosperity, and these ho organ- possessed a fleet capable of protectingized as a frankly revolutionary faction; Greece and the islands of the Aegeanhe seized the supreme power in 561. For against Persian attack. The Greek citiesthe period of his tyranny and that of which had rebelled against Persia accept-his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, BGQ Pisi- ed the leadership of Athens, and this wasstratus. Their fall was succeeded by a the origin of the Delian Confederacy (seestruggle between the partisans of oligarchy Delos). As head of this confederacy andand of democracy, headed respectively by by means of her colonies and cleruchsIsadoras and Cleisthenes (q.v.). The latter (q.v.) on the shores of the Aegean andwon the day and introduced the changes Euxine, Athens under the guidance ofthat were to transform Athens into a truly Cimon and Pericles (qq.v.) became andemocratic State, and in which Herodotus imperial power. She obtained completerightly saw one of the chief sources of control of the allied forces by a series ofher future greatness. The new democracy administrative and political measures, andwas attacked by jealous neighbours only three of her allies, Samos, Chios, and(Sparta, Boeotia, and Chalcis), but was Mytilcne, remained autonomous. By theable to drive them back (506) and con- constitutional reforms of Ephialtes (q,v.)solidate its position. and Pericles democracy reached its fullest It is in this period that the literary and development the government of theartistic history of Athens may be said to people by themselves, offices open to all,begin. Although she did not as yet pro- and payment of the citizens for exercisingduce native poets and artists of impor- their political rights, so that even thetance (except Solon and the shadowy poorest could afford to take their share ofThespis), Pisistratus and his sons were the public duties. But the empire ofzealous patrons of literature and art, Athens offended Greek political sentiment,attracting Simonidcs and Anacreon to which was essentially in favour of theAthens, decorating the city with the independence of each city-state; and herworks of foreign sculptors, and establish- commercial expansion brought her intoing musical and poetic contests at the competition with the great trading cityfestival of the Panathcnaea. See also under of Corinth. The uneasiness of the latterHomer. Attic sculpture, still somewhat was increased by the Athenian occupationprimitive, but graceful and sincere, was of Naupactus at the mouth of the Gulf ofdeveloping", and also the art of vase* Corinth (c. 4,59), and by the Athenian con-painting. trol over Megara, both of which threatened the freedom of Corinthian commerce. By 4. Growth of the Athenian Empire : 459 Athens was at war with Corinth, and Fifth century to the Thirty Years soon after with Aegina and Sparta. But Peace (446) Athens, by also undertaking an attack on At the beginning of the 5th c. Athens the Persian power in Egypt, attempted tooalready figures as a powerful State, but much. The expeditionary force was block-exposed to the menace of Persia, where the aded and had to capitulate, and a reliefexiled Hippias was intriguing to get him- squadron was almost entirely destroyed inself restored. The Persian attack was 454 and although Aegina had fallen after ;delayed for six years by the revolt of the a long blockade in 457-456, and BoeotiaGreek cities of Ionia (see Persian Wars), had been subdued in 457 (battle ofto which Athens, in contrast to the selfish Oenophyta), Athens met with reverses inpolicy of Sparta, lent her assistance. The various directions, including a severefirst Persian invasion was defeated at defeat by the Boeotians at Coronea inMarathon (490). When the second in- 447. She was therefore glad to make avasion came, ten years later, Athens had, thirty years peace with Sparta in 446,under the influence of Themistocles (q.v.), thus ending what is sometimes known asbuilt a strong navy, and she emerged from the First Peloponnesian War. Some im-the struggle (briefly described under Per- portant constitutional changes fall in thissian Wars) with her city in ruins and her period, notably the creation of ten generals
  • 70. Athens 58 Athens(see Strategus) from 501, and from 487 democratic rule endured until the surren-the choosing of the archons by lot. The der of Athens to Sparta in 404. Athensarchonship was in effect thrown open to emerged from the Peloponnesian Warall citizens from ahout 458/7. crippled, impoverished, and at the mercy The fifty years that followed the close of the Spartan Lysander (q.v.). This gaveof the Persian War saw the beginning of an opportunity to the oligarchs, and underthe great poetical and creative age of the menace of Lysander, a body knownAthens, and were rendered illustrious by as the Thirty, of which Critias (q.v.)the names of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euri- was the leading spirit, was nominatedpides, Phidias, and Polygnotus. The posi- to frame a constitution and meanwhiletion of Athens as saviour of Hellas from to rule the State. A council of Fivethe barbarian, her sense of independence Hundred, supporters of the oligarchy, wasand political freedom, her newly acquired appointed, and a reign of terror followed.maritime empire, brought about an But dissensions arose among the oligarchsexaltation favourable to the production and civil war broke out, the democratsof great intellectual works. She was now being led by Tbrasybulus (q.v.). It wasmoreover one of the chief commercial ended by the intervention of the Spartancentres of the eastern Mediterranean, a king Pausanias, and the old democracypoint of attraction to visitors from all was restored (403). In 395 Athens joinedparts of the Greek world, where ideas and Thebes, Argos, and Corinth in theirinformation could be freely interchanged, attempt to overthrow the Spartan supre-and wits were sharpened in the process. macy (see Thebes), an attempt that failedSee Pentecontaetia. in its object and was terminated by the inglorious peace of Antalcidas (387), 5. The great struggle with Sparta to dictated by the king of Persia, who re- Peace of Antalcidas (387) the covered the Ionian cities of Asia Minor The peace with Sparta was destined to and remained master of the Aegean.last only fifteen years, and in 431 began During this period, although the agethe decisive struggle between Athens of the great tragedians was drawing to aand Sparta for the hegemony of Greece, close (Euripides died in 406), the wonder-and at the same time between Athens and ful intellectual productiveness of AthensCorinth for the control of the trade routes continued, illustrated by the names ofto the West (see Pcloponncsian War). Socrates, Plato, Thucydides, and Aristo-The failure of the Sicilian Expedition, the phanes.culminating incident of this war, was thesignal for the revolt of many of the sub- 6. The Fourth century to the rise of of Athens, which she made the Macedonian Empireject-alliesvigorous and partially successful efforts The political interest now passes to theto suppress. The latter part of the war struggle of Sparta and Thebes (q.v.), inwas marked also by the co-operation which Athens played only a secondaryagainst her of Sparta and Persia, furthered part. A wanton raid by a Spartan forceby the intrigues of the exiled Alcibiadcs under Sphodriaa on the Piraeus in 378(q.v.). An oligarchical revolution broke led to the alliance of Athens with Thebes,out in the city itself. A council of Four to war with Sparta, and to the develop-Hundred was established in 411, nomin- ment of a second Athenian Confederacy,ally supplemented by an assembly of composed of various islands and cities ofFive Thousand, which was in fact never the Aegean, Corcyra, and other States,summoned. But the Athenian fleet at professedly directed against Sparta.Samos remained democratic in sentiment, Athens retained her commercial supre-led by Alcibiadcs whom it had recalled. macy and recovered a good deal of herThe revolt of Euboca at this time caused maritime power, for the loss of her empiredeep alarm at Athens, and the Four had not deprived her of her sources ofHundred were overthrown by the end prosperity, and her successes in the warof the same year. In this oligarchic move- with Sparta, which was terminated byment and also in its overthrow Thcra- the peace of Callias in 371, did much tomenes (q.v.) took an important part. A restore her prestige. The most prominentconstitution devised by him, the rule of Athenian statesman of this period wasthe Five Thousand, was now set up. It Callistratus (q.v.), whose general policywas a mixture of oligarchy and democracy was based on harmony with Sparta andpraised by Thucydides and Aristotle. This hostility to Thebes. The latter State,was displaced after the victory of the under the leadership of EpaminondasAthenian fleet at Cyzicus (410) and (q.v.), was now rising to the hegemony ofdemocracy was restored, largely under the Greece, and Athens was more influencedinfluence of the demagogue Cleophon; by jealousy of her neighbour than by her
  • 71. Athens 59 Athensold rivalry with Sparta. In the ensuing various States of northern Greece revoltedstruggle between Sparta and Thebes we against Macedonia. Under the Athenianfind Athens in alliance with Sparta (369), general Leosthencs the Greeks were for aand an Athenian contingent was present time successful, and besieged Antipater,at the battle of Mantinea (362). Meanwhile the regent of Macedonia, in Lamia (aAthens was reviving her old empire in the Thessalian town). But in 322, afterAegean (see Timotheus (2)) and causing Leosthenes had been killed, the Lamiandiscontent and uneasiness among her War ended with tho battle of Crannon, inallies. A revolt of these broke out in 357, which the Macedonians had the advan-and the attempts of Athens to suppress tage. Tho Macedonian fleet had played anit were ineffectual. What is known as the important part in the war, and put anSocial War ended in the peace of 354, end for ever to the sea-power of Athens.by which the independence of the prin- Antipater imposed on Athens a change ofcipal members of the Confederacy was her democratic constitution, and the fran-recognized in accordance with the policy ; chise was restricted to citizens possessedurged by Isocrates (q.v.), Athens re- of more than 2,000 drachmas. He placednounced her attempt at naval empire. a Macedonian garrison at Munychia. HeHer attention was shortly required in also demanded the surrender of Demos-another direction, for Macedonia (q.v.) thenes and tho other anti-Macedonianwas rising to importance and threatening agitators. Demosthenes took poison tothe Athenian position in the northern avoid capture tho others were put to ;Aegean. death. Tho democrats were reinstated at Athens under the brief rule of Polyperchon 7. The struggle with Macedonia and (the immediate successor of Antipater), the subjugation of Athens but Cassander (Antipaters son) restored For the growth of Macedonian ascen- in tho main his fathers constitution anddancy, see Philip of Macedon. In the face appointed (317) as his viceroy at Athensof this development Athens had to choose a distinguished Athenian citizen, Deme-between two policies: an attempt to trius (q.v.) of Phalorum, a learned manrecover her hegemony, or accommodation and a friend of Aristotle. His ten yearswith Philip. Her course of action was tho of virtual rule wore a period of peace andoutcome of tho conflict of two parties, prosperity for tho city. None tho less,a peace party directed by Eubulus, an when Demetrius Poliorcetes, son of Anti-able financier and a cautious statesman, gonus (see Macedonia, 2), captured thethe orator Aeschincs, tho honest and city from Cassandcr in 307, he was lookedsensible soldier Phocion, and Philocrates upon by tho Athenians as a liberator and(qq.v.); and a war party, determined on was granted divine honours.hostility to Philip, led by Demosthenes, The 4th c. shows tho last phase ofLycurgus, and Hyperides (qq.v.). The the literary and artistic pre-eminence ofpassionate eloquence of Demosthenes pro- Athens. The character of her Intellectualvailed, the attempts made by Philip to activity had somewhat changed: it hadconciliate Athens failed, and Philip was become more analytical and less creative,driven to assert his supremacy by force critical,more concerned with facts andof arms at Chacronea (338). Athens their reasons. It was the age of Aristotle,was obliged to accept the lenient peace- the age also of tho great orators, and of theterms imposed by Philip and to join the New Comedy. Art became less simpleHellenic confederacy organized by him. and more realistic; it sought to renderWhether the opposite policy might have youth and grace rather than to interpretproved more advantageous depends on the old religious ideas. Praxiteles was thowhether Philip and Alexander would in great sculptor of this period.any event have loft Athens really inde- 8. The Period of Decadencependent. If not, the policy of Demos-thenes was the only one that offered her Tho 3rd c. B.C. saw the end of tho politi-a chance of freedom. After the abortive cal importance of Athens. The Chremoni-risings that followed the accession of doan War (266-262 B.C.) is notable as theAlexander the Great, and tho destruction last occasion when Athens took tho leadof Thebes which ended them, a period against Macedon. Supported by Spartaof tranquillity ensued at Athens. During and Ptolemy II, she revolted againstthis the most notable incidents are tho Antigonus Gonatas (see Macedonia, 3),attack on Demosthenes by Aeschines was besieged, and finally yielded toand the affair of Harpalus (see Demos- famine. The war derives its name fromthenes, 1). The death of Alexander in the Athenian ChremonidGs, who orga-323 appeared to give an opportunity for nized the alliance. In 229, on the deaththe recovery of freedom, and Athens with of Demetrius II, son of Gonatas, Athens
  • 72. Athens 60 Athensrecovered her freedom. Philip V, grand- boards of ten, one from each tribe.son of Gonatas, once attacked her, hut Though this method may appear strangeotherwise she had a peaceful existence to us, its results seem to have been on theuntil 88. After the defeat of the Achaean whole satisfactory. It must be remem-League by Mummius in 146, Greece be- bered that the lots were drawn only amongcame a Roman protectorate, not yet a candidates who offered themselves, thatprovince. Some cities were taxed by the successful candidate had to pass theRome; others, including Athens and ordeal of the dokimasia (examination asSparta, were not. There was a revival of to worthiness by the Boulo or Heliaea)material prosperity and of religion. The before entering on office, that he wasgreat quadrennial festival of Athens at liable to account for his actions while inDelos, for instance, was restored. But office, and that the system of boardsthis prosperous period came to an end tended to yield an average of ability.with the Mithridatic War of 88-86, when The chief administrative officials wereAthens, which had espoused the cause of the archons (but their functions wereMithridates, was sacked and in part largely ceremonial and judicial) and thedestroyed by Sulla. Greece suffered strategi (see Strategus). Next in order ofseverely both from Sullas exactions and importance were perhaps the numerousdepredations and from the barbarian treasurers, who had charge of the public Mithridates, who sacked Delphi.allies of moneys assigned to various funds (seeEven greater ruin followed from the 11 below). Chief among these were theRoman civil wars, and endured until ten Treasurers (tamiai) of Athene. ThereAugustus made Greece a Roman province were also (besides the receivers-generalin 27 B.C. But in spite of her political referred to in 11 below) ten polctai, whodecline, Athens retained much of her sold confiscated property, farmed outintellectual prestige and continued to be taxes, &c. ; ten praktores, who collectedfrequented as a centre of philosophic study judicial fines; and ten logistai, who(see Hellenistic Age, 2). She was patron- audited the accounts of outgoing magi-ized in the 2nd c. B.C. by the Attalids (q.v.) strates. The policing and care of theof Pergamum, who adorned her with colon- city were in the charge of ten astunomoinades and sculptures. Apollodorus (q.v.) (five for Athens and five lor the Piraeus),composed there his works on chronology while street repairs were looked after byand mythology; Timaeus (q.v.) spent five hodopoioi. There were also boardsmany years there. It became fashionable of market-inspectors, inspectors of weightsfor Romans to pass some time in study and measures, &c. All the above wereat Athens. Atticus (q.v.) lived there for chosen by lot. The hcllenotamiai ormany years Cioero and Ciceros son and ; treasurers of the federal tribute were prob-Horace were among those who studied ably elected, as were also such technicalin the city. Horace, and in a later ago officials as tho surveyor of the water-Lucian, rejoiced in the peaceful charm of supply, and the specially appointed com-Athens as compared with the turmoil missioners of public works (when suchof Rome. Athens enjoyed some revival works were undertaken). The policingof her lustre under Hadrian and the of tho city was carried out by a body ofAntonines, and Julian the Apostate was 300 Scythian archers (public slaves), anda lover of the city. The end of her period there was a board known as the Eleven,of intellectual eminence came in A.D. 529, under whom were the executioner, thewhen Justinian ordered the closing of her gaolers, and the officials who arrestedschools of philosophy. malefactors (all these subordinates were public slaves). Public slaves were also 9.General administration in the employed in many clerical functions, Fifth and Fourth centuries some of them important, such as the caro A striking feature of the Athenian of archives. See also Boule, Ecclesia, anddemocratic system ia the power wielded Judicial Procedure , 1.by orators who held no official position.We have instances of this in Alcibiades, 10. Economic ConditionsCleon, and Demosthenes, who as private (a) The Archaic period. The archaiccitizens exerted at times a dominating period (7th-6th cc. B.C.) which succeededinfluence on the course of events. The the Homeric Age (q.v.) witnessed a trans-actual administration in the 5th and 4th formation of tho Homeric patriarchalcc. was carried on by a largo number of economy. The power of the head of theofficials of various grades. Except where family weakened, the State became moreexperience or technical knowledge was powerful, the individual freer. Populationrequired, officials were as a rule chosen increased and the soil became insufficientby lot, for one year, and as a rule in to support it. Land was converted largely
  • 73. Athens 61 Athensfrom pasture to arable. A great part of *Le travail dans la Grece ancienne, onit was held by the aristocracy and worked which the present section is in partfor them by tenants. Below the aristo- founded). Athens had merchant ships ofcracy, a middle class included the owners 10,000 talents (say 250 tons displacement)of smaller estates sufficient for their sup- which could go five knots, could cross theport and the artisans and traders who open sea (instead of hugging the coast),were profiting by the development of and could sail at night. Traffic by land,industry and commerce. The lowest class on the other hand, was hampered by theincluded tho peasants, owners of an inade- scarcity and defective condition of thequate plot or tenants of the great land- roads. Tho cost of transporting goods byowners. They were heavily in debt and land was extremely high. Some idea ofin general were hi a miserable condition. the cost of living may bo formed from theTho legislation of Solon (q.v.) at the following data. The price of the medimnusbeginning of the 6th c. had at least this (1-4 bushels) of wheat appears to havemeasure of success, that in freeing tho risen during the 5th c. with fluctuationsperson of the debtor it prevented the from 1 to 3 or 4 drachmas; in Demos-Athenian peasant from becoming per- thenes time it normally averaged 5 dr.manently a serf like the helot of Sparta. A days allowance of wheat for a man (his (6) The 5th and 4th centuries. The staple food) was 1 choenix, Ath part ofpopulation of Attica in the 5th and 4th cc. a modimnus, about If Ib. at 3 dr. the ;is unknown and has been very variously medimnus this would cost 221 dr. aestimated. One of the latest estimates year. Adding about the same amount for(Glotz, Histoire grecque) is based on opsonion (relish, i.e. meat, flsh, veget-the number of Athenian hoplites at the ables, fruit), it has been estimated thatbeginning of the Peloponnesian War, as a single man could feed himself for 60 dr.stated by Thucydides: according to this a year, and could live in comfort forcalculation there were then some 40,000 120 dr. A family of four could live foradult Athenian citizens of all classes, about 280 dr. In the 4th c., with wheat atmaking with their families some 140,000 5 dr., the cost of living for a single mansouls. The metics (q.v.) may have num- and for a family may be put at 180 dr. andbered (both sexes and all ages) some 450 dr. respectively. In the latter part70,000. The number of slaves is likewise a of tho 5th c. tho normal rate of pay formatter of conjecture, but was probably be- skilled and unskilled labour was 1 dr. atween 150,000 and 400,000 at this time. day; but to arrive at a mans annualThe census taken by Demetrius of Phale- earnings allowance must be made for therum at the end of the 4th c. is said to have sixty holidays in the year and for varyingshown 21,000 citizens, 10,000 metics, and periods of unemployment. He would400,000 slaves. Tho soil of Attica was probably find it difficult to earn 300 dr.unable to feed the population, and Athens in the year. With this may be comparedimported largo quantities of wheat, dried the remuneration of the architect of theflsh, salt meat, and cattle; also raw Erechtheum in 409-408 ho was paid, as :materials, such as copper, wood, ivory, a public official, at the rate of 1 dr. forwool, flax, papyrus, and also some manu- every day in the year. In the 4th c. thofactured articles such as furniture. She wages of skilled labour rose to 2 or 2J dr.,exported wine and oil, silver, marble, the wages of unskilled labour remainingpottery* arms, books. She also derived at 1 dr. or rising a little above it. Thelargo profits from her position as a com- remuneration of the architect at Eleusismercial centre and from her carrying in the latter part of the 4th c. was at thotrade. Her ships plied to many parts of rate of 2 dr. a day for every day in thothe Mediterranean Thrace and Chalci- year. At the same period public slavesdice, Asia Minor, Phoenicia, Egypt, Italy at Athens received for their subsistence(and later Sicily); and especially to 180 dr. a year, besides their clothing. Thothe Euxine, the principal source of the poorer classes wore supported at first byAthenian corn supply. Tho annual value tho great works of fortification and em-of the total trade of the Piraeus at tho bellishment of tho city later in part by ;beginning of the 4th c., that is to say at a the misthos or payment for the dischargemoment of extreme depression, has been of public duties, while the Theoric Fundestimated, on the basis of the yield of the (q.v.) provided for their amusement. Inimport and export dues, at a sum varying times of war or distress the State came tobetween 1,875 and 2,400 talents (equiva- the aid of the needy by means of thelent in bullion value to about 375,000- diobelia or daily grant of two obols. 480,000, but of much greater purchasing Further, to provide land for the poor,power); it was doubtless much greater thousands were established as cleruchsat a tune of Athenian prosperity (Glotz, (q.v.) in territories across tho sea. The
  • 74. Athens S Athensaccounts of the construction of the following items (talent = about 200,Erechtheum in 409-408 suggest that drachma = about Sd.).citizens were then taking only a small (a) The produce of the silver mines afcpart in industry, leaving manual occupa- Laurium. These were leased to contrac-tions to metics (q.v.) and slaves. These tors, who extracted the ore by slaveBoem likewise to have taken the chief part labour. The annual revenue was probablyin commerce. 50-100 talents. The annual rent of land and houses in (&) The metoikion, a direct tax on thethe 4th c. was normally equal to about resident aliens, 12 drachmas on each head8 per cent, of their capital value. The rate of a family. The yield was probablyof interest on loans on mortgage was 20 talents or more.normally 12 per cent. For commercial (c) Customs duty on goods imported andloans it was generally 10-18 per cent. but exported at the Piraeus, 2 per cent, ad ;for loans on marine ventures it was much valorem, yielding 30-40 talents. Therehigher. For the full navigation season of were also minor taxes, such as octroi andseven months it might bo 30 per cent. it market dues. ;might even be more for voyages involving (d) Judicial fees and flues. In additionspecial risks. Banking was highly organ- to the judicial fees payable by litigants, aized by the end of the 5th c. ; banks lent considerable revenue accrued to the Stateon mortgage, on cargoes, or on personal from penalties in public suits (see Judicialsecurity, and issued letters of credit on Procedure, 1), which took largely thecorrespondents abroad. The bank founded form of fines, and occasionally of con-by Antisthencs and Archcstratos at the fiscation of property. Moreover the ac-end of the 5th c. and carried on in the cuser in a public suit who failed to secure4th c. by the famous Pasion, had largo one-fifth of the votes paid a fine of 1,000foreign transactions, especially with By- drachmas. The revenue from these sourceszantium; when Pasion retired it had a (which went to supply the fund from,capital of 50 talents (10,000). which the jurymen were paid) must have Urban industries (pottery, metal - varied considerably and cannot be esti-working, &c.) were conducted on a mated.comparatively small scale. The largest (e) In war time the eisphorfi, an extra-factory we know of was that of Cephalus, ordinary tax on the estimated capital ofthe father of Lysias, which employed each citizen owning property worth more] 20 slaves on the manufacture of shields. than 1,000 drachmas, at the rate of 2 orThe two factories of the father of Demos- 3 per cent. Metics were subject to thethenes employed respectively 33 on the tax at a higher rate. In 428 B.C., whenmanufacture of arms and 20 on the manu- it was perhaps first imposed, it yieldedfacture of beds. The shoemaker in the 200 talents.mime of Herodas had 13 assistants. Even (/) From the middle of the 5th c. andship-building appears to have been carried until the break-up of the Athenianon hi a large number of small yards. Empire, the phoros or tribute of the allies,Many industries were purely family an amount that varied, at first aboutaffairs in the hands of an artisan and his 400 talents (actually received), later muchwife. The return from industry appears more, perhaps 1,000 talents.to have been normally 30 per cent, a year (g) The budget was helped out by theon the capital value of the slaves em- system of liturgies (q.v.) or public servicesployed, but allowance has to be made in discharged by the wealthier citizens.this for amortization. The total revenue amounted in 431, There is occasional mention of large according to Xcnophon, to not less thanfortunes at Athens, but they do not appear 1,000 talents.to have been numerous. Callias, cousin of The public expenditure varied greatly,Aristidcs and son-in-law of Cimon, was especially as between periods of peace andreputed the richest man in Greece; he is war. At certain moments, for instancesaid to have had 200 talents (say 40,000). after the Persian Wars, and in the timeNicias had 100 talents. Both these for- of Pericles, heavy expenditure was in-tunes wore derived from mining enter- curred for public works and the buildingprises. of temples (see the figures under Par- See also Agriculture, 1, Slaveri/, 1, thenon). The provision of the fleet andColonization, 1, Hellenistic Age, 1. the pay of the crews absorbed the greater part of the tribute of the allies. Even in 11. Finances in the Fifth and Fourth time of peace part of the fleet was kept centuries in commission, A trireme with its crew The public revenue of Athens in the of 200 men receiving 2-3 obols a day5th and 4th cc. consisted principally of the would cost for pay alone 2,000 to 3,000
  • 75. Athens 63 Attadrachmas a month. At the beginning realized in the person of Eubulus, theof the Peloponnesian War Athens had president of the Theoric Fund (q.v.), who300 triremes, later increased to 400. The was hi fact from 354 to 339 a generalinitial cost of a ship hi the 5th o. is un- minister of finance; and after him in Lycur-known, but it was more than one talent. gus, who discharged the same functionsThe peace expenditure on the army (pay from 338 to 326, actual title of with^hoof 1,500 recruits constantly in train- Treasurer -general (ra/uay TTJS BLOLK^UCCDS)ing, equipment and forage allowance of Atlantids, the daughters of Atlas (q.v.).cavalry> pay of mercenaries) is estimatedat 40-50 talents. In war time each hoplite Atlantis, see Timaeus (Platos dialogue).received 1-2 drachmas a day. Atlas (Atlas), in Greek mythology, accord- The normal peace-time expenditure in- ing to Hesiod a son of the Titan lapetuscluded these further items : and Clymene, daughter of Oceanus (qq.v.). (a) The members of the Boule each As punishment for his part in the revoltreceived (in Aristotles day) 5 obols, and of the Titans (q.v.), he was employed tothose of the Prytany 1 drachma for each support the heavens with his head anddays sitting. The citizens attending meet- hands, somewhere in the extreme west ofings of the Ecclcsia received in the first half the earth. Ho was father of the Pleiadesof the 4th c. 3 obols a day (afterwards and the Hyades (qq.v.) and (in Homer) ofraised to 1 drachma). The archons re- Calypso; also, in later writers, of theceived only 4 obols a day, but there were Hesperides (q.v.). Perseus (q.v.), beinga considerable number of subordinate inhospitably received by him, turned himofficials to be paid. The total cost rose into a mountain by means of the Medusasperhaps from 15 talents to 40 talents or head. See also Heracles.more. (b) The total cost of the pay of the Atreus, in Greek mythology, one of theholiasts or jurymen must have depended sons of Pelops; he was king of Mycenae,on the number employed and the num- brother of Thyestes, and father of Aga-ber of days of employment. If 2,000 on memnon and Menelaus. For the story ofthe average were employed on 300 days, his house, see Pelops.with pay at 3 obols (from 425 B.C.), the Atreus appears to represent a real per-charge would be 50 talents. son, if, as there is reason to suppose, he is the Attarisayas, ruler of the Ahhiyava (c) Miscellaneous expenditure on fes-tivals, embassies, reception of foreign (Achaeans?), whoso marauding bands,missions, public relief to the poor and according to the Hittite archives, attackeddisabled, &c. the Hittite coasts in the latter part of the There was no single budget, but the 13th c. B.C.Ecclesia distributed the revenues over a Atrium Libertatis, at Homo;seenumber of separate funds, administered Libraries. The censors hadtheir officeand accounted for by various magistrates there, and it was in this Hall of Libertyand their treasurers. The revenues were that, in Ciceros time, the judicial ex-all paid to ten apodektai or receivers- amination of slaves by torture was carriedgeneral, chosen by lot from the ten tribes, out (Pro Mil. 59); also the manumissionwho handed them over to the magistrates of slaves.as directed. The goddess Athena (and Atrium Vestae, or Hall of Vesta, wasthe other gods) played an important part the residence at Rome of the VestalIn the financial system. From 454 B.C. Virgins, in which they lived as in a con-Athena received l/60th of the tribute of vent. It stood near the Temple of Vesta,the allies ; she and the other gods, more- in the Forum, S. of the Via Sacra (seeover, had revenues from sacred lands, PI. 14). In republican times it appears toofferings, and miscellaneous receipts. The have consisted of rooms built round twotemples consequently became extremely sides of a small court. It was repeatedlywealthy, and from their treasures loans rebuilt and restored in imperial times.were made at interest to the State as In its latest form it was a splendid build-required. The distribution between these Ing of several stories, surrounding ansacred funds and the public funds was in oblong cloistered court.fact nominal, and the sacred treasurieswore much impoverished by the failure Atropos, see Fates.to repay the large loans made during the Atta, Trrus QUINTIUS (d. 77 B.C.), writerPeloponnesian War. In the 4th c. there of togatae (q.v.), of whose comedies verywas a tendency to the simplification and little survives. In his Aquae Caldae heunification both of funds and accounts. depicted life at a Roman watering-place.Moreover the advantage of centralized He is said to have excelled in his femalecontrol was discovered; this was first characters.
  • 76. Attalids 6 AtticusAttalids, the dynasty that in the course and erected two colonnades there (seeof the 3rd c. B.C. acquired Pergamum, in Stoa).the NW. of Asia Minor, and its surround- Atthis (meaning Attic), a name givening territory, expanded its dominions at to chronicles of early events in Attica.the expense of the Seleucids (q.v.), and The first of such chronicles was made byenjoyed the support of Rome. Attains I Hollamcus in the 5th c. B.C. (see Logo-(241-197)was the nephew and adoptive son graphi), and the best-known by Philo-of Eumenes, who first secured the indepen- chorus in the 3rd c. B.C. Only fragmentsdence of Pergamum from the Seleucids of their chronicles survive.(see his life by Plutarch). By driving backthe Galatian barbarians, Attains obtained Attic dialect, see Migrations and Dialects.power and prestige, took the royal title, Attic Nights, see Gellius.and was able to bring under his control for Attica (Attike), a mountainous and hia time nearly the whole of Seleucid AsiaMinor. In 201 the Pergamenes and the great part arid country, forming the SE.Rhodians became embroiled with Philip V promontory of central Greece, about 1,000 square miles in extent, or a littleof Macedonia (q.v., 3) and took themomentous step of soliciting the support larger than Derbyshire. Its city was Athens (q.v.). See PI. 8.of Rome. This gave Rome the pretextfor the Second Macedonian War and for Atticus, TiTUS POMPONIUS (109-32 B.C.),intervention in Greek affairs. As the ally the intimate friend of Cicero, was born atof Rome against Antiochus III at the Homo of an equestrian family. Ho with-great victory of Magnesia (190 B.C., see drew in 88 from the turbulence and blood-Seleucids), Pergamum established its posi- shed of Rome to Athens, where he livedtion as the leading State in Asia Minor, for many years (whence his cognomenreceiving the bulk of the dominions coded Atticus). Ho took no active part in theby Antiochus. In 172 Eumenes II of Per- politics of the ensuing troubled period,gamum again stimulated Rome against but maintained an attitude of neutralityMacedonia and provided the pretext on and friendship with all parties. He helpedwhich war was declared against Perseus Marians and Pompeians in their hoursin 171. The dynasty of the Attalids came of difficulty: ho protected Ciceros wifeto an end in 133 B.C., when Attains III Tercntia when Cicero went into exile,bequeathed his dominions to Rome. The and Antonys wife Fulvia and his lieuten-government of the Attalids was efficient, ant Volumnius at the tune of Mutina. Inand it was successful in accumulating p consequence he was spared by Antony inwealth, partly from slave labour hi the the proscriptions. He became the friendroyal factories which produced parchment of Augustus, and his daughter marriedand textiles. Under them, the treatment Agrippa, the minister of the latter. Theirof the population and subject cities ap- daughter Vipsania married Tiberius andpears to have been more arbitrary than was mother of the younger Drusus (seethat of the Seleucids, who were regarded Julio-Claudian Family and Germanicusas the champions of Hellenism. This, and and Drusus, B. 1). Pomponia, sister ofthe relations of the Attalids with Rome, Atticus, married Ciceros brother Quintus.made Greek feeling hostile to them. On The series of Ciceros letters to Atticusthe other hand they provided a bulwark begins in 68, and their friendship, whichagainst the Galatlans. With their wealth had its origin when they were fellowthey made Pergamum into a splendid students in youth, continued until Ciceroscity, adorned with sculptures. Those death. Cicero constantly turned to himcommemorating the victory of Attains I for sympathy in distress and difficulty,over the Gallic invaders included a bronze and for advice, both in connexion withrepresentation of the Dying Gaul* of public and private affairs. Atticua hadwhich a marble reproduction survives inherited a considerable fortune, within the Capitoline museum. Eumenes II which he bought land in Epirus, and whicherected a great altar to Zeus with a frieze, he gradually increased by judicious in-some 400 feet long, showing the battle of vestment. He became very wealthy andthe Gods and the Giants. Under the same had strong literary tastes he kept a large ;king, Pergamum became an important staff of slaves trained in copying and bind-centre of literary studies, and a great ing manuscripts. He acted as Ciceroslibrary was built, the rival of that of publisher. His works, which have notAlexandria. It was at Pergamum that the survived, included a Liber Annalis, anuse of parchment (a word derived from epitome of Roman history in one book,Pergamum) was first developed on a large dealing with laws, wars, and politicalscale (see Books, Ancient, 5). The Per- events from the earliest times to his owngamene kings sent sculptures to Athens day ; and a genealogical treatise on certain
  • 77. Attis 65 AugustalesRoman families and the magistracies they prayer for a sign, he sat looking south-had held. He also helped to establish ward. (In certain pla-ces, e.g. in the Arx onthe date of the founding of Rome (see the Capitoline hill, there were permanentCalendar.) We have a life of him by templa the view from these might not be ;Nepos (q.v.). obstructed by new buildings.) Signs on the E. side (the augurs left) were regardedAttis, a Phrygian deity associated with as propitious, on the W. as unfavourable.the myth of Cybele (q.v.) or Agdistis.Attis was the son of Nana, daughter of Hence, in general, signs on the left sidethe river-god Sangarius (a rivor hi Asia were of good omen. (There was alsoMinor). She conceived him after gathering authority for the augur adopting anthe blossom of an almond-tree sprung from eastward-facing position.) The signs were either the flight or song of birds, thunderthe blood of Agdistis. When Attis wishedto marry, Agdistis, who loved him and was and lightning, or the movement of ani- mals. Later, auspices were taken, espe-jealous, drove him mad, so that hecastrated himself and died. At the prayer cially during military operations, from theof the repentant goddess, Zeus allowed manner of feeding (eager or the reverse) of chickens. The gods, moreover, mighthis spirit to pass into a pine-tree, whileviolets sprang from his blood. This myth spontaneously send a sign, such as thun- der, upon which the augur advised; and(like that of Adonis) symbolizes the death in later republican times public businessand revival of plant life. See also Catullus. was frequently obstructed by the observa-Attius Labeo, a translator of Homer tion of pretended signs and similar devices.(q.v., ad fin.). The college, until the lex Ogulnia ofAufldus, a river in Apulia (S. Italy), on 300 B.C., consisted of patricians. Thewhich stood Venusia, the birthplace of augurs received a salary; their officialHorace, who refers in his poems to its dress was the trabea, a mantle with aswift and roaring current ( longe sonantcm purple border, and they were furthernatus ad Aufldum). It was on the banks distinguished by the lituus or curved staffof this river that Hannibal defeated the without knots, which they used for mark-Romans in 216 B.C. at the battle of ing off the templa. Much light is thrownCannae. on Roman augury by the De Divina- tione* (q.v.) of Cicero. The classicalAugeas (Augeids), see Heracles (Labours example of the supposed danger of neg-of) and Trophonius. lecting the warnings of the auspices wasAugury and Auspices. Auspices (au- that of the consul C. Flaminius, who, onspida) were the means by which the the morning of the battle of Lake Trasi-Romans sought to ascertain whether the mene (217 B.C.), insisted on marchinggods were favourable to an undertaking, against the enemy in defiance of theand the augurs were a priestly college obvious indications of the omens, whichwhose members had the knowledge neces- he ridiculed. Within three hours thesary for taking the auspices and inter- consul lay dead on the field and his armypreting them. In the household nothing was destroyed. Similarly on the occasionof importance was undertaken, Cicero of the great sea-fight off Drepanum intells us, except with the sanction of the 249 B.C. between the Roman and Cartha-auspices. But of the details of domestic ginian fleets, it was reported to the Romanaugury we know hardly anything. The admiral that the sacred chickens wouldauspices were taken by the master of the not eat. Then let them drink , he replied *house, with the assistance, if necessary, of and had them thrown overboard. Thea professional augur. We know also that utter defeat of the Roman fleet followed.there were agricultural auguries in spring For omens drawn by the Romans fromand at midsummer. The college of augurs inspection of the entrails of sacrificialwas second in importance only to the victims, see Haruspices.pontifices (q.v.) ; they were the repositoriesof tradition about augury and were con- Augustales. There were during thesulted in cases of doubt, public or private. Roman empire several priesthoods orThey alone had the right of public augury, dignities bearing this title. (1) On theexercised on all occasions when the ap- death of Augustus (A.D. 14) Tiberiusproval of the gods for public action (e.g. instituted the college of Sodales Augustalesa meeting of the Assembly) was required. to look after the cult of the gens Julia.The auspices, originally * signs from birds Its members belonged to the imperial(avis-spicere) were taken as follows. The family or were important personages inaugur marked off a templum, a rectangular the State. (2) The Seviri Augustales werespace In which the auspices were to be members of similar colleges institutedsought. There, after offering a prescribed by Tiberius in the provinces for the 4339
  • 78. Augustalia 66 Augustuscommemoration of Augustus. They were Ambrose (q.v.), and in 387, after a longfreedmen, who thus acquired in Rome the intellectual and moral struggle, in whichsocial standing they desired. Trimalchio, he states that he was influenced by thein the novel of Potronius Arbiter (q.v.), Hortensius of Cicero, received Christianprides himself on being a seoir Augustalis, baptism. He then returned to Africaan honour all the greater because he was (Monica dying at Ostia on the way)chosen in absence without having to and became a priest, and in 395 bishop ofstand for election. (3) During his lifetime, Hippo, which office he occupied till hisAugustus had associated his genius (see death. He was a man of wide erudition,Religion, 5) for purposes of worship with with a bent for philosophy, of strong prac-the Lares Compitales, the Lares of the tical sense, combined with intense sensi-cross-roads. He instituted the Magistri bility and an ardent religious faith. ManyVlcorum to attend to the worship. These of his writings, especially his earliestAugustales also were freedmen. The con- works, have a philosophic cast: the Con-nexion and difference between Seviri tra Academicos, De Vita Beata, andAugustales, Seviri et Augustales, Magistri *Do Ordlne* are a criticism, from theAugustales, and Augustales (in the pro- religious standpoint, of ancient philo-vinces), is still far from clear. sophy. His treatises Do ImmortalitateAugustalia, Ludi, 2 ad fin. Animi* (in which he adopts the Platonic arguments for a future life) and DoAugustan Age of Roman literature, a Libero Arbitrio* (in which he discussesterm applied to the period which followed the vexed question of free will and divinethe Ciceronian Age (q.v.), and of which the foreknowledge) are other examples of hisempire of Augustus was the chief his- philosophical attitude. After historical feature; it is generally regarded appoint- ment to his bishopric his writings assumeas covering the years from the death of a more purely religious character polemi-Julius Caesar (44 B.C.) to the death of cal treatises against the Manichaean andOvid in A.D. 17. The great authors of this Pelagian heretics and the Donatist schis-period were Virgil, Horace, Tibullus, matics, letters of advice, encouragement,Proportius, Ovid, and Livy. The period instruction, or direction, and numerouscovers a variety of political conditions, practical treatises. His methods as afor the old republican system did not end teacher of Christianity are set forth in twountil after the battle of Actium in 31 B.C., works, De CatecMzandis Rudibus (Onand even then continued nominally. the Art of Catechizing) and De Doc- The most prominent characteristic of trina Christiana on a scheme of Christianthis period was the restoration of tran- education, including the interpretation ofquillity and order after nearly a century the Scriptures and Christian eloquence.of revolution, civil turmoil, and massacre. His two most famous works are his * Con-Political activity came to an end with the fessions, the moving story of his owninstitution of the empire; freedom of spiritual struggles, written for the edifica-political and historical inquiry and ex- tion of others, with deep psychologicalpression was limited; hence the disap- insight; and his De Civitate Dei (q.v.),pearance of oratory and the scantiness The City of God, the longest (it con-of prose literature in general during this tains twenty-two books) and the latestage. Poetry is frequently under the in- of his writings ; he worked on it for nearlyfluence of patrons such as the emperor fourteen years. Augustines early practicehimself and other men in high official of rhetoric left its mark not only in hispositions, like Maecenas and Messalla; it wideis addressed to a polished society, and is knowledge of profane literature, but in an easy, supple style and a fondness forconcerned with patriotic themes (pride rhetorical devices and conceits.in Rome and its imperial destiny), or withthe passion of love, or with the beauty of an honorary title conferrednature. It is a mature literature, the Augustus, in 27 B.C. on C. Julius Caesar Octavianus,product of study and training, showing the first Roman emperor. See Octavianless originality and spontaneity than the and Rome, 7 and 9. He received thisliterature of the preceding age. title because it had no monarchical ringAugustine, ST. (Aurelius Augustinus) and yet designated him as something(A.D. 354-430), was born at Thagaste in greater than an ordinary citizen.Numidia. His father was a pagan; his The title Augustus was assumed by themother, Monica, was a devout Christian succeeding emperors at the request of theand greatly influenced her son. He taught Senate and gradually became their officialrhetoric successively at Thagaste, Car- designation. The title Augusto was con-thage, Rome (383), and Milan. At Milan ferred on Livia after the death of Augustushe came under the influence of Bishop and was afterwards borne by various ladies
  • 79. Aulularia 67 Aventineof the imperial family, not always consorts He wrote a great deal of verse in aof the emperor. great variety of metres, showing rather the technical ability of a professor ofAulul&rin (The pot of gold), a comedy rhetoric than poetic inspiration. He seemsby Plautus, probably adapted from a play to have versified any theme that pre-by Menander. The prologue is spoken by sented itself, such as the names of thethe Lar Familiaris (q.v.). Euclio, an old curmudgeon, has found days and months, or the properties of thea pot full of treasure buried in his house. number three. He particularly delighted in verso catalogues: thus he cataloguedHo hides it away, continues to pretend in the Parentalia his relatives and ances-poverty, and is in terror that the treasure tors, assigning a few lines of pious praisemay be taken from him. His daughter to each ; in other poems the professors ofPhaodria has been ravished by a youngman, Lyconides, at a feast of Ceres. Bordeaux, the famous cities of the world, the twelve Caesars, the Seven Sages, evenLyconides is repentant and wishes to the Roman consuls (but this work is lost).marry her. But meanwhile his uncle He delighted also in such feats of skill asMegad6rus proposes to Euclio for the the composition of a prayer in 42 rhopaliogirls hand. Euclio thinks that Megadorushas designs on the treasure, takes it away (q.v.) hexameters beginning Spes deusfrom his house, and hides it in one place aeternao stationis conciliator, and ofafter another. He is seen by a slave of nearly two hundred hexameters (theLyconides. The latter gets possession of Technopaegnion) each ending in athe treasure, and restores it to Euclio, monosyllable. His more important and interestingwho, overjoyed at its recovery, apparently poems arc, (1) the EpMmeris, or descrip-(the end of the play is lost) bestows his tion of a normal day in his life (the datedaughter on Lyconides. The play is noteworthy especially for and place represented are uncertain), histhe character of the old miser, on whom awakening, talk with his servant, histhe Harpagon of Molieres LAvare* is cook, his secretary, &c. ; and (2) the Mosella. This is a long poem on a visitclosely modelled. The incident of the to the Moselle, artificial in its arrange-cock that scrapes the earth near Euclios him ment: his journey through Gaul, apo-treasure, and is killed by for its mani-fest thievish intention, is also famous. strophe to the river, list of its fishes, *The Aulularia was performed at Cam- description of its vineyards, the reflec- tions in its water, aquatic sports, thebridge hi 1564 before Queen Elizabeth. luxurious villas on its banks, its tribu-Aulus Gellius, see Oellius. taries, ending with its junction with theAurora, see Eos. Rhine and a final tribute of praise. Ausonius possesses neither depth, in-Ausonia, a poetic name for Italy, from sight, nor passion but he shows affection ;Ausones, an ancient, perhaps Greek, name for his country and feeling for naturalfor the inhabitants of middle and southern beauties, and his verse (which includes,Italy. besides the pieces named above, Epistles,Ausonius, DKCIMUS MAGNUS (c. A.D. Epigrams, &c.) throws light, here and310-c. 395), the son of a physician of there, on middle-class life in the provincesBordeaux, was educated there and at in his day. His prose writing Includes aToulouse, and after teaching rhetoric for long Ordtiarum actio or thanksgiving forthirty years at Bordeaux was appointed his consulship, addressed to Gratian.tutor to Valentinians son, Gratian. Auspices, see Augury.With his pupil he accompanied Valen-tinians expedition of 368-9 against the Auster, the south wind (Gk. Notos).Germans, and under Gratian received Autolycus (Autolukos), in Greek mytho-rapid official advancement, becoming pre- logy, a son of Hermes and a master offect of the Gallic provinces, then of trickery and thieving. He received fromItaly, Illyria, and Africa jointly with the his father the gift of making himself andemperors son, and finally consul in 379. his stolen goods invisible, or of changingHe then returned to his family estate at the appearance of the latter so as toBordeaux, where he appears to have spent escape detection. But he was outwittedmost of the remainder of his life, though by Sisyphus (q.v.). He was the father ofhe was at Treves at the time of the Aiiticlea, the mother of Odysseus.usurpation of Maximus. He was nomin-ally at least a Christian, but without any Automedon (Automeddn), In the Iliad, the charioteer of Achilles (q.v.).depth of religious feeling: he tried todissuade his pupil Paulinus from abandon- Aventine, the most southerly of theing the world for a life of religion. seven hills of Rome (see PL 14). According
  • 80. Avernus 68 Bacchylidesto the traditional view, tho Avcntine, imprison Dionysus usually supposed (it isthough within the wall of Servius Tullius that the poet intended to represent(see Rome, 1), remained outside the Dionysus himself in the captive; but inpomoerium or city boundary for religious the tragedy itself the captive proclaimsreasons until the time of Claudius. An- himself merely a votary of the god). Byother theory is that it was not included him Pentheus is induced to spy on thewithin any wall until the rebuilding of womens mystio worship, is discovered bythe Servian Wall in the 4th c. B.C. It was them, and torn in pieces. Agave, in herthe scene of the story of Hercules and frenzy, bears his head triumphantly toCacus (q.v.), whose cave Evander showed Thebes. It is only when she recovers thatto Aeneas (Aon. viii. 184 et soq.). In she finds she has killed her son. Dionysuslater times it was a quarter occupied by proclaims tho doom of tho house of Cad-tho poorer classes, and was crowned by mus, and Cadmus himself and Agave goa temple of Diana. their ways into oxilo. Pentheus exemplifies the limitations ofAvernus, a lake near Cumae and Naples. ordinary humanClose to it was tho cave by which Aeneas reason, closed to tho tho material world. Butdescended to the nether world (Aen. vi). mysteries beyond while Euripides shows sympathy with theThe name was sometimes used for the side of tho Dionysiao religion, henether world itself. It was generally writ- mystio to condemn its extravagances.ten in Greek "Aopvos, which was supposed appearsto mean without birds, and the lake was Bacchanalia (Bacchanalia), orgies ofin consequence thought to be birdless, a Dionysus (q.v.) or Bacchus. They spreadfeature which is often referred to. in Italy early in tho 2nd c. B.C., led toAvSs see Birds. excesses, and had to be suppressed in t 18C B.C. Tho decree of the Senate for-Avienus, RUFIUS FESTUS (4th c. A.D.), bidding these rites survives in an inscrip-who tells us that he was a native of Vol- tion.sinii and twice proconsul, was author of an Bacchi, see Dionysus.extant translation of Aratus (q.v.) intoLatin hexameters. Of two other verso Bacchiac or Bacchius, see Metre, 1.translations by him (of Greek poems on Bacchidgs, a comedy by Plautus,geographical subjects) tho whole of one adapted probably from a lost play (Jt?and part of the other survive. ^a7rara)v) of Menander. A young man is searching on behalf of an absr at friend for tho courtesan Bacchis of Samos ho finds her, but falls under the ; charm of her sister Bacchis of Athens. His conduct arouses suspicion in his friendsBabrius, VALERIUS (?) (c. A.D. 100?) of mind until it comes out that there are twowhom nothing is known, author of 123 courtesans of the same name. Tho slaveAcsopic fables (see Aesop) in Greek chol- Chrysalus is tho pivot of tho play. Iniambio verse (see Metre, 5), pleasantly contrast to the pedagogue Lydus, he aidstold and probably based on some prose his young master in his love affair, ly-collection of these. The fables of Babrius ing unblushingly and resourcefully. Byare extant. a bold and ingenious trick he extracts from the young mans father the moneyBacchae, a tragedy by Euripides, pro- required for the affair, and likens himselfduced in 405 B.C. by his son after his death, to a conqueror of Troy. Finally the sistersprobably written after Euripides had gone beguile the fathers of the two young mento Mace don to tho court of Arehelaus; the into forgiveness and all ends merrily.last of tho groat Greek tragedies. Dionysus, the young god, son of Zeus Bacchus (BakcJios), see Dionysus.and tho Theban princess Semelo (q.v.), Bacchylides (Bakchulides) (c. 505-c.travelling through tho world to make 450 B.C.), born like his uncle Simonideshimself known as god to man, comes to (q.v.) in the island of Ceos, a Greek lyricThebes, where his worship has been re- poet. He appears to have visited the tyrantjected, even by Agave, sister of Somele llieron I of Syracuse (q.v., 1), whom heand mother of PentheHs, king of Thebes. celebrated in three odes. He wrote choralDionysus has maddened the recalcitrant lyrics of all the principal kinds. Thanks towomen, and sent them to adore him on the a discovery among the Oxyrhynchus papyrimountain. Pentheus, bitterly hostile to (see Papyri, Discoveries of), we possessthe new religion in spite of the remon- nineteen of his poems (more or less muti-strances of his grandfather Cadmus and lated), including thirteen epinicia (q.v.)of Tiresias (qq.v.), insults and trios to and five other poems classed as dithy-
  • 81. Bacis 69 Bekkerrambs. In the former he celebrated per- of the Romans, particularly in late repub-eons from all parts of the Greek world. lican and imperial times. They includedThe dithyrambs treat detached scenes rooms heated to different degrees (thetaken from heroic legend. One of them, frigiddrium, tepiddrium, and calddrium), *entitled Theseus, is of special interest provided with hot water for washing andas being in the form of a dialogue between a cold plunge -bath. Women some tunesAegeus (see Theseus) and the chorus. had separate accommodation or had par-Barchylides was a poet of great elegance ticular hours allotted to them, thoughand imagination, of more natural magic promiscuous bathing was not uncommonthan Pindar, but without the latters gran- under the empire. The vast and luxuriousdeur, gravity, and power. Ho makes ample structures built under the emperors (not-use of myths some of them are new to us. ably Caracalla and Diocletian), of which ;But they are less aptly connected with there are considerable remains, had inhis theme than those of Pindar. There addition halls, lecture rooms, and placeswas an edition of Bacchylides by R. C. for exercise, running, wrestling, ball-play-Jobb in 1905. ing (for it was usual to take exercise beforeBacis (Balds), an old Boeotian prophet* the bath). Rhetoricians used the bathswhose name became a common designa- for recitations, and authors read their newtion for male soothsayers, as Sibyl for works there. Excavations have shown that they were highly ornamented; andprophetesses. beautiful statues have been found hi then*Bacon, ROGER, see Texts and Studies, 8. ruins, such as the Farncse Hercules andBalbus, QUINTUS LtJclLius, one of the the Farnese Bull (from the Baths of Cara-interlocutors In Ciceros *De Natura calla, and now at Naples). The usualDeorum* (q.v.), a learned Stoic, known charge for admission to the baths was aonly from Ciceros dialogue. quadrans (a small copper coin, one-fourth of an as).Bandusia, a fountain celebrated byHorace in the beautiful Ode (in. xiii) Bathyllus (Bathullos), see Pantomime. O fons Bandusiao, splendidior vitro. It BatrachomyomachiG, or Battle of themay have been on his Sabino farm, or near Frogs and Mice, a parody of an epic poem,his birthplace Venusia. attributed in antiquity to Homer, butBasilica, from the Gk. word meaning probably of much later date.* royal* sc. house, a roofed hall sometimes A mouse named Pslcharpax is inviteddivided into aisles by rows of columns, by a frog, Physignathos, son of Peleus, toused for judicial or other public business, ride on his back and visit his watery king-or as a bazaar. The earliest is said to have dom. Unfortunately, at the sight of abeen built by M. Porcius Cato in 184 B.C. water-snake (or perhaps otter), the frogThere were five or six basilicac about the dives and the mouse is drowned. But theForum at the end of the republican period, incident has been seen by another mouse,among them the Basilica Julia, built by and a great war ensues between the miceCaesar, and used for judicial proceedings. and the frogs, in which the mice seem to A form of basilica, with aisles flanking be winning. At the request of Athenaa nave and terminating in an apse, Zeus intervenes, and, having failed withbecame the prototype of the Christian thunderbolts, sends crabs to quell thechurch. strife.Bassarids (Bassaridcs), votaries of Battus, the founder of Cyrcne, seeDionysus (q.v.); a word perhaps meaning Colonisation, 4.wearers of fox-skins. Bavius and Maevius, poetasters sar-Bathos, hi rhetoric, a drop from the lofty castically alluded to in Virgils Thirdor sublime to the mean or ridiculous (the Eclogue. Maevius is also attacked inGk. word ftddos, depth, was not used in Horaces Tenth Epode. In English litera-this metaphorical sense). There is an ture they supplied the titles of Giffordsexample of it in a line by the bombastic epic satires on the Delia Cmscan school ofpoet Furius Bibaculus: poets, The Baviad and The MaeviadJuppitcr hibernas cana nive conspuit (1794-5). Alpes, Bedriacum, between Cremona andJupiter spits the bleak Alps over with Verona, where in A.D. 69 Othos forceswhite snow. This line is parodied by were defeated by the ViteUians, and whereHorace, Sat. n. v. 39-41. the ViteUians later were defeated by the of Vespasian.Baths, ROMAN (balneae). For those in supportersprivate houses see Houses. Public baths Bekker, IMMANUEL, see Texts and Studies,Played an important part in the daily life 11.
  • 82. Belisarius 70 BionBelisarius, see Justinian. enemies who were being massacred by hisBellerophon (Bellerophon or Bettero- orders. Near the temple stood the littlephontfa), in Greek mythology? son of column over which the Fetialis (q.v.)Glaucus (q.v. (3)), the eon of Sisyphus symbolically threw his spear on a declara- tion of war.(q.v.). He spent some time at the court ofProetus, king of Argos, where Anteia (or The moon-goddess of Asia was intro- duced at Rome after the Mithridatic Wars.Stheneboea), wife of Proetus, fell in lovewith him. As he slighted her passion, A temple was erected to her, and she seemsAnteia accused him to her husband. to have become identified with the ItalianProetus, unwilling to violate the laws of Bellona, whose Greek equivalent washospitality by killing Bellerophon under recognized to be Enyo (q.v.).his own roof, sent him to his father-in-law Bellum Cat illnuc, see Sallust.lobates bearing a letter requesting himto put Bellerophon to death (whence the Bellum Civile, see Pharsalia.expression Bellerophontis litteroe. Homer Heliumsays cn}/Ltara Auypa; it has been disputed Jugurthlnum, see Sallust.whether this was a letter.). lobates ac- Bellum Punicum, see Nacvius.cordingly sent Bellerophon against the Bendis, a Thracian of theChimaera (q.v.); but Bellerophon, with who was identified at goddess with moon, Athens Artemisthe aid of the winged horse Pegasus (q.v.) ; and whose ,cult became popular there indestroyed it. He then defeated the fierce the 5th c. B.C. She had atribe of the Solymi, and the Amazons, with temple at the and herwhom he was sent to fight, and overcame Piraeustorch -race. festival was celebrated with athe warriors placed in an ambush to awaithim on his return. Thereafter lobates, Bentley, RICHARD, see Texts and Studies,despairing of killing him, gave him his 10.daughter to wife, by whom he was fatherof Laodamia, mother of Sarpedon (qq.v.), Berenice, see article below and Titus.and of Hippolochus, father of the Glaucus BerentcS, The Lock of (Berenikes Ploka*(q.v. (4)), who at the siege of Troy ex- mos), the title of a poem in Greek elegiacschanged armour with Diomedes. But ho by Callimachus, of which only fragmentscame to be hated of the gods two of his survive. It was translated by Catullus ;children perished, and he is last heard of (Poem 66).wandering alone, eating his heart out, This Berenice was the wife of Ptolemyavoiding the paths of men (D. vi. 201-2). III. Another Berenice, sister of Pto-Later legend relates that ho attempted to lemy III, had been married to Antio-fly to heaven on Pegasus, but that Zeus chus II of Syria; but on the death ofby a gadfly caused the horse to throw its Antiochus in 247 B.C. his widow had beenrider. displaced and killed by Laodice, an earlierBello Civili, Commentarii de, see Com- divorced wife of Antiochus and Laodiccs ;mentaries. eon, Scleucus II, had been proclaimed his successor. Ptolemy III set out in 246 toHello Commentarii Gallico, de, see Com-mentaries. vindicate the claims of his sisters son. On his departure, Berenice his wife dedi-Bellona the old form of the name, (in cated to the gods a lock of her hair asDuelldna), the Roman goddess of war. an offering for his safe return. This lockThe first temple to her appears to have mysteriously disappeared. Conon, thebeen built by Appius Claudius Caecus court astronomer, pretended to discover(q.v.) in the Campus Martius. (In Plinys it, transformed into a constellation there-Natural History* we are told that in after known as Coma Berenices.495 B.C. Appius Claudius Regillus con- In Popes Rape of the Lock, the locksecrated at Rome the images of his ances- of Belindas hair which had been snippedtors in a temple dedicated to Bellona. off is finally wafted, as a new star, to adornWissowa believes this to be an additional the skies.explanation and that the temple of AppiusClaudius Caecus is referred to.) The tem- Berosus (BSrossos), a priest at Babylon,ple, being outside the walls, was used for of the 3rd c. B.C., who wrote in Greek ameetings of the Senate to receive foreign work on the chronology of Chaldaea.ambassadors and Roman generals return- Bias (Bids), see Melampus.ing from active service (see Triumph).Here took place, after the battle of the Bion (Blon) (c. 100 B.C.?), born atColline Gate, the meeting between Sulla Smyrna, a Greek poet, imitator of Theo-and the Senate, when the proceedings critus. Of the half-dozen short poemswere interrupted by the shrieks of Sullas attributed to him that have come down
  • 83. Birds 71 Boadiceato us, the most remarkable is the * Lament their fathers (he is reminded that youngfor Adonis , probably intended for recita- storks must also feed their fathers);tion at one of the festivals of Adonis, such Cinesias, the lyric poet, because he wantsas that described by Theocritus in his to soar on airy pinions ; an informer, who Adoniazusae (Idyll xv). The others have would find wings useful for serving writs ;love for their subject, or the charms and Prometheus, who hides from Zeusof the various seasons. Bion is generally under an umbrella while he tells of thecoupled with Moschus (q.v.). It appears food shortage among the gods, andfrom the beautiful dirge hi which some make hard terms advises Peithetairos tofriend or pupil, perhaps Moschus, lamented with them, and Insist on having Basileiathe death of Bion, that the latter was (sovereignty), daughter of Zeus, to wife.poisoned. Then come ambassadors from the gods, Poseidon, Heracles, and a god of the bar-Birds (Ornlthes, L. Aves), a comedy by barous Triballians. Thanks to the greedi-Aristophanes, produced at the Groat ness of Heracles, Peithetairos gets theDionysia of 414 B.C. It won the second sceptre and Basileia, is hailed as theprize. The Athenian fleet had set out on highest of the gods, and preparations arethe Sicilian Expedition in the previous made for his wedding.year. Before it started, the city had been Birthplaces of Greek authors. These,profoundly disturbed by the mysterious where of sufficient importance or interest,and sacrilegious mutilation of the Hermao are dealt with under their several names.(q.v.). Melos had been cruelly and un- The table on p. 72, in which the principaljustly destroyed in 416-415. Aristophanes Greek men of letters arehated the war and its consequences, and summarily to their birth-placesturned from political themes to construct grouped according and their periods, brings out,an Utopia. (1) the predominance of Ionia and the Peithetairos and Euelpidod, sick of life islands of the Aegean as the centre ofin Athens with its worries and anxieties, literary activity in the earliest periodseek out King Tereus (see Philomela), who j (2) the shifting of this centre to Atticahad married an Athenian princess and in the 5th and 4th cc.been turned into a hoopoe, to consult him ; (3) the cessation of literary productionas to the best place to live in. Tereus at Athens after the end of the 4th c. ;suggests various countries, but there (4) the dispersion of literary talent overare objections to them all. Peithetairos all parts of the Greek-speaking world innow has a brilliant idea. Lot the birds the period of decadence. This would haveall unite and build a great walled city inthe air. From this they will rule both appeared even more strikingly if the tablemankind and the gods, for they will con- had included critics, grammarians, writers on science, and authors generally of minortrol the food supply of both. They can meritdevour the seed in the earth, and intercept ; the small share in literary production (5)the steam of the sacrifices on which the which falls to the States of Greece propergods are nourished. Tho chorus of birds, other than Athens. Only ten names areat first hostile, are won over to the pro- included in this category, and four of themposal, and they quickly set about buildingthe city under the direction of Peithetairos belong to Boeotia. Magna Graecia like-and Euelpides, who grow wings to suit wise contributed very little.their new condition. Then various unwel- Birthplaces of Latin authors. In thecome visitors arrive : a needy poet with a table on p. 73 the principal Latin authorshymn in honour of the new city, an of the republican period and the earlyoracle-monger, Meton (the famous astro- empire are roughly grouped accordingnomer) to lay out the streets, and an to their birthplaces. Some importantinspector of ceremonies. They are all authors, such as Tibullus and Tacitus, areappropriately dealt with. The new city excluded, because their birthplaces are(Nephelococcygia, Cloud-cuckoo-land) is unknown. It is remarkable how few ofnow finished, and the guard come in the authors of the first rank are thoughtwith a trespasser whom they have caught, to have been born in Rome itself. ThoIris, the messenger of Zeus, on her way to increased literary importance in imperialdiscover why the sacrifices have stopped times of Spain and other Roman territorieson earth. She is asked for her passport outside Italy is the natural consequenceand generally bullied, and finally goes off of the spread of Roman culture.in tears to complain to her father. Mean-while mankind has become bird-mad and Biton, see Cleobte.wants wings. Further visitors arrive: a Boadicea (Boudicca), queen of the Icenifather-beater, because young cocks fight in East Anglia, whose rising against the
  • 84. 72 ( ( El (S (S (C the Herodotus Parmenides Zeno Democritus Protagoras Aristotle Diogenes Ephorus |.|!i 5 .9 o S WOHH _ j-i -4-> * sfss3f-a. W H v slslls II is fe IIi Ill fn il ill a 3
  • 85. 73 S feCQMo aw 3 : | I 111 a u> ef I & a mat 1 C of Italy Rest fl( 1-5 3 CQ pouocl oajdrao eq^ jo pojjod
  • 86. Boccaccio 74 BoethiusRomans and itssuppression by SuetSnius (c. A.D. 480-524), belonged to the gens ofPaulinas are described by Tacitus (Ann, the Anicii, of which many members hadxiv). Boadicea took her own life after the held high office under the empire in thedefeat. (See Britain, 2). 4th and 5th cc. He entered the service of Theodoric and became consul in 510, butBoccaccio, see Texts and Studies, 9. having undertaken the defence of a sena-Boeotia (Boiotid), the country adjoining tor who was accused of secret correspon-Attica on theNW (see PI. 8). It was occu- dence with the Emperor of the East, hepied in the Migrations (q.v.) by Aeolians was charged with high treason, imprisoned,from Epirus, who mingled with such of the and died under torture.older inhabitants as remained but some of ; Boethius was a Christian and has leftthese, Cadmeians (see Cadmus) of Thebes, several treatises on Christian doctrineMinyans (q.v.) of Orchomenus, &c., mi- (De Trinitate, Contra Eutychen etgrated to Ionian settlements overseas. Nestorium, &c.). He also undertook,The languages of the invaders and the after learning Greek at Athens, the ardu-older population coalesced in a special ous task of translating the whole of PlatoBoeotian dialect of Greek. The cities of and Aristotle, commenting on them, andthe new Boeotia showed a high degree of showing their essential agreement in philo-the usual Greek spirit of independence, sophical doctrine. This task he was unableand although Thebes was foremost among to accomplish, but he translated thethem, she was unable to impose her rule logical treatises of Aristotle, and alsoupon them. A Boeotian Confederacy was translated and commented on some of theformed, from which Orchomenus held logical treatises of Porphyry. Incidentally,aloof until about 600 B.C. The organiza- by his discussion, in his commentary ontion of the Confederacy was peculiar. Each Porphyry, of the question whether generaof the cities was governed by four councils and species have real existence apart from(boulai), membership of which depended the sensible objects composing them, hoon property qualification. Each council sat initiated the great dispute which was tofor three months in the year, dealing with separate Nominalists and Realists amongthe preliminary consideration of business, the Schoolmen.but decisions were taken by the four coun- But the most famous work of Boethiuscils sitting jointly. Above these municipal was the Consolatio Philosophiae whichbodies was the federal government. The he wrote in prison. It consists of five bookseleven districts of Boeotia each named one in prose interspersed with verso (there areBoeotarch and sixty councillors. Executive 39 short poems, of great beauty, in 13power rested with the Boeotarchs under metres). It opens with some different,the control of the 660 councillors. Each lines dictated by the afflicted melancholydistrict was required to furnish an equal Muses. The Muses are ousted by Philo-contingent to the army. But some of the sophy, who comes to console the prisoner.cities were unwilling members, in particu- She reminds him of the sufferings of otherlar Plataea, which entered into relations thinkers such as Socrates, and invites himwith Athens to protect her independence. to lay bare his troubles. Boo thins setsBoeotia played an equivocal part, if she forth the ingratitude with which hiswas not actively disloyal to the cause of integrity has been met, and laments theGreece, in the Persian Wars. She was injustice. Philosophy reminds triumph ofsubdued (with the exception of Thebes) him of the caprices of Fortune, and of theby Athens in 457 as a result of the vanity of those things, riches, honours,victory of Oenophyta, and was held inpower, which the world esteems good.subjection until 447. The Boeotian Con- The only real good is God. But how, asksfederacy assumed its greatest importance Boethius, under a beneficent God can evilin the 4th c., when, under the leadership exist or pass unpunished (Bk. IV) 1 Philo-of Pelopidas and Epaminondas, Thebes sophy in reply enters upon the mystery(q.v.) reduced Sparta from her position of of good and evil. The gist of her exposi-leadership in Greece. tion is that evil is in fact nothing, and that Boeotia was a rich centre of earlyevil men in the true sense are not ; and iflegend, as shown by the Hesiodic poems, they can persecute the good and go un-and the many religious and oracular sites. punished, they suffer all the more for their The origin of writing was associated with wickedness. Philosophy passes to the the legend of Cadmus (q.v.). Boeotia question of the true nature of Providence became proverbial for the stupidity of its and Chance, and the reconciliation of free Inhabitants, though it was the birthplace will with the foreknowledge possessed by of Pindar, of the poetess Corinna, and of God. Plutarch (qq.v.). The Consolation* is written from aBoethius, ANICIUS MANLIUS SEVEBINUS philosophic, not a Christian, standpoint,
  • 87. Boethus 75 Booksand not mentioned in it. But the Christ is strips. These were placed in two layers,wording shows the Christian influence. so that the fibres in one layer were at rightThe work exercised immense influence in angles to those in the other. The layersthe succeeding ages. That it was very were moistened with water and glue andwidely read is shown by the fact that we pressed together, then dried and polished.possess some four hundred manuscripts of The sheets thus produced, with a maxi-it. was translated, among others, by It mum height of about 15 inches and maxi-King Alfred, by Chaucer, and by Queen mum breadth of about 9 inches, wereElizabeth. It is frequently quoted by glued together side by side so as to formDante, whose famous lines, Nessun mag- a continuous roll (generally 20-30 ft. longgior dolore. . (Inf. v. 121) were sug- . . in Greek rolls). They were called kollemata,gested by Boethius, n. iv. 4 in omni and the first sheet prdtokollon (on whichadversitate fortunae infelicissimum . . . . among the Romans was inscribed the date and place where the roll was made), aBoethus, sec Toreutic Art. word which has survived hi our protocol*. Bona Dea, in Roman a goddess religion, On this roll, in successive columns acrossof unknown name, probably an earth - the direction of its length, the manuscriptspirit protective of women she was some- ; was written with a reed pen. There wastimes identified with Maia, Fauna, or a margin between the columns, and aOps. Rites in her honour were celebrated broader margin above and below. Theannually in December in the house of a width of the column of writing (governedmagistrate with imperium (i.e. a consul, or in the case of poetry by the length of thesometimes a praetor), and were attended line of verse) varied generally from 2 toonly by women; it was these rites which 5 inches. There was no division or spaceClodius (q.v.) profaned by his presence. between the words, and little to help the reader in the way of signs or punctuation.Books, ANCIENT. A short stroke (paragraphos) under the 1. The earliest texts whore there line often indicated the point There is evidence that the art of writing was a pause in the sense, or a change ofgoes back, in Egypt to the third millen- speaker in dramatic texts (but the namenium B.C., in Mesopotamia even earlier, of the speaker was hardly ever given).in the Hittite Empire to the second mil- Titles of books, if given at all, appeared atlennium, and in Crete at least to 2000 B.C. the end, and might be added on a labelThere need, therefore, be no hesitation in (sillubos) of parchment projecting fromadmitting the possibility that Homer the end of the roll. A roller (omphalos,(q.v.) wrote down his poems, for his own umbilicus) might bo attached to the endconvenience if not to bo read by others. of the papyrus, ornamented with project-In the 7th and 6th c. a further stage must ing knobs (cornua). The writing on a rollhave been reached, for it would seem that was generally on one side only, the recto,poems such as those of Archilochus and on which the fibres ran horizontally ; if onSappho must have passed from hand to both, the roll was known as an opistho-hand in manuscript. Later, when tragedies graph. An ordinary roll would contain awere performed, copies must have been book of Thucydides or two or three books available for the actors to learn their of the Iliad*. The rolls comprising a longparts. In Plato and Xenophon we have work or the complete works of an authorreferences to the actual reading of the might bo kept together in a cupboardworks of philosophers and evidence that (L. armdrium) or bucket (L. capsa). Abooks were not expensive. reader would unfold the roll with his right hand, and roll it up, as he proceeded, with 2. The papyrus roll his left. Obviously this form of book was The used for writing in extremely inconvenient. It was impossible chief materialsthe earliest times apart from inscriptions to index and difficult to consult; it lenton stone or metal were clay tablets itself to errors in copying, especially byin Mesopotamia, Syria, and Crete, and uneducated scribes, and the text fre-papyrus in Egypt. In Greece the material quently became corrupted.used at least from the 6th c. appears to ^have been papyrus (also known as bublos, 3. Development of book productionwhence biblion, a book). According to the It appears that at the end oL4me 5th c,descriptions given by Theophrastus (H.P. and hi the early 4th o. boojis existed a)iv. 8. 3) and Pliny (N.H. xiii. 11-12), the Athens in considerable Mfmbers, and^itriangular stem of the papyrus, which trade in books, with it^fentre at A^lfens,grew, principally in the Nile, to the height began; but the practice of reeling (asof 15 feet and the thickness of a mans distinct from oral instanictiorfT did notwrist, was sliced length-wise into thin become firmly efitaWUMd jf&il the time
  • 88. Books 76 Booksof Aristotle. It was he who formed the quires each of several sheets. This lastfirst large collection of manuscripts. (To form ultimately prevailed. The codex ap-this period belongs one of the earliest of pears to have come into use in the 2nd c. *illustrated books, a work on Dissections A.D. The primitive codex was of variouswith diagrams, to which Aristotle makes sizes, generally about 11 x 7 inches orfrequent reference in his treatises on 12 x 8. The manuscript was generallyzoology.) With the organization of the written in one column on a page, some-production of papyrus and later of vellum times in two. The chief advantages of the(see below, 5) by the Hellenistic kings, codex over the roll was that a far greaterand the employment of educated slaves as amount of manuscript could be containedcopyists, the output of books greatly in- in a book of codex form, and that thecreased in the 3rd and subsequent cen- latter was much easier than the roll toturies. The price of the roll of papyrus in handle. Mention should hero be made ofGreece from 408 to about 333 appears to the note-books (tabellac) in use at Rome,have been about two drachmas. In 296 consisting of sheets of wood or otherthe price had fallen to about two obols, material, coated with wax, or whitened,presumably in consequence of the throw- which were fastened together and writtening open of the Egyptian market by Alex- on with a stilus, the coating being easilyanders conquest. But from 279 the price renewed. These may have suggested thehad risen again to two drachmas. This codex form of book a folded set of tablets ;rise may be attributed to the organization was called a caudex or codex. Tho Britishby the Ptolemies (q.v.) of their monopoly Museum possesses parts of a set of tabletsof papyrus. of this description; also stili, reed and The type of book desciibcd above was bronze pens (with split nibs), and Romanintroduced at Rome with Greek literature inkpots.in the 3rd and 2nd cc. B.C. As literaturebecomes more established there in the 1st 5. Vellumc. B.C. and the 1st c. A.D., references to Vellum is a material prepared frombooks and their appearance occur more skins, especially of calves, lambs, andfrequently, particularly in Catullus and kids. According to Pliny, its discoveryMartial (the first book of Martials epi- was due to the rivalry of Ptolemy (prob-grams sold for live denarii a copy; the ably Epiphanes) with Eumencs (probablythirteenth for one denarius). We know Eumenes 11) of Pergamum (q.v.) overthat Atticus (q.v.), who had copyists and their libraries, which led Ptolemy to pro-craftsmen among his slaves, acted as pub- hibit the export of papyrus from Egypt.lisher to Cicero. The Sosii are mentioned This gave rise to the employment of vel-by Horace (Ep. i. xx. 2) as booksellers. lum or parchment (the word parchment*An early illustrated Roman book was the is derived from Pergamum) for the manu-* Hebdomadcs or * Imaginum libri XV * of facture of books at Pergamum. But thereM. Terentius Varro (q.v.), a collection is evidence that Eumenes did not discoverof portraits of celebrated Greeks and vellum, but only extended its use.Romans, with an epigram attached to Vellum did not come into general use foreach. Martial (xiv. 186) refers to a copy book production till much later, thoughof Virgil containing a portrait of the poet it had a marked advantage over papyrusat the beginning. hi its greater durability moreover it was ; better suited than papyrus for writing on 4. The codex both sides. It was not until the 4th c. The next stage in the evolution of the A.D. that it began to take the place ofbook was the gradual substitution of the papyrus in the manufacture of the bestcodex, or book made up of quires of folded books, and the works considered worthsheets, for the roll, and of vclluin for preserving were gradually transferred frompapyrus. Discoveries in Egypt tend to papyrus roll to vellum codex. It is in thisshow that the earliest books in codex form century that the great vellum codices ofwere made of sheets of papyrus, that the the Greek Bible (the Vaticanus and thepapyrus codex was first used for Christian Sinai ticus) were prepared and the earliest ;as distinct from pagan manuscripts (the extant vellum manuscripts of pagan worksBible could only be consulted conveniently date probably from the same century. Forin this form), and that it was thereafter sumptuous books the vellum was some-used principally for manuscripts of this times stained purple. But the use ofclass. The codex took the form either of papyrus did not cease then, and papyrusa large number of quires each consisting manuscripts have been found of the 4th,of a single sheet folded once and sewn 5th, and 6th cc. The roll form was retainedtogether, or of a single quire of as many as for public documents through the Middlefifty sheets folded once, or of a number of Ages to our own times. Tho use of paper
  • 89. Bodies 77 Britainwas introduced from China by the Arabs polis (424 B.C.). See under Thucydides.in the 8th c., but was not generalized till He was one of tho most zealous supportersmuch later. See F. W. Hall, Companion of tho war, and his death in the defence ofto Classical Texts, Oxford, 1913, and Amphipolis (422) against Cleon (q.v.), and *F. G. Kenyon, Books and Readers in the death of Cleon in the same engagement,Ancient Greece and Rome, Oxford, 1932, rendered possible tho Peace of Niciae.on which the above article is mainly based. Brauronia, see Artemis. Also the nameBootes, see Arcturus. of a festival held at Brauron in Attica in honour of Artemis.Boreas, (Boreas), the north wind, L.Aquilo. In Greek mythology, he was the Brennus (1) the leader of the Gauls whohusband of Oreithyla, daughter of Erech- defeated the Romans at tho A Ilia andtheus, and thus specially connected with occupied Rome in 390 B.C., but failed tothe Athenians (see under Winds) by her ; capture the Capitol. For tho legend of thehe was father of Zotes and Calais, who Capitol geese, see Manlius. Legend alsofigure among the Argonauts. relates that when the gold which the Gauls accepted as the ransom of RomeBosporus (Gk. Bosporos), ox-ford, aname applied especially to the Thracian was being weighed, and the Romans (a)Bosporus (now generally known as the complained of false weights, ho threw his sword into the scales, to add even more toBosphorus), tho channel connecting the the quantity, exclaiming Vae victis . Sea of Marmora with the Black Sea; (2) Tho leader of the Gauls or Galatianstho name was sometimes associated withthe myth of lo (q.v.); (b) tho Cimmerian who in 280-279 B.C. invaded Pae6nia and Macedonia and thence Greece (see Mace-Bosporus, connecting the Black Sea with donia, 3). He was opposed by a force ofthe Sea of Azov. Athenians and others at Thermopylae andBoudicca, in Anglicized form Boadicca defeated at Delphi. Ho died of wounds in(q.v., and see Britain, 2). 278, and the Gauls retreated with greatBoule, the Council or Senate in Greek loss.city-states. It existed at Athens (q.v., Briareos see Giants (L. Briareus), 2) from primitive times and was reor- (Hundred-handed).ganized by Solon and Cloisthenes (qq.v.).At Sparta (q.v.) it was known as tho Briseis, see Iliad.Oerousia. Tho Boule at Athens had general Britain (Britannia).charge of foreign policy (subject to refer-ence to tho Ecclcsia in grave cases), exer- 1. Britain before the Roman conquestcised a general supervision over tho Tho ancients had some knowledge ofadministration, notably tho finances, pre- Britain from tho time of Alexander thopared legislation for the Ecclesia, and Great, when it was visited and describedhad certain limited judicial functions. It by Pytheas (q.v.), but the Romans firsttried officials charged with misconduct, became interested in it owing to the con-and occasionally persons charged with quests of Julius Caesar. Early geographersoffences against the safety or interests of called tho British Isles tho Protanic Isles,the State. For tho Prytany or executive from a Celtic name which survives in thocommittee of the Boule, see Clcisthencs. old Welsh Priten* and tho Irish Crui- thin, and which means painted* orBoustrophedon, see Epigraphy, 2. tattooed translated into Latin it became ;Branchidae, a family that had charge of Picti, the Picts. In the time of Juliusthe temple of Apollo near Miletus. They Caesar tho Celtic tongue was spoken overwere accused of betraying the treasure of the greater part, if not the whole, ofthe temple to Xerxes, and their lives were Britain; but the inhabitants of differentthreatened by the Milesians. Xerxes trans- regions had not reached tho same stage ofported them to Sogdiana, where they were civilization. Archaeological evidence showssafe from pursuit. Many generations later that from perhaps as early as the 6th o.Alexander the Great (q.v.) came upon B.C. successive invasions of people of onetheir town when pursuing Bessus. With or other type of Iron Age civilization hadsingular cruelty Alexander caused their penetrated to various parts of tho island,town to be demolished and the inhabitants where in general a Late Bronze Age cul-to be massacred, in punishment for their ture still prevailed. Julius Caesar foundancestors crime. Bast Kent and parts of Herts and EssexBrasidas (Brasidas), a Spartan general occupied by vigorous Belgic settlers, whoin the Peloponnesian War, an energetic had established themselves only about aand successful commander. His principal generation earlier. They had brought withachievement was the capture of Amphi- them the use of coinage (see below, 3)
  • 90. Britain 78 Britainand of the heavy wheeled plough, suited (Colchester). No further attempt to con-for the cultivation of the stronger soils. quer Britain was made by the RomansBeyond this Belgic area lay a more back- until the reign of Claudius, though Augus-ward zone, combining elements of Bronze tus was thought by his contemporaries toand Iron Age civilizations. Its inhabitants have intended it and Gams (Caligula)were primitiveagriculturists, living in hut planned an invasion. In A.D. 43 a forcevillages. The Trinovantes, Iceni, and consisting of four legions (the Second,Kegni (see PL 12) were its most promi- Ninth, Fourteenth, and Twentieth) andnent tribes. To the west of these, in the auxiliaries, under Aulus Plautius, landedCotswolds, Somerset, and Dorset, lived a at Rutupiae (Richborough) and addressedwealthier and more advanced population, itself to the subdual of the realm ofsuperior to the Belgae in artistic culture, Cunobelinus, which had lately passed tothough their inferiors in agricultural skill. his sons. The Romans won a decisiveTo the NE., in Lincolnshire and York- victory on the Medway. Claudius himselfshire, a warrior race of a similar civiliza- subsequently arrived with reinforcements,tion were establishing their dominion over advanced to Colchester, and received thea Bronze Age population and founding the submission of many tribes. Caratacus, thekingdom of the Brigantes. A sketch of the more energetic of the sons of Cunobelinus,state of Britain at this time is contained escaped to foment resistance to Romein R. G. Collingwood, Roman Britain* among the Silurcs of Wales. The territory(Oxford, 1936), on which the present of Cunobelinus was made a Roman pro-article is based. vince, with Colchester as its capital. At It is probable that Caesar intended to least three client kingdoms, of the Iceni toconquer the island. Britain, to which the the north of the province, of the Brigantespower of certain Gaulish chiefs extended, further north, and of the Rcgni in W.was a refuge for disaffected Gauls and a Sussex, were established. Plautius wascentre of fanatical Druidism (see under left as governor, with orders to subdue thoGaul, 2). His first expedition, in 55 B.C., rest of the country. This ho set aboutwas in the nature of a reconnaissance, and doing by means of three columns movinghis ships suffered severely from a storm respectively N., NW., and W., with theirwhen at anchor or beached at some point base and supply depot at London. P.NE. of Dover. The invasion of the follow- Ostorius Scapula, the successor of Plautiusing year was a more serious affair. A in 47, drew a frontier line across the coun-fleet of 28 warships and 540 transports try, from Scaton in Devonshire, throughconveyed the Roman force (including five Bath, Cirencester, High Cross (where itlegions) to a point between Dover and met Walling Street), Leicester, Newark,Sandwich. In the operations that fol- and Lincoln. This line was tho road knownlowed, Caesar crossed the Thames to as tho Fosse, and it was fortified andattack the Belgic chief Cassivellaunus patrolled to check raids from beyond.(who had assumed command of the British Ostorius then established a fortress prob-forces), captured his principal stronghold ably at Gloucester to control concentra-at Wheathampstead, and forced him to tions of tho Silures; also a colonm ofmake terms. Trouble in Gaul obliged veterans at Colchester. In 51 he advancedCaesar to forgo further operations, and into central Wales against Caratacus andhe returned across the Channel. His fleet defeated him. Caratacus fled to Carti-had again suffered heavy losses from a gale.mandua, queen of the Brigantes; but Cartimandna had submitted to Rome and 2* The conquest and occupation of Britain surrendered him to the victors, who kept During the period which followed him in honourable captivity. (CaratacusCaesars invasion a second migration of figures as Caratach in Beaumont andBelgic tribes to Britain took place. It was Fletchers Bonduca.) The Silures,led by Commius, a Gaulish chief who had though defeated, were not reduced, andserved Caesar during his invasion, but had although Cartimandua had made hersince supported the insurrection of Ver- submission, there was a strong anti-cingetorix. His followers landed in the Roman faction among her subjects.neighbourhood of Southampton and spread In 59 C. Siletonius Paulinus, a dis-over central southern England. The ener- tinguished military commander, becamegetic king Cunobelinus (Cymbeline), who governor of Britain. He penetrated intohad inherited the realm of Cassivellaunus N. Wales and reached Anglesey (61),and ruled c. A.D. 5-40, extended his where he was confronted by a body ofdominions over Herts., Kent, Essex, Beds., Druids and their fanatical supporters,Bucks., and part of Surrey, and became whom he put to the sword. But Paulinusthe most important ruler in south-eastern was now recalled by grave news. On theEngland. His capital was Camulodunum death of Prasutagus, king of the Iceni,
  • 91. Britain 79 BritainNero decided to abolish his client kingdom and with seventeen forts at 30-ft. ditch,and to incorporate the territory in the intervals along it, and mile-castles (as theyI toman province. The measure was car- are now called) and signal towers betweenried out by the emperors procurator with the forts. The rampart, 73 miles long, wasgreat cruelty, and the late kings widow, formed by a stone wall eight to ten feetBoudicca (Boadlcea), and her daughters thick and twenty feet high. This giganticwere subjected to gross outrage. A revolt work was built by legionaries, being par-of the Iceni was lod by Boudicca and celled out in lengths of 31 to 50 yards tospread to the Trinovantes. Colchester was individual centuries, as we learn fromdestroyed. The Ninth Legion under Q. inscriptions on the Wall. Three legionsPetillius Cerialis came to tho rescue, but were employed on it. Part of tho westernwas almost annihilated. London and end was built by men of tho fleet. ThoVerulam were burnt and their inhabitants work was designed as an obstacle tomassacred. It is said that 70,000 perished. raiders from tho north, rather than as anSuetonius had hurried back from Wales actual fortification to resist attack. It waswith his cavalry, but had been unable to garrisoned by auxiliary regiments in thesave the cities. He rejoined his infantry forts and a patrolling force in addition.in the midlands, and with 10,000 men met Altogether, including its supporting sta-the far more numerous but unwieldy force tions, it absorbed two -thirds of the auxili-of Boudicca and utterly destroyed it. The ary troops in Britain.queen took poison. Ruthless vengeance In 140-2, under Antoninus Pius, theon the British followed, until tho new governor, Q. Lollius Urbicus, advancedimperial procurator, Julius Classicianus, once more to the line of the Forth andappealed to Nero to replace Suetonius by Clyde and built across the peninsula aa more humane governor and to adopt a wall and ditch, 37 miles long, of much lesspolicy of conciliation; and this was done. elaborate construction. The wall was ofThe tomb of Classicianus, this benefactor turf and clay, with forts two miles apart,of the British, was found in London and is but without intermediate towers. To-in the British Museum. gether with a transplantation of natives, In 71 Q. Petillius Cerialis, tho military it formed part of a scheme for holding thecommander above mentioned, was made Lowlands in subjection. About the yeargovernor of Britain. He had fought with 180, under the emperor Commodus, tribesdistinction, not only against Boudicca but from the north swept over it and destroyedalso in quelling the rebellion of Civilis in a Roman force. The rising was suppressedGaul. He conquered the greater part of in 184, but before the end of the centurythe Brigantian territory and established the Antonine Wall, having proved useless,the Ninth Legion at Eburacum (York), was abandoned. In the last years of thewhich became the chief Roman military century tho governor, Clodius Albinus,centre in northern England. His successor declared himself emperor, and, takingin 74, Sextus Julius Frontinus (q.v.), sub- troops from Britain, crossed to Gaul,dued the Silures and built a new fortress where he was defeated by Septimiusat Caerleon-on-Usk. Cn. Julius Agricola Severus in 197 and committed suicide.(q.v.), the father-in-law of Tacitus, who His withdrawal of troops from Hadrianssucceeded him in 78, completed his work Wall gave the barbarian tribes their op-in Wales, built a fortress at Deva (Chester), portunity: great stretches of the Wall wereoverran the whole of Brigantia, and in- systematically wrecked by them, and thevaded the lowlands of Scotland, reaching destruction of Roman fortresses extendedthe line of the Forth and the Clyde in 81. to York and Chester. The Wall and for-In 83 ho moved farther north and over- tresses were repaired by Severus, a lengthycame in 84 the assembled Caledonian forces process which lasted from 197 to 208 and ;at the unidentified site of Mount Graupius, Severus then in person conducted a puni-probably near Forfar or Brechin. But the tive expedition into Scotland, almostmilitary efforts of Rome were required reaching, it is said, its northern extremity.on the Rhine and Danube, Agricola was He died at York, worn out with his labours,recalled by Domitian, and at or soon after in 211. For the greater part of a centurythe end of the 1st c. Scotland was aban- after this Roman Britain enjoyed securitydoned. and nothing of moment occurred. Under Trajan it appears that the Early in the reign of Diocletian (284-frontier was drawn on a line across Britain 305) Saxon and Frankish pirates becamebetween the Solway and the Tyne. This troublesome in the Channel Seas. Carau-policy took its definite form under sius, a native of the Low Countries, wasHadrian. The frontier or limes, as fully appointed to the command of the fleet,developed under this emperor, consisted the Classis Britonnica, which had beenof a military road defended by a rampart maintained in the Channel since the 1st o.
  • 92. Britain 80 BritainHe dealt successfully with the pirates, but the Vale of York was never recovered. Inimproperly retained the booty. His arrest 401 or 402 Stilicho withdrew troops fromand execution were ordered. Thereupon Britain for the Gothic war. The remaininghe crossed to Britain and declared himself garrison was inadequate, but Rome itselfemperor, with Britain and part of Gaul was in danger from Alaric, and Honoriusas an independent empire (286 or 287). was unable to send help he left the tribal ;Maximian, the colleague of Diocletian, authorities to do the best they could forattacked him, but was defeated at sea, and themselves against invaders. The rest ofCarausius was recognized as one of the the story is obscure. There may have beenemperors. His government of Britain was a temporary re-occupation by Rome, butefficient and successful. But his recogni- Roman government appears in any casetion had been a measure dictated only by to have come to an end before 429. Theexpediency. In 296 Constantius, who traces of it are chiefly seen to-day inhad been appointed Caesar by Diocletian, Hadrians Wall, the Roman roads, and themoved against Allectus, the murderer cities that the Romans founded.and successor of Carausius, defeated, and 3. Britain under the Romansslew him. Constantius repaired HadriansWall, which the northern tribes had taken One of the most prominent features ofadvantage of this struggle again partially the Roman occupation is that under itto destroy. He also erected forts on the properly planned cities, an essential ele-Saxon Shore* (from the Wash to Ports- ment of Roman civilization, were built inmouth) as a protection against raiders, a country whore previously there had beenand also on the west coast (against in- nothing better than shapeless clusters ofcursions of the Scots of Ireland). In the huts. The process was a gradual one, butcourse of a successful punitive war against by the end of the 1st c. there were athe tribes of Scotland, Constantius died number of such cities, tribal capitals suchat York in 306 and was succeeded as as Venta Belgarum (Winchester), Novio-Caesar by his eon Constantino (q.v.), who magus (Chichestcr), Corimum (Cirences-was with him in Britain. From the time tor), Durnovaria (Dorchester), or coloniaeof the reign of Constans, who succeeded such as Camulodunum (Colchester),Constantino in 337, trouble with Picts, Glevum (Gloucester), Lindum (Lincoln),Scots, Saxons, and Franks became in- and Eburacum (York). According to theircreasingly serious. In 368 Britain was general plan, these cities had their streetsattacked on three sides (the Wall, the laid out at right angles, a forum (q.v.) inW. coast, and the SE.), and the country the centre, a basilica or town hall, andwas overrun by barbarians. The emperor, public jaths. The cities were (then orValentinian, sent a strong force to Britain later) surrounded with walls, and anunder Theodosius, a Spaniard and a cap- amphitheatre outside the walls providedable military commander. Theodosius for the amusement of the citizens. Aquaedrove out the invaders and once more Sulis (Bath) was a luxurious health-resort,repaired the Wall. It was under his and Londinium, which became the capitaladministration that the name of Augusta at an unknown date before the time of thewas given to London; but this official Antonines, was from the first importantname never became current among the as a commercial centre and militarypeople. In 383, when Gratian had suc- depot.ceeded his father Valentinian, Magnus The occupation of the bulk of the peopleMaximus, a Spaniard holding high com- was agriculture. Those engaged in it livedmand in Britain, claimed the empire of in villages or villas. The latter were iso-the west, and crossed to Gaul, taking lated farm-houses, romanized in architec-with him the best troops from Britain. ture and arrangements. They were occu-Hadrians Wall now finally succumbed to pied by wealthy landowners or well-to-dothe northern tribes and was never restored. farmers, and they included quarters for theIts remains to-day are an impressive wit- labourers of the farm. They appear toness to the thoroughness and resolution of have flourished and increased in numbersthe Romans. In 395 the emperor Theo- till the middle of the 4th c., when theirdosius, eon of the Theodosius above re- defenceless condition exposed them to theferred to, declared his son Honorius em- inroads of the barbarians. Traces of someperor of the west, and left his general, 500 of them have been found.Stilicho, as regent of Britain. If we may While the delicate Celtic art of the pre-trust the laudatory poems of Claudian, Roman period was ousted by the coarserStilicho had by the end of the century art of the Roman empire, industry de-freed Britain from the invasions of Picts, veloped under the occupation, and pro-Scots, and Saxons but it is probable that duced to an increasing extent pottery, ;the Roman hold of the country north of ironmongery, and in general everything
  • 93. Britain 81 Drututneeded for everyday romanized life. There a vivid reconstruction of life in isMineral deposits, especially lead and iron, Britain towards the end of the Romanwere actively worked. The production of occupation in some of the chapters ofwoollen cloth was developed. By the end Kiplings Puck of Pooks Hill.of the 2nd c. little was imported exceptwine and Britomartis (said by the epitomizer Exports included cattle, oil.iron, hides,and slaves. Whether there was Sollnus to bo a Cretan word, meaning sweet maid), a Cretan goddess, probablya surplus of wheat for export is uncertain. Roman roads in Britain were at first of fertility, sometimes identified with the Greek Artemis (q.v.). Like her she borebuilt for military purposes during the con- the name Dictynna (perhaps from OIKTVOV,quest. The system (so far as it has been a fishing net), a title explained by thetraced) ultimately extended to some 5,000miles of metalled roads. It radiated from legend that Minos (q.v.) loved her, andLondon and was apparently designed to that running away from him she leaptmeet military and official requirements, over a clifl? into the sea, was caught inthat is rapid communication between fishermens nets, and rescued by Artemis.fortresses, coloniae, and tribal capitals. It According to another story she fled towas supplemented by roads of less solid Acgina, where, still pursued by Minos, shoconstruction to meet the needs of local escaped under the protection of Artemis,traffic. See also Roads. and came to bo worshipped under tho name of Apliaia, the patron goddess of tho Coinage had been introduced by Belgic island. Dictynna may be from Dicte (q.v.)immigrants. After their settlement coinsbegan to bo struck in the island. The coins Bromius (Bromios), a name of Bacchuswere imitations of those of Belgic tribes (see Dionysus), signifying noisy *, boister- of northern Gaul, which in turn were ous , from pptptiv, to roar.debased imitations of the gold stater ofPhilip II of Macedon. By the time of Brontes, see Cyclopes.Cunobelinus a tendency had set in to Brundisium or BRUNDUSIUM, a harbourimitate contemporary Roman models and on the Adriatic coast of ; Italy (tho modernthis became the prevailing stylo of coinage Brindisi), of importance as the starting-in SE. Britain before the Roman con- point for tho crossing to Greece, Epirus,.quest. Subsequently Roman coins were and other eastern countries. The Viaintroduced, and also imitated. In the late Appia (q.v.) connected it with Rome. The3rd c., when the coinage of the empire was Via Egnatia, starting from Dyrrhachiumin disorder, Carausius, and later Constan- on the opposite coast of the Adriatic, ledtino I, opened an official mint in Britain. to Byzantium. It was from Bnmdisium The Roman occupation did not deeply that Cicero and Ovid set out on theiraffect religion in Britain. The conquest respective exiles, and it is a journey toput an end to the Druids (see under Brundisium that Horace describes inGaul, 2), whose fanatical nationalistic Satire I. v. Lucan in the Pharsalia*organization was a source of danger to the (q.v.) relates Pompeys departure fromRomans. But the remaining religious the same port, and Tacitus (Ann. iii. 1),system of the Britons, an easy poly- the arrival there of Agrippina bringingtheism, consisting generally of local cults, homo the ashes of Germanicus.met with no hostility from the conquerors,who required in addition only official Brutus, or De Claris Ordtoribus, aparticipation in the imperial cult. Indeed treatise by Cicero on eminent orators,this polytheism harmonized and to some written about 45 B.C.extent blended with that of the Romans ; It purports to record a recent conversa-and there was some identification of tion between Cicero, M. Junius Brutus,,Roman gods (especially Mars) with Celtic and Atticus(qq.v.), in which Cicero, afterdeities. Gradually the latter became pre- a short discourse on Greek eloquence,dominant in Roman Britain. Eastern reviews the long series of Roman oratorsreligions, such as the worship of Mithras from Brutus the liberator, but more par-(who had his temples on the Wall), Isis, ticularly from Cethegus, consul in 204 B.C.,and Serapis, were introduced, but their the marrow of persuasion* according todevotees belonged principally to the army. Ennius, to his own times, giving a briefThe date of the introduction of Christian- notice of each. A few of the most eminentity in the island is uncertain; it may be orators, especially Crassus, ADtonius, Q.placed with probability in the 2nd c., and Scaevola, and Hortensius (qq.v,), are dis-it became prominent early in the 4th c., cussed at greater length ; and Cicero addswhen Alban of Verulam suffered martyr- some interesting information about him-dom, and British bishops attended the self, his early life and training as an orator,Council of Axles. and gradual rise to tho highest position. 4339 G
  • 94. Brutus 82 BusirisBrutus, Ltfcius JttNius, according to realm that is meet for thee, for MacedonRoman tradition, the nephew of Tar- will not hold thee. Bucephalus carriedquinius Superbus, king of Rome (see Alexander in his eastern campaigns and.Rome, 2). He assumed the disguise of a strong mutual affection grew up betweenidiocy to escape the fate of his brother, horse and rider. Bucephalus died in India,who had been put to death by their uncle. when thirty years old, and AlexanderOn the occasion of the outrage on Lucretia founded the city of Bucephala in northern(q.v.), he led the rising against the Tar- India in his horses honour.quins and liberated the city. He was oneof the first two Roman consuls. Ho is said Bucolic or PASTORAL poetry, that is to concerned with the life andto have put to death his own sons, who say poetry loves of herdsmen, had its origin in Sicily,attempted to restore the Tarquins. whore it was a national type of song,Brutus, MARCUS JtfNius (78?-42 B.C.), and was said to have been created byson of a half-sister of Cato of Utica (q.v.), the legendary Daphnis (q.v.). It wasan ardent supporter of republican prin- developed by Theocritus (q.v.), and prac-ciples, and an idealist rather than a tised after him by Bion and Moschus, andpractical statesman. He married Porcia, later by Virgil (qq.v.).daughter of Cato. In the Civil War of 49 see Texts and Studies,ho joined the Pompeians, but was par- Budaeus, 10.doned after Pharsalus by Caesar, who Bulla, see Clothing, 6.made him governor of Cisalpine Gaul in Burial and Cremation. The method of46 and praetor in 44. Nevertheless, from disposal of the dead varied among thohonest and unselfish conviction, Brutus Greeks at different times. In the pre-joined the conspiracy for the assassination historic age known as Mycenaean, it wasof Caesar. It is related that Caesar gave the custom to bury the bodies. In theup the struggle against his murderers Homeric poems, the bodies are burnt onwhen he saw Brutus among them, ex- a pyre. In historical times it appears thatclaiming Vat au, TCKVOV ! or Et tu, BruteI both methods were practised. There areAfter the assassination Brutus went to references to burial in the Greek dramaticthe East, seized Macedonia, and with poets. On the other hand urns surviveCassius prepared to resist the triumvirs. containing the calcined remains of theAntony and Octavian marched against dead. It was customary to place a cointhem and confronted them at Philippi in tho dead persons mouth as a fee to (q.v.). Cassius took his own life after the Charon for his service as ferryman. Greekfirst (inconclusive) engagement; Brutus tombs v ore usually placed on the sides of killed himself after his defeat a fortnight roads leading from the city. The funerallater in the second engagement (42). The monument was usually a slab (stele) or tragedy of Brutus is vividly depicted in column, or simply a mound, with anShakespeares Julius Caesar*. inscription for identifying the dead. At Another side of Brutuss character, a later period it became the custom to addknown to us from Ciceros correspondence, laudatory verses.Is brought out in his financial dealings At Rome also both methods of disposalwith the people of Salamis in Cyprus. He were practised, as appears from the Twelvelent money to the town at 48 per cent, Tables (q.v.); but cremation graduallyinterest, and was prepared to go to any became withlength to recover the debt. On one tho Cornelian gens, whichnotably prevalent (except adhered tooccasion his agents shut several prominent burial). The ashes of the more wealthySalaminians in the senate-house and kept in an urn under- werethem there without food, until some died. neath generally placed the side of one of a monument byWhen Cicero, as governor of Cilicia, re- the great roads leading from Rome. Urnsfused material aid for the recovery of the of the poorer classes were placed in adebt, Brutus was much aggrieved. joint tomb, called columbdrium, contain-Bucephalus (Boukephalos), the horse of ing numerous niches.Alexander the Great. Plutarch relates J. B., see Historians (Modern).that when first offered to Philip of Mace- Bury,don for sale, it was found so wild and un- Busiris (Bcrusiris), according to Greekmanageable that Philip ordered it to be mythology a son of Poseidon and king ofsent back. But Alexander, observing that Egypt. To avert drought it was his cus-it shied at its own shadow, turned its head tom, on the advice of a seer (by nameto the sun, then caressed and soothed Phrasios or Thrasios), to sacrifice strangersit, and finally mounted and mastered it. to Zeus. The seer was his first victim.When he dismounted his father said, kiss- When Heracles came to Egypt hi hisIng him, O son, them must needs have a quest for the apples of the Hesperides, he
  • 95. Byzantine Age of Greek Literature 83 Cadmusallowed himself to be led to the altar, but sive), and paid them huge sums in black-then broke loose and slew Busiris and his mail, recompensing itself from tolls of thefollowing. See also Isocrates. straits, which involved it in a war with Rhodes. It subsequently passed into theByzantine Age of Greek Literature, a Romanterm applied to the period from the closing empire, and was chosen by Con- stantino (q.v.) for his new capital (A.D. 330).of the Athenian schools by Justinian inA.D. 529 to the fall of Constantinople in1453. (Sometimes, but less conveniently,it is reckoned as beginning in A.D. 330, the Cdate of the founding of Constantinople.) Cabiri (Kabeiroi), gods of fertility, wor-The period produced few Greek writers shipped in Asia Minor, and especially atof importance. Greek literature had come Samothrace; also in parts of northernunder various foreign influences, Roman, Greece and in Boeotia. They were alsoEastern, Christian, and had lost much of regarded as protectors from dangers,its original distinctive character. Never- especially those of the sea.theless the age rendered an important ser-vice in the preservation and transmission Gacus, in Roman legend, a monster orof classical works. Its writers, apart from brigand who lived in a cave on tho Aven- tine (see Rome, 1). As Hercules wastheologians, were much occupied withlexicons and literary commentaries, and driving home the cattle of Geryon (seewith the explanation and emendation of Heracles), he rested at tho site of theold texts. History continued to be written future Rome. Cacus stole some of the cattle and drew them into his cave, tail(see Anna Comnena); also legal commen-taries. There was much copying of old foremost so as to escape discovery. Her- cules departed without perceiving theMSS. The preservation of so much of the theft but the lowing of his other oxen wasold Greek writers as we possess is due ;to the enlightenment of such eminent answered by those in the cave. Herculesecclesiastics as PHOTIUS (patriarch 857- then attacked Cacus, slew him, and re- covered his cattle. Cacus was probably an886), an industrious lexicographer and ancient Roman deity, perhaps a fire-god.good literary critic, and his pupil ARETIIAS(archbishop of Cacsarea c. 90732), whose Cadmea (Kadmeid), the citadel ofcopy of Plato, discovered in a neglected Thebes, named after Cadmus (q.v.). It was treacherously seized by Phoebidas thoheap of volumes on the floor of the libraryat Patmos, is now in the Bodleian. See Spartan c. 382 B.C. (see Sparta, 4) and re-also Procopius, Suidas, Texts and Studies,covered by the bold stroke of Pelopidas 4 (for Tzetzes and Eustathius), and (q.v.) with Athenian support.Anthologies. Cadmus (Kadmos), (1) in Greek mytho-Byzantium (Buzantion), a city on the logy, son of Agenor (king of Tyre),European shore at the mouth of the Thra- brother of Europa and uncle of Minoscian Bosporus (q.v.), the site of the future (qq.v.), and consequently connected byConstantinople, a position of great im- legend with Phoenicia and Crete. Whenportance as commanding tho entrance Zeus carried off Europa, Agenor sentto the Euxine. It was first established Cadmus to seek her. By the advice of theby Megarian colonists (c. 657 B.C.). It Delphic oracle Cadmus alter a timestood opposite to Chalcedon, which, it is abandoned the search; he was told tosaid, was founded first, and tho choice follow a cow which he should meet andof the western position was due to tho found a city where it first lay down. TheDelphic oracle, which bade the Megarians cow led him to the site of Thebes, whereplace the new city opposite the city of the Cadmus founded tho Cadmea, the citadel ofblind men, owing to the superior advan- the future city. Here he sent his com-tages of the European shore. With the panions to fetch water from a spring forspread of tho Persian empire in the 6th c. sacrifice; a dragon guarding the springB.C. it came under tho Persian yoke, then killed the companions and was thenalternately under Spartan and Athenian destroyed by Cadmus. By Athenes in-dominion in the 5th and 4th cc., and, after struction, he sowed tho dragons teeth,revolting from the second Athenian League and from them armed warriors sprangin 357, enjoyed a position of independence up. These he set fighting by throwing ain the second half of tho 4th and hi the stone among them, and they killed each3rd c. and became a federate ally of Rome other until only five survived (perhapsat the time of the Third Macedonian War. the origin of the proverbial CadmeanIt suffered severely from its barbarian Victory, Hdt. 1. 166). These five, the Sparti (Spartoi, sown men ), helped to 1neighbours (Thracians, in the mid 3rd c.,and Celts, who were particularly aggres- build the Cadmea and were the ancestors
  • 96. Gaecilius Statius Caesarof the noble families of Thebes. Cadmus claiming royal descent, but his sympathiesmarried Hannonia, daughter of Ares and were not with the aristocratic party. HeAphrodite, and gave her as wedding was nephew (by the marriage of his aunt)present a necklace, the work of Hephae- of Marius, and husband of Cornelia,stus, a beautiful but unlucky jewel, which Chinas daughter, whom he refused tosubsequently proved the source of many divorce at Sullas bidding, a refusal thatmisfortunes (see Amphiaraus, Alcmaeon). nearly cost him his head. He fled toTheir daughters were Ino, Semele (qq.v.), Bithynia, and either then or on a sub-Autonou (who married Aristaeus and sequent voyage to Rhodes to studybecame mother of Actaeon, qq.v.) and rhetoric, is said to have been taken byAgave, the mother of Pentheus (see pirates, who were amused by his confidentBacchae). Cadmus and Harmonia after bearing and his threat to have them cruci-a time retired to Illyria, and there wore fied. Having regained his liberty, heturned into serpents and carried to Ely- manned some ships, captured the pirates,sium. Cadmus is said to have civilized the recovered his ransom, and carried out hisBoeotians and to have taught them the use threat. In the second Mithridatic Warof letters. Here the~myth is a reflection of (83-81) he first distinguished himself ashistorical fact, for the Greek alphabet is a soldier at the siege of Mityleno. In 80largely derived from Phoenician script. he became prominent among those who (2) Cadmus of Miletus, see Logogra- opposed the Sullan settlement. But itphi (1). was not till 68 that be became quaestorCaecilius Statius (c. 219-*. 166 B.C.), in Spain. Ho was aedile hi 65 and nearlya Gaul from northern Italy, brought to ruined himself by tho gladiatorial showsRome as a slave and subsequently manu- and public buildings with which ho en-mitted. Ho was a friend of Ennius and deavoured to secure popularity. He sup-the chief comic dramatist of his day; ported Catilines candidature for thoindeed he was ranked first of all Roman consulship and was suspected of beingcomic writers by Sedigitus (see Comedy, privy to his conspiracy. In 63 he was 5). He came in point of time and also, elected praetor for the year 62, and, to theit would seem from the little we know of disgust of the aristocrats, pontifex maxi-it, in the qualities of his work, between mus (q.v.) as well. His propraetorship inPlautus and Terence. Many of his titles Spain was highly successful and incident-are identical with titles of Mcnanders ally enabled him to clear off his debts.plays. Gellius (N.A. n. xxiii) has an Returning to Rome in 60 he made a com-elaborate comparison between passages pact with Pompey and Crassus (the first *in a play of Menandcr and in its adapta- triumvirate) by which Caesar was to betion by Caocilius. For the anecdote about consul in 59 and the requirements of theCaecilius and Terence, see Terence. other two were satisfied Pompey married ; Caesars daughter, Julia. From 58 to 49Caelius Rufus, MARCUS, son of a banker Caesar was proconsul in Gaul and Illyri-at Puteoli, was a pupil and friend of Cicero, cum, conducting the wonderful series ofwhose correspondence contains a number campaigns described in his Commentariesof letters from the young man. He was (q.v.), by which he not only carried theclever, vivacious, unprincipled, and un- Roman dominion to the Atlantic and thestable. He joined Catiline for a time, English Channel, but established his ownsupplanted Catullus as lover of Clodia, reputation as a great general and attachedwas accused by her of an attempt to to himself a devoted army. The compactpoison her, and was defended by Cicero. with Pompey and Crassus had been re-Ho became a distinguished orator in the newed at Luca in 56; but tho death ofcourts, and in the Civil War joined the Crassus in 53 and the estrangement ofcause of Caesar. As praetor in 48 B.C.he advanced subversive proposals for the Pompey from Caesar following the death of Julia in 54 put an end to the league.abolition of debt and rent, and headed The opposition of Pompey and the Senatewith Milo (q.v.) a rising against Caesar in to Caesars plans for retaining: office, andS. Italy. This was suppressed and Caelius the intention of his enemies to prosecutewas killed. him as soon as he relinquished it, broughtCaesar, Gilus JCLIUS, was born prob- matters to a head. Early in 49, Caesar atably in 102 B.C. (Mornmsens date; the the head of the 13th Legion crossed thotraditional date is 100), and was assassin- Rubicon into Italy to enforce his demands,ated on the 15th March 44 B.C. He was, and launched tho first Civil War. Hiswith the possible exception of Lucretius success was rapid. Pompey was out-and one or two others (see Birthplaces), manoeuvred and driven from Italy, andthe only great classical writer actually Caesar became master of Rome almostborn mRome. He belonged to a family without a blow. He showed a politic
  • 97. Caesar 85 Caesarclemency to the defeated, in strong con- (Canto xxxiv). For Caesar combined pre-trast with the action of earlier Roman eminently the qualities of statesmanshipleaders. In the same year (49), by a and generalship, discernment, determina-brief and brilliant campaign he forced tion, promptitude, and clemency.the surrender of the Pompeian army in His Commentaries (q.v.) on the GallicSpain, where it held a strong position War and the unfinished three books onat Ilerda. In 48 Caesar followed Pompey the Civil War are his only extant works.to jEplrus, finally defeated him at Phar- The former, unadorned, straightforward,salus, and pursued him to Egypt, to find and detached, are at once military narra-he had been murdered. After some months tives of surpassing interest and a skilfullyof dalliance with Cleopatra (q.v.) Caesar concealed justification of the authorspassed to Syria and Asia Minor, where his actions. They were probably written ineasy defeat of Pharnaces at Zela in 47 was the winter of 52-51. They contain nothe occasion of his well-known message to argument or comment, but allow eventsRome *Veni, vidi, vici*. After a brief stay to tell their own tale in his favour, within Rome he was called upon to face Cato perhaps an omission here and there whereand the other members of the senatorial the facts would serve his opponents. The *party supported by Juba in Africa. Civil War* is rather more of a politicalThese he defeated with great slaughter at pamphlet. The impassive calm and re-Thapsus in 46. His last campaign was in straint of the narratives are occasionallySpain, against the sons of Pompey and the relieved with a human touch or a flash ofsurvivors of Thapsus ; it was closed by the sardonic humour.victory of Munda (45). Less than a year The Eighth Book of tho Gallic War islater, in the midst of uncompleted schemes a continuation by A. Hirtius. Other con-for the reorganization of Rome and the tinuations of tho story of his wars are theempire, ho was assassinated by a band of * Bcllum Af ricum on Caesars conflict withthose whom his measures had offended, Cato and Juba, and the Bellum Alexan-led by M. Brutus and C. Cassius whom drinum and Bcllum Ilispaniense onho had pardoned after Pharsalus. His those campaigns. The authorship of theseamazing energy had already done much, is uncertain.in the brief intervals of his campaigns, to Caesar found time for some minor worksfound a new regime. Pharsahis had made which have not survived: a treatise onhim an autocrat and ho had used his grammar (De Analogia) written duringpower to re-establish order, to restore the a journey across the Alps an astronomi- ;economic situation, to extend the fran- cal work (Do Astris); and two books ofchise of the provincials, to regulate taxa- Anticatones in reply to Ciceros panegy-tion, and to reform tho calendar. He had ric of Cato. Caesar was an orator of theother projects, such as that of codifying severe Attic school, simple and restrainedthe law and establishing a public library. in style; Cicero in his Brutus paid aHis measures showed breadth of view high tribute to tho elegance and dignity ofand were conceived on a popular basis, his speeches. Wo have lives of Caesar bybut were carried out with a contempt of Plutarch and Suetonius. According to therepublican institutions which was in part tradition recorded by tho latter he wasthe cause of his assassination. But Rome tall, pale, with black keen eyes and fullhad outgrown her ancient constitution, lips, and scrupulous about his appearance.and his murder was a foolish crime, as He had by Cleopatra a son, Caesarion (q.v.).Dante judged when he placed Brutus andCassius in the lowest circle of tho Inferno Caesar, RELATIONS BY MARRIAGE OF.
  • 98. Caesarion 86 Calendar and measure of timeCaesarion (Caeaarid or Caesaridn), the The intercalary month was generally, butson of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra (q.v.). not always, a second Poseideon. The civilHe was put to death by order of Octavian. year was named for chronological pur-Caesius Bassus, a friend of Persius, poses, at Athens after the chief archon, at Sparta after the first ephor. (2) Thecommended by Quintilian as a lyrio poet. Bouleutic* year, or the year duringHis works are lost. which the Boulo held office. This yearCaesura, see Metre, 2. under the constitution of CleisthenesCalceus, see Clothing, 5. (q.v.) was divided into ten prytanies of 36 or 37 days each, so that over a periodCalchas (Kalch&s), a seer who accom- of time the senatorial years averagedpanied the Greek host to Troy. See 365 i days. This year began about a weekIphigenia and Iliad. after the summer solstice. Most of theCalendar and measure of time. dates found in inscriptions of the 5th c. are stated according to this calendar by 1. The Greek Calendar the number of the prytany, the year being The Greek year consisted normally civil named after the first Secretary of theof twelve lunar months, alternately of 30 Boule of that year.and 29 days, making up a total of 354 At some date about the end of the 5thdays. In certain years, on the basis at c. the Bouleutic year was brought intofirst of a cycle of eight years, later of a conformity with the civil year, and there-cycle of 19 years (the cycle devised by the after the year is named for all purposesastronomer MetSn), an additional month after the chief archon. The historianwas from time to time (not according to Timaeus (q.v.) first adopted the practiceany rigid system) intercalated, to main- of dating events with reference to Olym-tain correspondence with the solar year. piads (see Festivals, 1), beginning fromAt Athens during the 5th c. two distinct 776 B.C. But Olympiads were never usedsystems of dating were in force concur- for ordinary purposes.rently: (1) the civil year, reckoned by Practically every Greek city had itslunar months, beginning normally with own calendar. The Macedonian calendarthe first new moon after the summer is also of importance, as it came to besolstice, but occasionally with the new universally used in the East (e.g. bymoon before the summer solstice, and Josephus). Years were generally dated inoccasionally with the second new moon Greek cities after magistrates or priestsafter the summer solstice, according to who held office. In Hellenistic kingdomsthe effect of the addition or non-addition regnal years (i.e. the first, second, third,of intercalary months. It is found to &c. year of such a king) were made usebegin as early as June 20 and as late as of, or fixed eras. This last was a veryAugust 15 (Meritt, The Athenian Calen- important innovation. The most notabledar, 1928). The names of the months of these eras is the Seleucid, from 312 B.C.,were in general taken from those of which is used, e.g., in Maccabees. Manyfestivals held in them, the derivations of eastern cities also adopted fixed eras,the latter being in some cases uncertain ; usually dating from their acquisition ofthey wore as follows : freedom.Hecatombaion (in which the hecatombs 2. Greek seasons and divisions of were offered), roughly July. the dayMetageitnidn, roughly August.Boedromion, roughly September. Some use of the constellations was madePyanepsidn, roughly October. for reckoning the seasons. Thus the sum-Maimacterion (from the festival of Zeus mer (depos) was sometimes regarded as Maimactes, the boisterous), roughly the six months from the morning rising November. of the Pleiades to their morning settingPoseidedn, roughly December. (May-November) and the morning rising ;Gam&ion (the time of weddings), roughly of Arcturus(September) was generally January. recognized as the beginning of autumnAnthesterion (from the Festival of (cf tfpos eis ApKTOvpov, Soph. O.T. 1137). 1 Flowers), roughly February. Sirius (Seirios) the Dog-star, setting withElaph&boli&n (door-hunting, the month the sun in August, marked the period of known in other parts of Greece as the greatest heat. Artemision), roughly March. The day from sunrise to sunset, what-M&nychidn (from the festival of the ever its length, was divided into twelve Munychian Artemis), roughly April. equal hours. For astronomical purposesTharg&idn, roughly May. the gnomon, a vertical rod on a horizontaliScirophori&n, roughly June. plane, was borrowed from the Chaldaeans,
  • 99. Calendar and measure of time 87 Calendar and measure of timeand by the length of the shadow it threw or N, according as they were fasti, daysenabled mid-day and the various hours to on which the court of the praetor urbanusbe determined, as also the solstices and was open for business (fas cat jus dicere) ;the equinoxes. But this was not in general comitidlea, days on which meetings of theuse. The astronomer Moton in the 5th c. comitia might be held (if they were in factwas the first to erect one at Athens (on held the praetors court was closed);the Pnyx). An instrument of immemorial nefasti, days on which neither was theantiquity for measuring time, the clepsydra court open nor might the comitia meet,or water-clock (see below, 4), was em- probably because such days were devotedployed in Greece. to purification or to worship of the dead and the powers of the nether world. It 3. The Roman Calendar appears that only 36 days were fasti until According to tradition, the year under Caesar increased their number, 184 wereIloinulus included ten months, containing comitiales and 55 nefasti. The calendara number of days variously stated, but further contained certain days markedmost commonly as 304. It began oil N 5 , probably signifying nefas feriae pub-1 March. It is thought probable that this licae, i.e. that the days were nefasti onten -month calendar omitted the period account of a public festival EN, for dies ;from mid-winter to spring, as being for a endotercisus or inter cisus, days that wereprimitive agricultural community the dead partly fasti partly nefasti. Three ex-part of the year, when there was nothing ceptional days were marked to indicatefor the husbandman to do but rest and that legal business could bo carried ontherefore no occasion for a calendar to after certain religious requirements hadregulate his labours. Numa Pompilius is been disposed of; these were known assaid to have added the months of January dies fissi. See also Nundinae. There wasand February, making a year of twelve a tradition that the calendar, showing themonths (four of 31 days, seven of 29, days which were fasti, was first publishedFebruary of 28), a total of 355 days; and in 304 B.C., when Cn. Flavius, a clerk ofthis was supplemented by intercalary Appms Claudius the censor (q.v.), postedperiods to bring it into accord with the it up in the Forum. But this traditionsolar year. Caesar, on the advice of the was questioned by Cicero (ad Att. vi. i. 8),mathematician Sosigenes, reformed the who pointed out that the XII Tablescalendar, making the normal year con- already showed the calendar, with courtsist of 365 days (seven months of 31 days, days marked for general information.four of 30, one of 28, as in the modern Flavius must therefore have published thecalendar), and adding an intercalary day calendar, or an account of the principles onevery fourth year. which it was constructed, in book form. In the Roman months (which probably The years were denoted by the namea in remote antiquity accorded with the of the consuls holding office in each, anperiod of the moon) the first day was inconvenient method which was practic-called the Kalends (Kalendae), a name ally useless for very early dates. At theoriginally indicating the day of the new end of the republican period the date ofmoon, and connected with the verb calo the founding of the city was finally estab-to proclaim, since on this day the priest lished by the researches of Varro, Nepos,would proclaim the dates for the various and Atticus (qq.v), on the basis of certainspecial days of the month. The fifteenth eclipses, as having occurred in the year day in the four 31 -day months of the old corresponding with 753 B.C., and this wascalendar (March, May, July, October) and adopted as a point of departure for chrono-the thirteenth day in all the others was logy (A.U.C., ab urbe condita or anno urbis called the Ides (Idtis), a name indicating conditae; Livys work was called *Ab originally the day of the full moon. The urbe condita), but not for practical pur- eighth (or according to the Roman method poses. Under the empire the consuls con- of inclusive reckoning, the ninth) day tinued to be used for dating side by side before the Ides, that is to say the seventh or with the regnal years of emperors and fifth day of the month, was called the Nones many local eras. The method of reckoning (Nonae). The days in between were denoted by indictions dates from the reign of Con- by reckoning backwards from the Nones, stantino and continued to be used through Ides, or Kalends that next succeeded. the Middle Ages. The indiction was a fiscal But In this reckoning the first and last period of fifteen years, at the beginning days of the series were both included: of which the Roman emperor fixed the a.d. (ante diem) V Kal. Jun. (the fifth, or valuation on which the property -tax was as we should say the fourth, day before to be assessed during that period. It was 1 June) was the designation of 28 May. instituted by Constantino in A.D. 313 and Days were marked in the calendar F, C, reckoned from 1 Sept. 312.
  • 100. Caliga 88 Callistratus 4. Roman divisions of the day his friend Heraclitus of Halicarnassus has In the early republican period there been made familiar to us by Williamwere no means of reckoning time except Corys translation *They told me, Hera-by sunrise, sunset, and midday. Midday clitus, they told me you were dead*.was announced at Rome by an officer of Catullus translated his Lock of Berenice*the consuls, when he first spied the sun (q.v.), and Ovid drew on him in his Ibis*from the senate house appearing between and Fasti*. Fragments of his Aitia*the Rostra and the Graccostasis (a plat- (origins of local religious tradition, inform raised above the Comitium). The elegiacs) and his lamboi* (in which hefirst sundial, imported from Sicily, was assumes the character of Hipponax (q.v.),erected at Rome in 263 B.C. A dial cor- the satirical poet, restored to life) haverected for the latitude of Rome was been discovered in papyri at Oxyrhynchus.substituted in 164 B.C. The clepsydra or We also have part of his Hecale , a shortwater-clock, which was in use in Greece, epic on a minor incident in the story ofwas introduced by Scipio Nasica in 158 Theseus (q.v.). There was a vigorousn.c. It is described by Vitruvius (q.v.) literary feud between Callimachus andand measured time by the flow of water Apollonius Rhodius (q.v.). In contrast tothrough a small aperture into a cistern; the latter, he preferred to compose shortthe water as it rose in this cistern raised poems, and his is the proverbial saying,a float connected by a rope and counter- jueya j9tj3Atov /ueya KO.KOV.poise with a drum, which in turn operated Callinus (Kalllnos)> of Ephesus, an earlya pointer. Each day from sunrise to sun- Greek elegiac poet, of uncertain date, per-set, and each night from sunset to sunrise, haps of the 7th c. B.C. Only a few frag-was divided into twelve horae ; these horae ments of his work survive. He is the firstconsequently varied in length with the poet known to have written in elegiacs.season. The Romans when they spoke of see Muses. Orpheusthe first hour* meant as a rule the point Calliope (Kalttopc),of time when the first hora from sunrise (q.v.) was said to be her son.was completed. The nights were further Callirhoe (Kallirhde), see Alcmaeon.divided into four vigiliae or watches, aterm evidently of military origin. Callisthenes (Kallisthenes), a nephew and pupil of Aristotle. Ho collaboratedCaliga, see Clothing, 5. with his uncle in the preparation of aCaligula, Gilus CAESAR, Roman em- complete list of victors at the Pythianperor A.D. 37-41, son of Germanicus and games from the earliest times. He joinedAgrippina (see Julio-Claudian Family). the expedition of Alexander the Great-His true name was Gaius Caesar, but, (q.v., 6) as the historian of his cam-spending his childhood in the Roman paigns, and was put to death in 327 B.C.camp and wearing the soldiers boot as being privy to a plot against him. To(caligd), he received from the soldiers the a pseudo-Callisthenes was attributed anickname* Caligula*. See Rome, 10. The fabulous narrative of the exploits ofstory that he proposed to make his favour- Alexander (see the article under the lat-ite horse, Incitatus, consul, besides pro- ters name, 10, and also Julius Valerius).viding it with a retinue of slaves and a Landor has an Imaginary Conversation*luxurious stable, is in Suetonius. between Callisthenes and Aristotle.Callicrates (Kallikrates), see Temples, Callisto (Kallisto), in Greek mythology, 1, and Parthenon. a nymph in the train of Artemis (q.v.); she was loved by Zeus and became motherCallimachus (Kallimachos), born in of Areas, the legendary ancestor of theCyrene about 310 B.C., a learned critic Arcadians. Artemis (or Hera) in wrathand poet, who, if he was never head of theAlexandrian Library (as some think that changed her into a she-bear; and in thishe was), was evidently connected with it form she wandered about until her son,and was an industrious bibliographer. For now grown up, met her when out hunt-his chief work in this capacity see Texts ing and would have killed her with hisand Studies, 2. As a poet ho wrote in a spear. But Zeus turned both into con- stellations, Ursa Major (the Great Bear)variety of forms. His Hymns in hexa-meters and elegiacs, to Zeus, Apollo, and Arctophylax (see Arcturus), (H. J.Artemis, &c., have survived. He was Rose, Handbook of Greek Literature*, remarks that star-myths such as thisespecially eminent as a writer of epigrams(of which we have sixty-four), some of rarely date from earlier than Alexan- drian times.)them epitaphs, others expressions of per-sonal emotion or little sketches of lovers Callistratus (Kallistratos), an eloquenttroubles. His beautiful epigram (II) on Athenian orator and able statesman of the
  • 101. Calpurnius Siculus 89 Campus Martlus4th B.C., the organizer of the second c. Calydonian Boar, see Meleoger.Athenian Confederacy (see Athens, 6).He came into popular disfavour when the Calypso (Kdlupsd), in Greek mythology, a goddess, daughter of Atlas (q.v.). SeeThebanS took Oropus from Athens in 366, Odyssey.and, although acquitted in this matter,was condemned to death and went into Cambyses, see Persian Wars and Egypt.exile aftera raid by Alexander of Phorao Camenae, meaning foretellers, in theon the Piraeus (3G2). Some years later ho old Italian religion were water-nymphs,returned to Athens, but the anger of the who had the power of prophecy. TheyAthenians was unabated, and ho was put had a sacred spring outside the Portato death. Capena at Rome, dedicated according to Roman tradition by King Numa, from which theCalpurnius Siculus, TITUS, aauthor of eclogues, who probably flourished Vestals drew the water for their rites.in the reign of Nero. It is uncertain They were identified (first by Liviuswhether the name Siculus signifies that Andronicus, q.v.) with the Greek Muses.he was a Sicilian or was given because he Camilla, in the Aeneid, a maiden-imitated the Sicilian pastoral of Theo- warrior, ally of Turnus. When her fathercritus. Of the eleven eclogues attributed Metabus was driven from Privernum, ofto himin the surviving manuscripts, the which ho was tyrant, he carried the baby-last four are probably by a later hand girl with him. Pursued by the Volscians(perhaps Nemesianus, a poet of the later and stopped by the flooded Amasenus, hepart of the 3rd c. A.D.). The remaining tied the child to his spear, flung it acrossseven are pleasant poems, showing the the river, and then swam across. She wasstrong influence of Virgil, and are the only so swift-footed that she could run over aattempt at pastoral in the early post- field of corn without bending the blades.Augustan empire. Eel. I, on the dawn of For her death see under Aeneid (13k. XI).a new Golden Age (the hope of the earlydays of Neros reign), resembles Virgils Camillus, MARCUS FCnius, a greatFourth Eclogue; Eel. II is an amoe- Roman statesman and general, who flourished in the early part of the 4th o.baean contest between a shepherd and B.C. According to legend ho was the con-a gardener, resembling Virgils Seventh queror of Veii, went into exile on a chargeEclogue. In Eel. Ill Lycidas tells his of having appropriated some of the bootyremorse for having ill-treated his sweet- of that city, was recalled and drove theheart. In Eel. IV Corydon and Amyntas Gauls under Brennus out of Rome, con-sing the praises of the young emperor.Their patron Mcliboeus (perhaps intended quered the Volsci and the Aequi, quelled the civil strife at the time of the Licinianfor Seneca) is asked to lay their lines Rogations (see Home, 3), and once morebefore his majesty, for Corydon (perhaps defeated an invasion of Gauls. He wasthe author) is poor and humble. Eel. V five times dictator, and a reform of theis a didactic poem on the rearing of sheepand goats. Eel. VI is a dispute between Roman military organization is attributed to him. There is a life of him by Plutarch.two shepherds about the poetic merits oftwo other swains. In Eel. VII Corydon, Camp, ROMAN, see Castra.who has been to Rome, describes a dis- Campania, a territory in Italy S. ofplay by the emperor of all kinds of wild Latium, of exceptional fertility, wherebeasts in the Circus. many of the wealthy Romans had their Calpurnius helped to carry on the tradi- villas. It included the towns of Capua,tion of pastoral writing to the Renais- Neapolis (Naples), and Pompeii. Seesance. His eclogues were printed at PL 10.Venice in 1472. See also Laus Pisonia. Campus Martlus, at Rome, an openCalvus, GAlus LIciNius (82-47 B.C.), space NW. of the ancient city, the exerciseeon of the annalist Licinius Macer, was a ground of early Roman armies. It waspoet celebrated in his day and an eloquent dedicated to Mars. It was also the placebarrister. He was a friend of Catullus, of assembly of the citizens in their civiland the salaputtium disertum* of Poem capacity for purposes of election, e.g. the53. Catullus addressed to him the beauti- comitia centuriata (q.v.). Buildings wereful lines of consolation (Poem 96) on the gradually erected on it (private housesdeath of his wife. His works, none of rarely till the time of the empire), and inwhich survive, included an epyllion on lo 220 B.C. the censor C. Flaminius con-(q.v.). structed there the Circus that bore hisCalydon (KcUuddri), a town in AetSlia, name. Later, in 55 B.C., Pompey builtconnected with the story of Meleager close to this the first stone theatre of Rome. See PL 14.
  • 102. Candaules 90 Carmen SaeculareCandaules, see Oyges. Captlvl, a comedy of sentiment by Plautus, and one of his most interestingCanephor! (Kanphoroi, basket-bear- plays. There are no female characters.ers*), maidens of noble families at Athenswho carried on their heads at the Panathe- The prologue is probably by a later hand. One of the sons of Hegio has been takennaea (see Festivals, 3) baskets containingsacred implements. Their graceful atti- prisoner by the Eleans; the other wastude made them a favourite subject for kidnapped when a child by a slave and has not since been heard of. Some Eleanssculptors, and figures representing them have now been taken prisoners of war andwere sometimes used as Caryatids (q.v.)to support the entablature of a temple. Hegio has purchased two of these, Philo- crates and his slave Tyndarus, in the hopeCanidia, the witch of Horaces Epodes of recovering by their means his captiveiii, v, and xvii; and Satires I. viii, n. i, son. The slave is to be sent to Elis toand ii. viii. negotiate the exchange. From devotionCaninius Rebilus (quantity of the e to Philocratcs, Tyndarus assumes theunknown), Gllus, appointed consul by name and dress of his master, whileCaesar at noon on the last day of the year Philocratcs passes as his slave. Thus it45 B.C. for the remainder of the day (the is Philocratcs who is released and sentconsul having died whoso term of office to Elis, while Tyndarus remains in cap-terminated that evening). His was the tivity. But the trick is revealed un-consulship in which, according to Ciceros intentionally by an Elean fellow-prisoner,bitter jest, no one breakfasted and the and Hegio, believing that he has beenconsul never slept. fooled, and disappointed of his hope of recovering his son, sends Tyndarus, loadedCannae, in Apulia, the scene of a great with irons, to work in the quarries.defeat of the Romans by Hannibal in Presently Philocrates returns bringing216 B.C. The consul Aemilius Paullus and with him not only the captive son of(it is said) 50,000 Romans were killed inthe battle. Hegio, but also the slave who stole his infant boy. From the revelations of theCanons (kanones), see Texts and Studies, slave it appears that this child had been 2. sold to the father of Philocrates, and byGantica, in Roman plays, the portions a stroke of dramatic irony is the verythat were sung or recited to musical Tyndarus whom Hegio has cruelly mal-accompaniment. See Comedy, 5 ad fin. treated.and Plautus. Capua, the chief city of Campania,Cantores Euphorionis, famous for its luxury and wealth. It went see Euphorion. over to Hannibal after the battle ofCapella, MARTIANUS, see Martianus Cannae, but was recaptured by Rome inCapella. 211 and severely punished: its leadingCapito, Gilus ATEIUS, an eminent jurist citizens were beheaded, the others exiled,of the time of Augustus and Tiberius. See and its territory became the property ofLabeo. the Roman State.Capitol (Capitdlium), the SW. summit Caratacus or CARACTACUS, see Britain,of the Capitoline hill at Rome; it stood 2.NW. of the Palatine, overlooking theForum (see PI. 14). On this summit was Carausius, MARCUS AURLIUS MAU-erected the great temple of Jupiter SAEUS, see Britain, 2.Optimus Maximus (the special guardian Caristia, see Parentalia.of the city) and his companions Junoand Minerva. There sacrifice was offered Cartnen Sacculfire, a poem by Horace, written in 17 B.C. by command of Augus-by magistrates on taking office, and by tus for the celebration of the Secularvictorious generals in a triumph (q.v.).On the Capitol also stood the ancient Games (see Ludi, 2). It is an invocation, in sapphic stanzas (see Metre, 5), of thesanctuary of Jupiter Feretrius (see under various gods of the Roman pantheon toJupiter). For the other summit of the grant their blessings to the State. It wasCapitoline Hill, see Arx. For the legendof the saving of the Capitol from the sung on the Palatine on June 3, the thirdGauls by the sacred geese, see Manlius day of the celebrations, by 27 girls and 27 boys, whose parents were still alive.Capitolinus. An inscription describing the ceremonyCapitolinus, Juuus, see Historia Au survives (see Epigraphy, 10). (The num- ber 27, or thrice nine, is repeatedly metCapitolinus, MARCUS MANLIUS, see with both in Greek and Roman ritual; itManlius Capitolinus. was regarded as especially lucky.)
  • 103. Carmentis 91 CaryatidsCarmentis or CABMENTA, in Roman first of the house of Mago, and then of thereligion, a deity possessing the power of house of Hanno. But the rule of theprophecy, probably originally a water- aristocracy was not unqualified, and Aris-spirit, but early associated with child- totle praised the equilibrium of aristo-birth. She was celebrated on the llth and cratic and democratic elements that he15th January. One of the gates of Rome, found there. Carthage was pre-eminentlyS. of the Capitol, bore her name (Porta a commercial State, carrying on trade allCarmentfilis). She is sometimes spoken of along the coasts of the Mediterranean.in the plural, as the Carmentes. In mytho- Her merchants dealt in Tyrian purple,logy she is the mother of Evander (q.v.), gold, ivory, slaves, grain, pottery, bronze,and accompanied him from Arcadia to perfumes, and textiles. They reached theItaly. Cassiteridcs (q.v.) or Tin Islands, andCarnea see 6. Guinea on the Atlantic coast of Africa. (Karneia), Festivals, They founded settlements in Spain, Sar-Carneades (Karneades) of Gyrene (214- dinia, and Sicily, and came into conflict at129 a Greek philosopher of the New an early date with the Greeks, driving the B.C.),Academy (see Academy), who held, in Phocaeans out of Corsica c. 640 B.C. andopposition to the dogmatism of the Stoics carrying on with them in Sicily a struggleand Epicureans, that certain knowledge that lasted until the Punic Wars (q.v.).was unattainable, but that, in its absence, With the Roman republic they madeconclusions of various degrees of proba- commercial treaties, by which Rome wasbility could be formed, and that these restricted from interfering with Cartha-supply a guide to conduct. Cicero was an ginian trade. The earliest of these dated,adherent of his views. For the visit of according to Polybius, from the first yearCarnoades to Rome in 155 B.C. see of the Roman republic. These treatiesPhilosophy, 2. governed the relations of Rome and Car- thage until their great struggle of the 3rdCarrhae, in the northern part of Meso- c. B.C. The Carthaginians wore essentiallypotamia, the scene of the defeat of M. a maritime folk, and their powerful navyLicinius Crassus (q.v.) by the Parthians was manned by their citizens. For theirin 53 B.C. army on the contrary they relied on mer-Carthage (CarthdQd, Gk. Karchedon), a cenaries, employing Libyans, Iberians,colony founded, perhaps in the 9th c. B.C., Ligurians, Sardinians, and Corsicans.by Phoenicians from Tyre, and occupy- Plutarch (De rep. ger., iii. 799) describesing a strong strategic position on a pen- them as sour and morose, servile to theirinsula in the centre of the northern rulers, harsh to their subjects, lackingcoast of Africa, near the modern Tunis. fortitude in danger, ungoverned in anger,For the legend of its founding see under obstinate, without elegance or urbanity.Dido. Byrsa, the name of the citadel Their religion was oriental in its origin, *of Carthage, signifying fortress in Phoe- their chief gods being Melkart, Astarte",nician and hide* in Greek, may be the and Baal-Hammon ; but Libyan andorigin of the story of the territory en- Greek deities were gradually introduced.closed by strips of oxhide. Carthage In spite of the Greek influence, theirgradually took the lead among the inde- religious rites retained a barbarous charac-pendent Phoenician cities of N. Africa ter and included human sacrifices. Agri-(Utica was her chief rival), founded numer- culture was highly developed in Cartha-ous colonies on African soil, and exercised ginian territory. Olive oil, fruit, and todirect rule over the native agricultural some extent wine, besides corn, were thepopulation of a considerable region. Her chief products. A treatise on agricultureconstitution (a controversial subject) ap- by the Carthaginian Mago was translatedpears to have been mainly aristocratic, into Latin by order of the Roman Senate.the government being in the hands of two For the later history of Carthage, seechief magistrates and a senate. The chief Punic Wars, and Colonization, 7.magistrates, originally perhaps Judges,held the highest executive functions, and Caryatids (Karydtides), female statueshad also frequently, especially in older in long drapery used instead of columns totimes, the chief command in war. Hence, support the entablature of a temple (q.v.).because of the similarity of functions, the The word means maidens of Caryae, aGreeks called them BaoiXeis, the Romans town in Laconia, where, at the annualreges, or more accurately and appropriately festival of Artemis, it was customary forpraetores. The Romanized form of their bands of girls to perform ritual dances. Inname was suffetes. Though an annual these they sometimes took the attitude inoffice, this magistracy between 520 and which they are represented in the statues.300 B.C. seems to have been in the power The best-known examples of Caryatids are
  • 104. Gasaubon 92 Cassius Dio Gocceianosthe six that supported the entablature of on religious and profane education entitledthe southern portico of the Erechtheum Institutiones Divinarum et Saeculariumon the Acropolis of Athens. One of these Litterarum, in two books, of which thehas been removed to the British Museum. first was intended particularly for the guidance of monks. He exhorted them toGasaubon, see Texts and Studies, 10. the careful copying of manuscripts andCosina, a comedy by Plautus, adapted traced the limits within which correctionsfrom a play by Diphilus (see Comedy, 4). were permissible. His Do Orthographia,An old gentleman of Athens and his son written when he was 93, gives them direc-have both taken a fancy to Casina, a slave- tions on correct spelling and punctuation.girl who has been rescued from exposure as (See Texts and Studies, 6).a baby and brought up in their household.The father wants to have her married to Cassiopeia (pron. -oia) (Kassiopeia or see Perseus.his bailiff, the eon to his own attendant, Kassicpeia),Challnus; while the wife of the old man, Cassiterides, the name given by theaware of her husbands scheme, Intrigues Greeks to a group of islands where, accord-to defeat it. Recourse to lot favours the ing to rumour, tin was found. It appearsfather, but at the wedding the bailiff is to bo still a matter of dispute whetherfobbed off with Chalinus dressed as a bride, KaaaiTpos (tin) is derived from Cassi-and the bailiff and the old man moreover terides, or Cassiterides from Kaaatrepo?.get a good beating. Casina, according to the It was known in the Mediterranean thatepilogue, is found to be a free-born Athen- tin came from the Atlantic coast, butian, and is married to the old mans son. owing to the Carthaginian control of theGassandra (Kassandrd or Kdsandrd), Straits of Gibraltar and the secrotiveness of merchants, the precise localities wheredaughter of Priam and Hecuba (qq.v.). Shewas loved by Apollo (q.v. but resisted him. it was got were unknown. The Cassi- )In consequence, the god rendered useless tcrides were thought to bo to the norththe gift of prophecy that he had bestowed of Galicia or in mid- Atlantic, or wereon her, by causing her prophecies never to confused with the Canaries, or werebe believed. She is a sombre figure in Greek located hi Belerium (Cornwall). A certain P. Crassus (not definitely identified, per-legend, foreseeing the doom of Troy, butforetelling it to deaf ears. When the city haps the governor of Further Spain, 96- 93 B.C.) was said by Strabo to have foundfell, she was dragged from the image of his way there, and the place that he tookAthena where she had taken refuge and for the Cassitcrides was probably theviolated by Ajax (q.v.), son of Oilcus. coast of Cornwall, though this may notTo expiate this sacrilege, the Opuntian have been identical with the CassiteridesLocrians, his people, were obliged to send of earlier legend, the source whence theyearly a number of noble maidens to servoas slaves in Athenas temple at Troy. If Phoenicians and other early traders got the metal, which was perhaps Galicia incaught by the inhabitants before reachingthe temple, they were executed. (This Spain. There is evidence that tin was worked in Cornwall from very early times ;practice, of which there is evidence in but it appears to have been undersold ininscriptions, lasted until early in theChristian era.) Cassandra fell to the lot the Mediterranean market during theof Agamemnon (q.v.), and, accompanying early Roman empire by cheaper tin fromhim to Mycenae, was killed with him by Spain.Clytemnestra. Gassius, GAtus, one of the murderers of Julius Caesar, was an energetic soldierCassiodorus (Fldvius Cassioddrus Mag-nus Aurelius Senator) (c. A.D. 480-575), who showed his capacity as one of theborn at Scylaceum (Squillace) in S. Italy, lieutenants of Crassus at Carrhae (53 B.C.),the son of a praetorian prefect, was him- where ho extricated a division of theself appointed quaestor to Theodoric, and Roman army from the disaster. He foughtconsul in 514. Under the three successors against Caesar at Pharsalus (48), but wasof Theodoric he was virtually prime mini- pardoned by him after the battle andster. He spent the latter part of his long made praetor. Nevertheless Cassius waslife on his estate hi the south, where one of the leaders of the conspiracy against Caesar. After Caesars death, Cassiushe founded two monasteries. He wrote a went to Syria, secured the province, andHistory of the Goths (known to usonly in abridgement) and other historical joined Brutus at Smyrna. He met hia death at Philippi.works, and published twelve books of hisofficial writings under the title Variae, Gassius Dio (Dio) Cocceianus, gener-and a lengthy commentary on the Psalms. ally known as DIO(N) CASSIUS (c. A.D. 150-His most important work was a treatise 235), of Nicaea in Bithynia, who became
  • 105. Cassivellaunus 93 Catilineconsul at Rome and governor of Africa of the camp. Behind the praetoriumand of Dalmatia, was author of a Roman another road led to the porta decumdnaHistory* in Greek, in eighty books, of in the back vallum of the camp. Therewhich twenty -six survive. It covered the were thus four gates to the camp, one inperiod from the foundation of the city to each of its sides. See PL 2c.A.D. 229. Of the surviving books (36-60 In the permanent camps (castra stati-and 79) the former deal with the years 68 va), of which many in imperial timesB.c.-A.D. 54. Dio spent twenty -two years were established in conquered territory,preparing the work. He was a diligent the detailed arrangements were different,student of earlier historians, whom he but the characteristic features remainedtreats with discrimination, but does not the same: quadrangular form, divisionappear to have carried out independent by roads at right angles, four gates,research. We owe to him the only narra- the praetorium midway between the twotive we possess of the invasion of Britain sides, the forum and quaestorium near it.by Claudius. There is an epitome of Bks. These camps contained barracks built of1-21 by Zonaras (12th c.) and of Bks. permanent materials, and head-quarters36-end by Xiphilinos (llth c.). sometimes of an imposing appearance, as may be seen in the ruins of the prae-Cassivellaunus, see Britain, 1. torium of Novaesium (Neuss) on theCastalia (Kastalia), in Greek mythology, Rhino. The camps of the imperial age area nymph who, when pursued by Apollo, described by Hyginus (q.v.).throw herself into a spring on Mt. Parnas- Catachresis, the misuse of a term.sus. The spring was held sacred to Apollo Quintiliau extends it to the adaptation,and the Muses. It is situated a little to the whore a term is wanting, of the termNE. of Delphi, and may still be seen, a nearest to the meaning, and gives as anpool of clear, cold water, lying deep in its example equum divina Palladis arterock-cut basin at the foot of the sheer aediflcant* (Aen. ii. 16) whore aedificantcliff* (Frazcr on Pausanias x. viii. 9). The moans properly to build a house.pool is 36 feet long by 10 feet wide, andis fed by subterranean sources. Catalepton (Gk. on a small scale), sometimes known as CATALECTA, a collec-Castor (Kastor), see Dioscuri. tion of Latin epigrams and other shortCastra. Castra, a Roman camp, was poems, perhaps identical with the Epi-invariably entrenched, and under the grammata* attributed by Donatus andrepublic always of the same form and Servius to Virgil. The author is unknown.elaborate arrangement. It was planned A few of the poems may be by Virgil.out in advance by surveyors (mensores), Among those is an address to Sirone villa,who first marked with a flag the prae- which Virgil occupied for a time.torium or head-quarters. The camp, as Catalexis, CATALKCTIC. Catalexis is saiddescribed by Polybius, was a square, each to take place and a verse or foot is said toside being about 2,100 feet for a normal be catalectic when a syllable or syllablesarmy of two legions and auxiliaries (about of the normal rhythm are replaced by a12,000 men). It was surrounded by an pause of equal duration. For examples seeearthen mound (agger) and palisade (val- 2. Metre,lum, a term used also of the mound plusthe palisade), for the construction of which Catalogue of Women (Katalogos Ghtnai-each soldier carried stakes in case of kon), a poem in hexameters, of whichnecessity. Across the front of the prae- fragments survive, by Hesiod or an imita-torium, which stood midway between the tor, enumerating the heroines of ancienttwo sides, ran a roadway (via principalis) legend, relating their adventures, andending in gates on the two sides of the tracing their descendants. The *Eoeae*camp and dividing the latter into a larger (q.v.) is variously thought to be identicalfront portion (para antica), where the with it, or the last part of it.legions and their contingents of auxiliaries Catapl&s (Kataplous), see Lucian.had their tents, and a smaller portionbehind (pars postica). In the latter, on CatSgoriae, a treatise by Aristotle (q.v.,either side of the praetorium, were the 3).quarters of the higher officers, those of Catiline (Lucius Sergius Catillna), anthe exiraordindrii or picked auxiliary impoverished patrician, who was praetortroops, the forum or meeting-place and in 68 B.C. and in the next year governormarket of the camp, and the quaestorium of Africa. Dissolute but capable, ruinedor paymasters office. From the front of in reputation as in purse, he saw his onlythe praetorium a broad via praetoria led chance in revolution, for which he foundto the porta praetoria in the front vallum supporters among other desperate men*
  • 106. Gato 94 CatullusWith these he conspired to effect a general Senectute, There is a of Cato by lifemassacre early in 65, but the plot failed. Plutarch, who severely censures his mean-He stood for the consulship in 64 but was ness, particularly in his practice of sellingdefeated. His renewed attempt to secure off his slaves when too old to be remunera-power in 63 during Ciceros consulship tive. There is also a short life of Catois described under Cicero, 2, where a attributed to Nepos.reference will be found to Ciceros speechesIn Catilinam. Catiline fled from Rome Cato (Cdto), MARCUS PORCIUS of Uticain 63, and was defeated and killed near (95-46 B.C.), great-grandson of Cato thePistoria in 62. According to Sallust (q.v.) Censor (q.v.), a man of unbending charac-he made a gallant end. Catiline was the ter, and absolute integrity, narrow, short- sighted, impervious to reason as to bribery.subject of a tragedy by Ben Jonson (1611). Ho was the chief political antagonist of Caesar and the triumvirate, the conscience Cato (C(Mo), MARCUS PORCIUS, Cato the of Rome, equally above praise and vitu-Censor (234-149 B.C.), the son of a farmer peration (Livy ). We hear of him as voting of Tusculum, fought in the Second Punic for the death of Catilines fellow conspira-War as private soldier and military tribune tors when these were arrested by Cicerounder Q. Fabius Maximus (q.v.), and after (q.v.). Ho was sent on a mission to Cyprusholding various offices was consul in 195. in 58 (at the time when Cicero wasHe had been quaestor in Sicily and Africa,and subsequently praetor in Sardinia; it banished) in order that he might be got out of tho way. In the Civil War ho heldwas probably on the later occasion that hemade the acquaintance of Ennius (q.v.). Sicily in the interest of the Senate and wasIn 184 he held the censorship, the office driven thence by Curio. After tho death of Pompey and tho battle of Thapsus, hothat made him famous. Ho applied him-self to the reformation of the lax morals of shut himself up in Utica (NW. of Carthage)the Roman nobility, and to checking the against the Caesarians, and seeing that his cause was hopeless took his own life. Itluxury and extravagance of the wealthy. is said that he spent the last night of hisHis ideal was a return to the primitive life reading Platos Phacdo . For Cicerossimplicity of a mainly agricultural State,and he showed a fearless independence panegyric on him see Cicero, 4. He is ono of tho heroes of Lucans Pharsalia (q.v.).and honesty in his attacks on powerfuloffenders (including the Scipios). Ho was Dante devotes to him a great part of the first canto of his Purgatorio. Catos lastalso strongly opposed to the introductionof Greek culture, and under his influence stand and death at Utica form, in part,Greek philosophers and rhetoricians were the subject of Addisons tragedy Catoforbidden to reside at Rome. In his old (1713).age, however, he himself studied Greek. Cato Major de Senectute, see DeLate in life he went as a commissioner to Senectute.Carthago, and was so impressed by the Cats, see Pets.danger to Rome from her reviving pros-perity that he never ceased impressing on Catullus, Gilus VALERIUS (c. 84-*. 54the Senate the necessity for her destruc- B.C.), was born at Verona, then a smalltion: Carthago delendaest*. Jealousy of frontier town, of a well-to-do family, andher agricultural development may have came about 62 B.C. to Rome. He hadbeen one of the causes that impelled him. access to the refined and profligate societyHe composed a work on Origines, dealing of tho day, and became attached to thowith the rise of the Italian cities (whence lady whom he celebrated under the namethe title) and the history of Rome from of Lesbia, Clodia (q.v.), the sister ofthe time of the kings to 149 B.C., ono of Ciceros enemy Publius Clodius (q.v.) andthe first historical works written hi Latin wife of Q. Metellus Celer, consul in 60 B.C.(earlier Roman annalists wrote in Greek), His love for her, followed, as a result ofunfortunately lost; also a treatise Do her infidelity, by rifts and reconciliations,Agri Cultura* (q.v.), sometimes known as deepening reproaches, and finally fierce*De Re Rustica, which in great part revolt and rupture, inspired some of hissurvives. It is the oldest extant literary most beautiful and of his most bitterprose work in the Latin language. Cato poems. After their final separation Catul-was also a successful orator; 150 of his lus to 57 travelled to Asia in the suite ofspeeches were known to Cicero. The the propraetor C. Memmius, the patronsurviving fragments show shrewdness of Lucretius. It was probably in theand wit, earnest honesty, and simplicity. course of this voyage that he wrote theTo hhn we owe the phrase rem tone lament, the famous *Ave atque valeverba sequentur*. Cicero makes him the poem (101), for his brother buried in theprincipal interlocutor in his dialogue De Troad, whose tomb he now visited; the
  • 107. Catullus 95 Cavalry Commandercharming poem of spring (46) Jam ver have published all his writings indis-egelidos refert tepores; and on his criminately, including for instance the in-return (with Helvius Cinna in a yacht vectives against Caesar, in spite of thewhich he celebrated In poem 4) the lines reconciliation. Our texts all derive fromto Sinnio (31) expressive of the 1oy and a single manuscript preserved in Verona,gratitude of home-coming. The date of the city of his birth.his death is not known with certainty, but Catullus not only adapted the hendeca-he died very young, at the age of thirty syllable to a great variety of moods andor thirty -three at most. The melancholy purposes, but also established in Romanlittle poem (38) addressed to Corniflcius literature a new form, the light, witty,from his sick-bed is perhaps his last work. elegant poem, to fill a place betweenHis poems are mostly short pieces, in tragedy and epic on the one hand, andhendecasyllables or other lyric forms (iam- comedy and satire on the other. Hobics, scazons, ono in glyconics) or in exerted a wide influence on his Romanelegiacs. They are varied in subject and in successors, on the elegiac poets Tibullus,manner, ranging from graceful trifles on Propertius, and Ovid, on Horace, and onsome incident of Roman life, an invitation Martial. In English literature his influenceto dinner or the pilforings of a guest, to may be traced in the Elizabethan wedding-expressions ofwarm attachment and sym- odes and still more in the Caroline lyrics,pathy for friends, genial satires, virulent notably in Herrick. Ono of his epithala-lampoons, and poems of deepest passion. mia was translated by Ben Jonson inThe beet-known of them are the sequence his masque Hymenaei. Meredithsrelating to Lesbia, beginning with the first Phaethon in galliambics was modelledIntoxication of love and the tender play- on Catulluss Attis. Byron translatedfulness of the lines on Lesbias sparrow, and Poems 3 (Lugete o Veneres) and 51 (Hieending with poignant cries of suffering (such mi par esse deo vidotur ). Tennysons linesas the lines O di, si vestrumst misereri . . entitled Frater Ave atquo Vale are a .in Poem 76) and venomous insults flung at tribute to the tenderest of Roman poetshis unfaithful mistress. The political lam- nineteen hundred years ago*.poons of Catullus (especially 29 and 57) Catulus, QUINTUS LUTATIUB, consul hireflect, in some measure, the attitude of 102 B.C., and the colleague of Marius inthe aristocratic society of Rome towards the defeat of the Cimbri, wrote epigramsCaesar and his associates. Caesar was and occasional poems in elegiacs (some ofBtung by the attacks, but was reconciled which have survived), and developed thewith Catullus in the end. Poem 51, Illo use of this metre at Rome. He also wrotemi par esse deo vidctur* is a translation a commentary on his part in the Cimbricof an extant poem by Sappho. All these War, which was distinguished by its purityshort poems aro strikingly sincere and of style. It seems to have been a source forvivid, and perfect in form. In a different Plutarchs life of Marius.category falls the beautiful short hymn An earlier Catulus (Giius LUTATTUSto Diana (Poem 34). The longer poems of CATULUS) was the victor over the Cartha-Catullus include an opithalamium (61) for ginians at the sea-battle off the Aegatianthe marriage of a friend named Mallius; Islands in 241 B.C.another wedding-song (62); a strange Caudine Forks (Furculae Caudinae), thepoem (63) hi galliambics on the legend defile of Caudium in Samnium, where theof Attis (a young man is representedas becoming, in a frenzy, an acolyte of Roman army in 321 B.C. was obliged to surrender to the Samnites (see Rome, 4).the goddess Cybele, undergoing the awfulinitiation by emasculation ; then realizing Cavalry Commander, The (Hippar~with vain regrets the loss of his former chikos), a treatise attributed to Xenophonlife); the Coma Berenices (on the legend (q.v.), written at a time when Athens wasof the lock of Berenice, q.v.), translated or at peace, probably about 365 B.C.imitated from Callimachus; and a poem Xenophon was deeply interested inin hexameters on the marriage of Peleus cavalry and horses, and had probably atand Thetis (q.v.), in which a digression one time belonged to the Athenian cavalryon the story of Theseus and Ariadne (q.v.) corps. This corps was composed, nomin-occupies the greater part. Some of these ally, of one thousand men, of whom eachlonger poems show the influence on Catul- of the ten tribes was required to furnishlus of the Alexandrian school. one hundred. The whole corps was under Catullus before his death may have two commanders. The treatise purportsIssued a small group of his poems with a to be addressed to some one about to holddedication to Nepos, but this is a hypo- one of these commands. It includes advicethesis over which the authorities are on the selection and training of the re-divided. His literary executor appears to cruits, the care of the horses, the choice
  • 108. Cebes 96 Cephalusof subordinate officers, the qualities re- revising the senators (legere sena- roll ofquired of a commander, and his duties lum), removing those who wore unworthyboth in the ceremonial functions of the and replacing them by others. They had,cavalry and on active service (including moreover, the duty of making contractstactics, ruses, &c.). for public works and for the farming of baxes, and of letting the State lands. ThoCebes (Kibes), of Thebes, a Pythagorean institution dated from about 440 B.C. Itsphilosopher who figures in the Phaedo A mportance was much reduced by theof Plato, and in passages of Lucian. legislation of Sulla. Tho emperors usedfamous allegorical composition on the life censorial powers for revising tho composi-of man, known as the Pinax* (Picture) tion of the Senate.of Cebes, was attributed to him, but is ofmuch later date. It is based on the Stoic Centaurs (Kentauroi), a fabulous race ofphilosophy of the time of the Roman beings shaped like a horse with tho bodyempire. of a man in place of the horses neck and head (see Monsters), said to be descendedCecrops (Kekrops), a legendary ancestor from Ixionor first king of the Athenians. Ho is (q.v.) and Nephele (Cloud).represented as serpent-shaped below the They dwelt in Thessaly. When their neigh- bours the Lapithae were holding a feast forwaist (see Monsters) and was said to be the wedding of their king, PirithOus, withearth-born. Attica was sometimes calledCecropia after him (see Athens, 2). For Hippodamia, the Centaurs, whom theythe story of the daughters of Cecrops see had invited, tried to carry ofl Hippoda-ErcchthcMS. mia and other women. A battle resulted, in which the Centaurs wore defeated,Celaeno (Kclaino), one of the Pleiades and were driven from their haunts about(q.v.); also a Harpy (q.v.). Mt. Pelion.Celeus (Kdeos), see Demcter. Centumviri, at Rome, a board of 105 AULUS CORNELIUS, of whom members (elected annually, three fromCelsus, very each of the thirty-five tribes), increasedlittle is known, lived under Tiberius. He under the empire to at least 180, whowas an encyclopaedist who wrote in Latin formed the jury in trials relating to pro-on agriculture, medicine, philosophy, andother subjects. Quintilian calls him medi- perty and inheritance and other kindredocri vir ingenio*. Of his works only eight questions. They were divided into fourbooks on medicine survive. They are largely courts, which usually sat separately, but sit as a single body in importantbased on Hippocrates (q.v.) and other Greek might suits. See Law (Roman), 2.medical authors, but also on contemporarypractice. They show humanity and good Cephalas (Kephalds), see Anthologies.sense, holding the balance between theoryand experience, recommending dissection Cephalus (Kephalos). (1) in Greek my-but discouraging vivisection (of criminals), thology, tho husband of Procris, daughter of Ercchtheus (q.v.). Eos (q.v.) fell in lovoand propounding sound rules for the with him, causing dissension between hus-maintenance of health. The work beginswith an historical introduction hi which the band and wife. Artemis (or Minos) gave Procris a hound called Lailaps (Storm)prevailing tendencies hi medical theory which was fated to catch whatever it pur-and practice in his own day are discussed.The first two books deal with diet and the sued, and a spear that never missed its mark. These Procris gave to Cephalus andgeneral principles of the healing art, the a reconciliation followed. (A difficultythird mainly with fevers, the fourth withinternal diseases, the fifth and sixth seemed likely to arise when the marvellouswith external ailments (such as wounds hound was set to hunt an uncatchable foxand ulcers), and the last two with surgery, which was devastating Theban territory; but Zeus evaded it by turning both intoshowing that difllcult and dangerous opera- stone.) Procris was still jealous and,tions were undertaken hi his day. Thiswas the first classical medical work to be hidden in a bush, watched her husband when he was hunting. Cophalus, thinkingprinted (Florence, 1478). that he heard an animal stir in the bush,Censors, at Rome, two in number, were hurled his spear and killed Procris. Thereelected every five years to take the census is a reference to this legend in tho *Sha-of the people and carry out tho solemn falus* and Proems* of Pyramus andpurification (lustrum) which accompanied Thisbe (Shakespeare, Midsummer Nightsit. Their period of office was eighteen Dream*, v. i). Milton refers to Cephalusmonths, but might be extended. They as the Attic boy* in H Penseroso*.had a general supervision over the conduct (2) The old man in Bk. i of Platosof citizens, and in particular the duty of Republic*, the father of Lysias (q.v.).
  • 109. Cephlsus 97 Chariot racesCephisus CEpmssus (KepJusos or Ceyx (K&ux), see Alcyone. orKephissos), (1) the chief river in the Chaereas (Chaireds) and CallirrhdGAthenian plain, rising in Mt. Parnes, and see (Kattirrhoc), Novel.flowing- past Athens a mile to the west.It is usually dry or nearly so in summer. Chaeronea (Chaironeia),in Boeotia, the(2) The chief river of Phocis and Bocotia. scene of the defeat of the Thebans and Athenians by Philip (q.v.) of Macedon inCeramicus (Kerameikos), probably mean- 338 B.C. (this was the battle fatal toing the Potters Quarter, at Athens, a liberty* referred to in Miltons sonnet *Toregion N W. of the Acropolis, partly within the Lady Margaret Ley); also of thepartly without the city wall. The portion defeat of Mithridates by Sulla in 86 B.C.outside the walls was used as a burial Chaeronea was the birthplace of Plutarch.ground. The Agora (q.v.) was includedin the inner portion. Seo PI. 13a. Chalcedon (Chalkedon), on the Asiatic shore of the Bosporus, see Colonization, 2,Cerberus (Kerberos), in Greek mytho- and Byzantium. Later the capital of thelogy, a monstrous dog with three (or fifty) Roman province of BIthynia.heads, offspring of Typhon and Echidna(qq.v.), the watchdog of Hades. See Chalcidic League, formed early fa the 4th c. B.C. by the city Olynthus, of townsMonsters and Heracles (Labours of). on the promontory of Chalcidico (q.v.),Cercidas (KerJddds), a Greek poet of on the basis of common laws and commonuncertain date (probably c. 250 B.C.), of citizenship. It spread to other towns inwhose works only fragments survive. Ho the neighbourhood. The attempt of theprofessed the Cynic philosophy and wrote Chalcidians to impose membership on cer-in lyric metres on ethical subjects in a tain Greek towns led to the interventionsimple and popular style. of Sparta and the dissolution of the League (379). What might have been a check onCerc5pe*s (KerkSpes), in Greek my- the growth of Macedonian power was thusthology, a monkey -liko race of men, who suppressed. In 364-2 Timotheus (q.v. (2))tried to steal the weapons of Heracles and acquired some of the Chalcidie townsfor their pains were slung upside down for Athens, in order to weaken Olynthus,on a pole carried by Heracles across his the chief support of Amphipolis. Theshoulders. Whereupon their jokes at his latter was originally an Athenian colony,hairiness so amused the hero that he let lost in the Poloponnesian War, whichthem go. The tale afforded matter for Athens constantly desired to recover.comic treatment in literature and art. Chalcidico was finally reduced by PhilipCerealia, see Ceres. of Macedon, and incorporated in his dominions. Olynthus, the last city to holdCeres (C&res), probably originally an out, was captured in 348, an AthenianItalian deity representing the generative force sent to its relief arriving too late.power of nature. Her first temple at Romewas traditionally founded in consequence Chalcidice (Chalkidike), a promontory hiof a famine in 496 B.C., and dedicated hi Macedonia between the Thermaic and493. Hero the cult had a Greek charac- Strymonio Gulfs terminating in threeter and the goddess was identified with smaller peninsulas. See Colonization, 2,Demeter (q.v.). The temple was at the and Philip of Macedon, 2.foot of the Aventino and was connected Chalcis (Chalkis^ the chief town inclosely with the plebs. The Ceredlia were Euboea, on its W., coast, and separatedheld in honour of Cores on April 12-19. At from the mainland only by the narrowthis festival, connected with the growth of strait of the Euripus. It was subject tothe corn, it was the practice to tie burning Athens during the greater part of the 5thbrands to the tails of foxes and let them and 4th cc. B.C. See Colonization, 2.loose in the Circus Maximus. Ovid (Fast,iv. 681 et seq.) has a tale to account Chaos, see Theogony.for this curious rite, of which modern CharactSres, see Theophrastus.scholars offer various explanations. Virgil Charaxus (Charaxos), see Sappho.describes a festval of Ceres in Georgics* i.338-50. Ceres had also an other aspect, Charicl&a (Charikleia) and The&genSsas a deity of the earth : after a death, the (TheOgenes), an alternative title of thehouse of the deceased was purified by Aethiopica* of Heliodorus; see Novel.means of sacrifice to her. Chariot races were held at the Pan-Ceto Greek mythology, daugh- heUenio festivals in Greece, especially (Keto), hiter ofPontus and Ge and mother of the at the Olympian festival, from earlyGraiae and the Gorgons (qq,v.) times (see Festivals, 2). The chariots 4339
  • 110. Charites 98 Chimaeraresembled those of the heroic age, which He received an obol from each passengercarried the warrior and his charioteer, low for his pains. To pay his fee the dead wereand rounded in front, open at the back, on buried with a small coin in their mouths.low wheels. They were drawn by two horses, Charon is unknown to Homer. He figuresone on each side of the pole, by means in the Frogs of Aristophanes and inof a yoke where four horses were used, the the Vlth Aeneid of Virgil. See also Lucian. ;two additional horses were at the sides Charon survives (as Charos or Charontas)of the first two, not in front, and drew in modern Greek folklore, rather in theby means of traces. The Roman racing character of Angel of Death than of thechariot was similar, except that the board ferryman. But the custom of placing aforming the front was higher. Pausanias coin in a dead persons mouth prevailed(vi. 20) describes the elaborate arrange- among some of the Greeks until quitement for starting the chariot races at recent times (Rcnnell Rodd, Customs and Olympia, including a mechanical signal Lore of Modern Greece).which raised a bronze eagle and lowered Charon (Charon) of Lampsacus, see Loflro-a bronze dolphin. He also mentions how graphi (1).horses generally shied at a particular pointin the course, called Taraxippus ( Disturber Charybdis (Charubdis), in Greek legend,of Horses). Chariot races (Circenscs) wore a dangerous whirlpool off the coast ofheld at Rome both in republican and Sicily, opposite Scylla (q.v.). The Argoimperial times in the Circus Maximus. (see Argonauts), according to ApolloniusThe chariots might be two-horsed (bigae) Rhodius, sailed between Scylla andor four-horsed (quadrigae). Four or even Charybdis; and Homer (Od. xii) hassix chariots competed in a heat, driving a vivid description of the passage ofup one side of the Circus (which was Odysseus between these two perils.divided down the centre by a low wall Cheiron, see Chiron.known as the splna) and down the other,rounding the metae or conical pillars at Chersonese (Chersonlsos, land-island*each end of the spina ; seven rounds of the or peninsula), Thracian, the promontoryCircus formed a heat. of Thrace (the peninsula of Gallipoli) that In republican times the teams belonged runs along the V. side of the Hellespont.to private owners; under the empire to It was acquired by Athens in the timeassociations of contractors, who wore dis- of Pisistratus and further colonized by Pericles. It was threatened by Philip oftinguished by four colours, blue, white,red, and green. Domitian added two new Macedon and this threat was one of the chief grounds of hostility between Athenscolours, the purple and the gold. It isperhaps from this time that six chariots and Macedonia. The Tauric Chersonese in the Euxine is the modern Crimea.began to compete in a heat. But thenumber of chariots so competing is not Chersonese, On the, a political speech byinvariable. The two now factions do not Demosthenes. See Demosthenes (2), 5 (f).seem to have survived Domitians reign.There was keen partisanship among the Chiasmus (from the form of the Greekpublic and betting on the colours. Pliny a figure of speech in which letter chi),tellshow Caecina of Volaterrae, an owner the terms of the second of two parallelof chariots, had homing swallows, daubed phrases reverse the order of the corre-with paint, to announce his victories. In sponding terms in the first; e.g. Oditthe later empire, by supporting and cheer- populus Romanus privatam luxuriam,ing the factions that were not favoured by publicam magnificcntiam diligit* (Cic. prothe emperor or his officials, the people Murcna, c. 32).frequently expressed their disapproval of Chilon (Chttori), a Spartan ephor in thethe Government. Charioteers earned large 6th c. B.C., who appears to have had ansums. Diodes loft a fortune of 35 millionsesterces (say important influence on the policy of his 290,000). Caligula gave State (see Sparta, 3). Ho was includedEutychus, charioteer of the green, 2 mil-lion sesterces. among the Seven Sagos (q.v.) of Greece. Chimaera (CMmaira), in Greek mytho-Charites, see Graces. logy,a monster with the head of a lion,Chariton (Charitdn), see Novel. the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon, the offspring of Typhon andCharmidZs, see Plato, 2. Echidna (qq.v.). See Bellerophon &nd. Mon- *Gharon (Chdrori) in Greek mythology, sters. According to Virgil she was armed tthe ferryman who conveyed the dead in with flame*.his boat across the Styx to Hades, repre- The Flaming Chimaera is the namesented as an old man of squalid aspect. given to a patch of land high up in the
  • 111. Chios 99 ChrysaorLycian forest near the sea-coast where to write odes for some private occasion,an undying fire (apparently burning such as a victory at the Games. Thenatural gas), breaks up from vents in the development of the choral lyric was theground. There are the ruins of a church, work at first of Dorians at Sparta and isand the place was probably from ancient associated with the names of Thaletas,times the site of a temple to the Spirit of Terpander, Alcman, and Arion (qq.v.).Fire (see D. G. Hogarth, Accidents in an The later great writers of choral lyricsAntiquarys Life). were Sicilians, lonians or BoeotiansChios (Chios), a large Ionian island off Stesichorus, Ibycus, Simonldes, Bacchy-the coast of Asia Minor. It claimed to bo lides, and Pindar (qq.v.); but the Doriansthe birthplace of Homer. It formed part had made the choral lyric so much theirof the first Athenian Confederacy (see own that it continued to be written in theAthens, 4), led the revolt of the allies Dorian dialect. The principal forms of thein 412 B.C., and was laid waste by the choral lyric were the paean, the hypor-Athenians. It formed part also of the chema, the parthenion, tho heroic hymn,.second Confederacy and again revolted, the encomion, and the dithyramb (qq.v.).recovering its independence in 354. The Choree, see Metre, 1.island was famous for its wine and its figs. Choregia, see Liturgy.Chiron (Cheiron), in Greek mythology, a see Chorus.Centaur (q.v.), son of Cronus (q.v.) and Chorgus,Philyra, a daughter of Oceanus. It was Chdriamb, see Metre, 1.said that Chiron owed his shape, half -man Chorodidaskalos, see Chorus.half -horse, to the fact that Cronus, to escapethe jealousy of his wife Rhea, had turned Chorographia, see Pomponius Mela and Varro Atacinus*.himself into a horse. Chiron was wise andjust, and learned in music and medicine. Chorus (Choros), in Greece, a band ofHe educated some of the most famous of men who performed songs and dances atthe Greek heroes, such as Asclcpius, Jason, a religious festival, and became an essen- tial part in the drama as this evolved (seeand Achilles. When the Centaurs (q v.) fwere driven from Mt. Pelion by the Tragedy, 2, and Comedy, 2). This part, at first predominant, later became subord-Lapithae, they took up their abode in the inate to that of the actors. Tho provisionPeloponnese. There Heracles, pursuingthe Erymanthian Boar in Arcadia, was of a chorus was regarded as a public serviceentertained by one of them, named Pholos. (see Liturgy) and the duty of assembling,When Pholos set wine before Heracles, the paying, and equipping them was borne by some wealthy private citizen selected forneighbouring Centaurs, attracted by the the purpose (known as the choregus), untilsmell, crowded round and a fierce fightensued. Heracles drove the Centaurs off with the decline of the prosperity ofand one took refuge at Malea with Chiron, Athens the duty had to be undertakenwho was accidentally wounded in the knee by the State. Tho chorus was trained by the poet himself, who was known in thisby one of Heracles poisoned arrows. Toescape from tho pain of the wound, he capacity as clwrodidaskalos. The leader ofsurrendered his immortality to Prome- the chorus was called the coryphaeus. Thetheus, and after his death was changed portions of a drama assigned to the chorusinto the constellation Centaur. might be written partly in iambics (for dialogue), partly hi anapaestic measureChiton, see Clothing, 1. (chiefly for the entrance and exit of theChlamys, see Clothing, 1. chorus), but consisted mainly of lyrics (see Metre, 2 and 3). The chorus wasChti&phoroe (Chdephoroi), see Oresteia. frequently divided into two semi-choruses,Choerilus (C/wririZos). (1) of Athens, see who sang alternate stanzas ; but whetherTragedy, 4; (2) of Samos, see Epic, 1. particular lines were sung by the wholeCholiambic, see Metre, 5. chorus, by part of it, or by a single voice, is often, in the absence of stage directions,Choral Lyric, poetry written to be sung a matter of more or less probable con-in chorus, a development of lyric (q.v.) jecture. See also Theatre.poetry originating in the song and dancewith which, from very early times, the Chremonidean War, see Athens, 8.Greeks celebrated important occasions. Chronica, see Nepos, Eusebius, Jerome.While at first these celebrations appear tohave been of the nature of a public reli- Chroniclers. (1) GREEK, see Logographigious duty, they later also took the form (1); (2) ROMAJJ, see under Annales.of professional entertainments to the order Chrysaor (Chrusddr, Golden Sword),of a patron, and poets were commissioned see Oorgons.
  • 112. Chryseis 100 CiceroChryseis (ChrOatis), see Iliad. force Verres to throw up the case and retire into exile. Cicero then publishedChrysippus (Chrusippos), see Stoics. the five further orations of the ActioChrysoloras, MANUEL, see Texts and secunda against Verros, designed to bringStudies, 9. home to the public the evils of the existingCicero, MARCUS TULLIUS (106-43 B.C.), predatory system of provincial adminis-a great Roman orator and statesman. tration. This year (70) was that of the consulship of Pompey and Crassus, during 1. Early life, 106-65 B.C. which they effected the repeal of theCicero was born at Arpinum in the Vol- Sullan constitution. Cicero, with his liberalscian mountains (the birthplace likewise sympathies, supported Pompey, and there-of Marius), a city enjoying full Roman after looked up to him as his politicalcitizenship, of a well-to-do family of some leader. He was now recognized and courtedlocal distinction. His father was a Roman as the chief advocate of the day, for Hor-knight. Cicero records the influence ex- tensius (who had been the advocate oferted on him in his youth by the Greek Verres) for a time effaced himself. In 66poet Archias, who was then living in Cicero was praetor and delivered in public assembly his first political oration, the De *Rome. In 89 he saw military service inthe Social War. At Rome ho studied Loge Manilla* (or De Imperio Cn. Pom-rhetoric, philosophy under Philo the peii). In this he defended the proposalAcademic and Diodotus the Stoic, and of the tribune Manilius to grant Pompeylaw under the Scaovolae (q.v.). In 81, (q.v.) the command against Mithridates.towards the end of the period of disorder Under the year 69 we have the (incom-caused by the partisans of Marius and plete) speech Pro Fonteio, in whichSulla (qq.v.), he made his first extant Cicero defended M. Fontcius on a chargespeech in the law-courts, Pro Quinctio* of extortion as governor of Gaul ; and the(q.v.) having as his opponent the greatest Pro A. Caecina, in a case involvingadvocate of the day, Hortcnsius. In the subtle legal points connected with inheri-next year (#0), in his speech *Pro Roscio tance of land.Amerino* (q.v.), Cicero first showed not 2. 64-63 B.C. Ciceros consulshiponly his ability as a pleader but his anti-Sullan sympathies and his courage, for ho In 64 Cicero stood for the consulship.did not shrink from attacking Sullas As a novus homo, i.e. without dignity ofpowerful freedman Chrysogonus. After ancestry, he was at a disadvantage, butthis Cicero travelled to Athens and Asia he was helped by the revelation ofMinor, to improve his health and pursue the revolutionary inclinations of Catilinehis study of rhetoric. At Rhodes he (q.v.), one of his rivals In the contest.received instruction from Mold the rhetori- Cicero was elected with C. Antonius,cian, who chocked his tendency to exu- an associate of Catiline; he won overberance, and from Posidonius (q.v.). He his colleague by ceding to him the richmarried Terentia, a lady of good family, province of Macedonia. As consul in 63 apparently somewhat domineering, per- he delivered the speeches Contra Rullumhaps before leaving for Greece hi 79. He or De Lege Agrarla (q.v.), combating an returned to Rome in 76 and became, with agrarian proposal designed to give the pop-Hortensius and Cotta, one of the three ular party a manoeuvring ground againstleading Roman advocates. To this period Pompey (then absent in the East) ; Cicerosmay belong the speech Pro Roscio condemnation of it was endorsed by theComoedo (q.v.; some authorities place people and the proposal was rejected. Theit later, in 68), on behalf of his friend the *Pro Rabirio* (q.v.) of the same year wasactor Roscius (q.v.) In 75 he was quaestor in defence of an aged knight charged byIn Sicily, a magistracy which carried the popular party with having killed,admission to the Senate. In 72 he delivered thirty-seven years before, the tribunethe speech Pro Tullio* on behalf of a cer- Saturninus. It will be seen that Cicerotain M. Tullius who was involved in a now takes up the position of a moderate, indispute about property with a neighbour, opposition to the popular party and Caesar.one of Sullas veterans. He was retained In the second half of Ciceros consulshipin 70 by the Sicilians to prosecute C. came to light the anarchic conspiracy ofVerres, who during his governorship of the desperate and unscrupulous Catilinethe island had shown appalling rapacity and his band of associates. Cicero by hisand cruelty. Ciceros first * Verrine ( Actio promptitude and firmness defeated theprima in Verrem, preceded by a Divina- plot. Catilines renewed candidature fortio in Q. Caecilium, to prevent a collusive the consulship was rejected, and when theaction), in which he formulated the charges conspirators prepared for military insur-he intended to prove, was sufficient to rection, Cicero obtained the Senatus con-
  • 113. Cicero 101 Cicerosultum ultimum, empowering the consuls virate* was formed, and Caesar becameto take all measures for the protection of consul in 59. During the period Imme-the State (Oct. 22). He frustrated Cati- diately preceding this Cicero had madelinesprojected massacre, drove him from only two speeches that have survived, onethe city by his first speech In Catilinam on behalf of Publius Sulla (Pro Sulla,(Nov. 8), exposed the situation to the q.v.) and the other on behalf of the poetpeople in his second speech (Nov. 9), and Archias ( Pro Archia, q.v.), famous for itssecured the detection of five leading con- eloquent disquisition on the glories andspirators in treasonable correspondence benefits of literature.with envoys of the Allobroges, and their It appears that Caesar made advancesarrest (Dec. 2-3). In a third oration Cicoro to Cicero with a view to attaching him toexplained the new developments to the the triumvirate. But Cicero could notpeople. The fourth was delivered in reconcile himself to Caesars unconstitu-the Senate (Dec. 5) on the question of the tional attitude and stood aloof. He didpunishment of the prisoners. Silanus had more in a speech for C. Antonius (accused ;proposed the death penalty; Caesar, it of misconduct in his province), Cicero inappears, perpetual imprisonment in chains. 59 made some complaint of the evil stateCicero recommended the former course as of the times. It was immediately aftermore merciful, and Cato also advocated this that Ciceros bitter enemy Clodiusthe death penalty. This was voted by the was adopted into a plebeian family toSenate, and Cicero at once had the sen- qualify him for a tribunate, with a view totence carried out. The army of Catiline keeping Cicero in check. This was Caesarsnow began to disperse, and the remainder, reaction to Ciceros attitude, for the adop-with their leader, were cut to pieces a tion of Clodius required the consent of themonth later. The suppression of this pontifex maximus t viz. Caesar. That Ciceroanarchist conspiracy was the first of felt tho peril of his position is shown by hisCiceros two great feats of political leader- only surviving speech of this year, *Proship ; the second, twenty years later, was Flacco , in which he defended Flaccus, onehis supreme attack on Mark Antony. In of the praetors in 63 who had effected thethe midst of tho crisis Cicero found him- arrest of the Catilinarians, on a charge ofself called upon to defend the consul-elect, extortion in his province. In this speechL. Murena, on an ill-timed charge of he takes the opportunity to appeal tobribery brought against him by Cato (sec popular sentiment in his own favour.Pro Murena). Caesar, still anxious to give Cicero a means of escape, offered him a commissionerehip 3. From 62 B.C. to Ciceros banishment for executing his agrarian law or a position in 58 under himself in Gaul. These offers Cicero Ciceros defeat of the conspiracy of declined. Thereupon Clodius was allowedCatiline made him unduly jubilant. He to bring in a Bill exiling any one who hadhad rendered a great service to the State, put Romans to death without right of ap-but he injudiciously referred to it on every peal a measure directed against Cicerosoccasion. The legality of the executions execution of the Catilinarians. Cicero hadwas questioned by the popular party, and behind him the support of tho Senate,it was significant that the tribune Metellus the knights, and the country people ; butNfipos, a lieutenant of Pompeys, refused Clodius controlled Rome by gangs ofto allow Cicero to address the people on roughs, and behind him stood Caesar withlaying down his office. But Cato saluted his army. Pompey, in spite of Ciceroshim as father of his country* (pater fidelity, refused to help him. Cicero bowedpatriot), and Cicero, in spite of the cold- to the storm and left Italy (58). Clodiusness of Pompoy, tried to secure the latter now carried a decree against him by name ;as leader of his ideal coalition of Senate his property was confiscated and hisand equestrian order as constitutional magnificent house on the Palatine wasgovernors of the empire. At the end of 62 destroyed. Cicero first went to Thessa-Publius Clodius (q.v.) was detected in lonica, where he was kindly received bydisguise at the mysteries of the Bona Dea ; Plancius the quaestor. He was utterlyhis attempt to set up an alibi was defeated crushed and unmanned by his misfortune.by the evidence of Cicero, who thereby But his exile was not prolonged. Clodiusincurred Clodiuss deadly hatred (though became so reckless that he even attackedin the actual trial the latter was, thanks Pompey and was met with his ownto bribery, acquitted). Pompey returned weapons, gangs organized by Milo.to Italy at the end of 62. The jealousyand hostility of the Senate threw him 4. 57-45 B.C.into the arms of Caesar, who returned Cicero returned with Caesars consent infrom Spain in June 60 ; the First Trium- 57 and was enthusiastically received. His
  • 114. Cicero 102 Cicerospeeches during the ensuing period arise 1 elected to the College of Augurs, and wasout of his return, the continued vexations much gratified by the honour. In 51, owingto which he was subjected by Clodius, and to the new law regarding provincial gover-the turbulence of the times. In the two norships, he was reluctantly obliged to accept that of Cilicia. He disliked leaving speeches Post Reditum (q.v.) he thankedthe Senate and the people for his recall; Rome; but he carried out his new dutiesthe De Doma Sua* and De Haruspicum honestly and efficiently. He hoped for aKesponso (qq.v.) dealt with questions re- triumph in recognition of his success in alating to the restoration of his house. In small campaign. He returned to find56 he defended P. Sestius (Pro Sestio), a Rome on the brink of the Civil War. Hetribune who had exerted himself in his left the city with many of the Senatorialbehalf, against a charge of rioting brought party when Caesar crossed the Rubicon.by Clodius. The speech, largely occupied The withdrawal of Pompey to Epirus leftwith Ciceros own services and an attempt him in the deepest trouble and perplexity.to rally the aristocratic party against the He decided to remain in Italy, and fol-triumvirs, contains some of the orators lowed Pompey only at a later stage. Afterfinest passages. The speech In Vatinium * * Pharsalus (at which he was not present)was an attack on a creature of Caesars he returned to Italy. A period of anxiouswho had been a witness against Sestius in suspense was ended in 47, when Caesarthe preceding prosecution. The *Pro came to Italy and was completely recon- Caelio was a defence of M. Caelius Rufus ciled with Cicero. The latter was im-on a charge of attempted poisoning brought pressed by Caesars clemency and hadagainst him by the notorious Clodia, sister hopes that he would restore liberty. Butof Clodius and the Lesbia of Catullus. Cicero, during the rest of Caesars life,The speech contains a fierce attack on exerted no political influence. In 46 heClodia herself. Cicero now showed signs delivered the Pro Marccllo, a speech ofof assailing, with Pompeys support, effusive thanks to Caesar for his clemencyCaesars agrarian law of 59. To check to an exiled Pompeian; in 45 the Prothis inconvenient alliance, Caesar met the Ligario in defence of Q. Ligarius, tried asother triumvirs at Luca in 56 and renewed an enemy of Caesar, a speech whoso elo-his understanding with them. Cicero was quence is said so to have moved Caesarforced to submission, and his humiliation that he acquitted the accused and in the ; may be seen in his speech of recantation, same year the Pro Rege Deiotaro , defend- *De PrOvinciis Consularibus (56), in fav- ing the tetrarch of Galatla on a charge ofour of the prolongation of Caesars com- attempted murder of Caesar. Shortly aftermand in Gaul, and in his Pro Balbo, in Catos death at Utica in 4 6, Cicero delivereddefence of the right of citizenship of a a panegyric (lauddtio) on him, which is notfriend of Caesar and Pompey. The In extant. It displeased Caesar, who repliedPlsSnem* of 55 was a reply to an angry to it in a work called Anticato. In 46 Cicerospeech by L. Calpurnius Piso when re- divorced his wife Torentia, and soon aftercalled from the governorship of Macedonia married Publilia, who had been his ward.at Ciceros instance. In 54 Cicero defended In 45 his beloved daughter Tullia (q.v.)his friend Plancius (referred to above in died, and Cicero was overwhelmed withconnexion with Ciceros exile) on a charge grief. Publilia offended Cicero by her lackof electoral corruption ( Pro Plancio ), and of sympathy, and this second marriageRablrius, a partisan of Caesar, on a charge also was ended by divorce.of extortion ( Pro Rabirio Postumo ) also ;M. Aemilius Scaurus, ox -governor of Sar- 5. Philosophical and literary writingsdinia on a charge of extortion (of this This is the period of Ciceros devotionspeech we have only fragments). The to philosophy and literary work. The Pro Milone is a written elaboration of the humiliation which followed the conferencespeech which Cicero attempted to deliver of Luca had already turned him in thisin defence of Milo (q.v.) on the charge of direction, and he had then (in 55) writtenkilling Clodius in a faction fight in Jan. 52. the De Oratoro (a treatise on rhetoricThe death of Clodius gave rise to great designed to replace his crude early workturbulence, in the midst of which the trial on the same subject, *De InventiSne,was held. Ciceros nerve gave way, his written before he was 25 years old), andspeech was a failure, and Milo was found the Do Re Publica* (qq.v.). It appearsguilty. The amended version, a splendid from certain passages in the De Legibus*defence, was sent by Cicero to Milo in his (q.v.) that he was engaged on this workexile. Milo is said to have congratulated in 52 he seems then to have discontinued ;himself that it was not delivered, else he it and returned to it in 46 and the follow-would never have known the excellent ing year. It had not been published beforered mullets of Massilia. In 53 Cicero was the De DivmatiSne* (q.v.) was writ-
  • 115. Cicero 103 Ciceroten In 44. There is no evidence whether He had hated the tyrant hi Caesar if heCicero ever finished the work or published had liked and admired the man, and heit during his lifetime. Probably in 53 he exulted in the retribution. He soon sawhad written for his sons instruction a the course of duty clear before him andlittle catechism on rhetoric, called Par- pursued it with energy. Oblivion for thetitiones Oratoriae. Between 46 and 44 past and restoration of the commonwealthhe wrote the Brutus (q.v.), a history were his aim. It was no longer a contestof Roman oratory, the Orator* (q.v.), of factions but a fight for liberty againsta picture of the accomplished speaker, Antony. The Philippics, delivered orand other works on rhetoric (an abstract published after tho first few months ofof the Topica* of Aristotle, and Do confusion and perplexity, and when theOptimo Gonere Oratorum, a preface alinement of the forces was becomingto lost translations of the speeches of clear, are the expression of his policy. ThoAeschines and Demosthenes, On the First Philippic (2 Sept. 44 in tho Senate),Crown). In 45 he wrote the Consolatio* while attacking the policy of Antony, ison the deaths of great men, a work (of conciliatory and in favour of peace. Thewhich fragments survive) occasioned by Second Philippic* was not a spoken ora-tho death of Tullia; the Hortensius* tion, but a pamphlet published in Decem-(not extant) in praise of philosophy; ber 44 when Antony was besieging Docimusthe Academica (q.v.) on the evolution Brutus in Mutina; it is a fierce invec-of the philosophical doctrines of the tive against the man who had tried toAcademy; and the De Finibus Bono- make Caesar king. The Third Philippic*rum et Malorum* (q.v.) on the different (20Dec.) is an exposition to the Senate ofconceptions of the Chief Good. After these his policy support of Decimus Brutushe wrote during 45-44 the five Books of and Octavian against Antony. Tho Fifth*tho Tusculan Disputations (q.v.) on the (1 Jan. 43) proposed tho grant of thoconditions of happiness; the "De Natura powers of propraetor to Octavian. ThoDeorum* (q.v.) on the various theological Fourth* and Sixth* (19 Dec. 44 anddoctrines; the De Fato (q.v.) the charm- ; 4 Jan. 43) were addressed to the peopleing essays De Sencctiitc and De Amicitia hi the Forum. Cicero thus took the posi-(qq.v.); the Do Divmationo (q.v.); and tion of leader of the State, stimulating thetho De Offlciis* (q.v., On Duty) for the consuls to action, and guiding policy. Thoedification of his son. Altogether a won- series of these groat speeches continuesderful output for two or three years. till the Fourteenth Philippic, celebrating As a philosopher Cicero claimed to be a tho defeat of Antony at Mutina. But thofollower of the New Academy of Carneadcs rejoicing was premature. The armies of(q.v.), which held that certain knowledge Lepidus and Pollio declared for Antony,was impossible, and that practical convic- tho Second Triumvirate was formed, andtion based on probability was the most the Commonwealth overpowered. Cicero,that could be attained. But while his whose death was reluctantly consented togeneral attitude was that of the New by Octavian, was murdered by AntonysAcademy, he was an eclectic, that is to agents on 7 Dec. 43, and his head andsay ho was not dominated by any one hands were displayed on the rostra (q.v.).school, but picked from among the doc- Repeatedly faced during his life by thetrines of the various Greek schools those perplexities of the political situation, howhich commended themselves to his died, in fact, for his loyalty to his ideal ofreason; and in questions of morality he liberty. Plutarch relates how Augustus,was inclined (e.g. in the Tusculan Dis- many years after, finding a work by Ciceroputations and tho De Officiis) to accept in the hands of one of his grand-nephews,the positive Stoic teaching. He believed observed, after a long perusal of it, Anin the existence of God, and stood for the eloquent man, my child, and a lover of hisfreedom of the will against tho doctrine country*.of fatalism. His philosophical works havelittle claim to present original thought. He 7. Ciceros Letters and his character drew on Greek sources supplying little but Tho character and of Cicero are lifethe words ; but he rendered a great service known to us with exceptional clearnessin the creation of a Latin philosophical through the letters to which with completevocabulary, in popularizing Greek thought candour he committed the record of hisand keeping it alive for the Middle Ages. moods and actions. Four collections of these have survived: Ad Atticum* (68 6. 44-43 B.C. The Philippics and 44 B.C.) edited by Atticus (q.v.), his inti- Ciceros death mate friend, himself; Ad Familiares- After the assassination of Caesar, Cicero (62-43) to his Friends, probably editedcame once more into political prominence. by Ciceros freedman Tiro ; Ad Quintum
  • 116. Cicero 104 CiceroFratrem, to his brother Quintus (q.v., also wrote poems, in his youth on Marius,60-54), and ad Bmtum to Marcus Bmtus * and later on his consulship and on his<q.v.). The genuineness of the correspon- times (from which there are quotations indence with Brutus (all of it that survives his *De Divinatione ) ; and he includedissubsequent to the murder of Caesar) has verse translations of passages of Homerbeen questioned, but is now generally and the Greek dramatists in his treatises.admitted as regards most of the letters, These show him as a poet at his best ; theOf the total number of 864 letters in the notorious lino O fortunatam natam mefour collections, 774 are by Cicero, 90 are consule Romam.% at his worst. (Ho wroteaddressed to him. There are no letters for an account of the consulship also in Greekthe year of Ciceros consulship or the pre- prose, and talked of writing one in Latinceding year. The bulk of the letters relate prose; it is not known whether he did so.)to the last years of his life. They are But his principal service to literature was-addressed to correspondents of the most in his development of Latin prose to itsdiverse political views and social position, perfection, whereby it became the basis ofto Cato and Dolabella, to Caesar, Pompey, literary expression in the languages ofand Antony, to Metellus and Tiro. Their modern Europe. Its chief features arosubjects are no loss varied, from philo- the use of the period (in which subordinatesophy, literature, and politics, to house- clauses and balanced antitheses form parthold affairs while their tone ranges from ; of the structure of the sentence), and offamiliar chat to outbursts of passion and rhythm and cadence (see Clausula). Theredespair. The first letter to his brother was a revulsion against his style in theQuintus Is almost a treatise on the duties Silver Age, when the tendency was to writeof a provincial governor. Some are politi- in concise epigrammatic sentences (as seencal manifestos intended for circulation. in Seneca and Tacitus). But QuintilianThe celebrated letter of December 54 to regarded Cicero as the greatest of RomanLentulus (Ad Fam. I. 9) is a lengthy writers.apologia for Ciceros submission to the Ciceros influence on later thought wastriumvirate after Luca. But the most immense. It is seen in such writers asinteresting are the intimate letters to Minucius Felix, St. Jerome (who was anAtticus, which throw a vivid light on ardent if reluctant Ciceronian, see theOiceros own character. They show him anecdote under his name), St. Ambroseto have been a man of mercurial temper, (whose manual of ethics De Officiisimpressionable, irresolute, and vain; but Ministrorum* was modelled on Cicerosfundamentally honest, intelligent, affec- *De Offlciis), and St. Augustine (who wastionate, and amiable. In politics he was first moved by Ciceros Hortensius* towhat we should call a liberal, opposed abandon frivolity for the search of wis-alike to reaction and to revolution. In the dom). On the other side, the Pelagians,days of Sulla he appears a democrat; whom Augustine condemned, drew largelywhen Caesar and the mob rule of Clodius on Cicero. Petrarch, the earliest of thethreatened the constitution, he appears a humanists, was devoted to Cicero andconservative. II is weakest period is that searched eagerly for manuscripts of hisof submission to the triumvirate after the works. Wemay imagine the delight withconference of Luca in 56. which he read Ciceros tribute to literature * There is a life of Cicero by Plutarch. in the Pro Archia , of which he discoveredThe lives of him by Nepos and Tiro are a manuscript at Liege hi 1333. He foundlost. a manuscript of the Letters to Atticus at Verona in 1345. His sentiments on 8. Ciceros influence on literature and reading them are expressed in two letters thought of affectionate reproach addressed by him Ciceros contribution to literature was to the spirit of Cicero (Ad Viros Illustres,as important as it was varied: political i, ii). The admiration of the Renaissanceand forensic speeches showing every form for Ciceros works gave rise to a tendencyof rhetorical art, from fierce indignation among writers to imitate his style, andto tender pity (his oratorical style was this to a controversy in which Erasmusintermediate between the severe Attic and and the elder Scaligor were ranged onthe florid Asian); treatises on rhetoric, opposite sides. Cicero was highly esteemedpolitical science, and philosophy; and in England at an early date. He was acharming letters. Cicero was also ac- favourite of John of Salisbury and Rogercounted a good poet in his day, though his Bacon; Queen Elizabeth when sixteenpoems were later derided by Juvenal (Sat. had read nearly all his works with herx. 122 et seq.). Of his verse translation of tutor Ascham. His Influence is seen laterthe works of Aratus (q.v.), the greater in the works of Lord Herbert of Cherburyport of the Phaenonema survives. He and the other Deists; in the speeches of
  • 117. Cicero 105 Circethe 18th-c. orators; and in the prose of ing Naxos into subjection, the first alliedsuch writers as Johnson and Gibbon. city to be enslaved* remarks Thucydides, a precedent of importance in the laterCicero, QUINTUS Tumus (c. 102-43 B.C.) of the Athenian empire. Hisyounger brother of M. Cicero (q.v.), was historyeducated at Homo and in Greece, and was policy favoured an understanding with Sparta and concentration of efforts againstpraetor in 62 and governor of Asia from the Persians, whereas Themistocles saw inCl to 58. He served as legate under Pom- the Delian Confederacy an instrument forpoy in Sardinia in 56, and under Caesar inGaul in 54 (where he underwent a perilous humbling Sparta. Later, Cimons policysiege, see Commentaries, Gallic War, Book brought him into antagonism with Pericles. Cimon was ostracized in 461, owing to theV). In 51-50 he served under his brother failure of his pro-Spartan policy, probablyin Cilicia. In the Civil War he Joined did not return until his ten years of ostra-Pompey, but after the latters defeat was cism ran Like he out, and died in Cyprus in 449pardoned by Caesar. his brother in the course of operations against thewas killed in Antonys proscriptions. Persians. There are lives of Cimon by Q. Cicero wrote some tragedies, which Plutarch and Nepos.have not survived ; also an extant letter tohis brother on the art of canvassing, known Cincinnatus, Ltrcius QUINCTIUS, accord-as Commentariolum petitionis consula- ing to tradition a Roman who lived in thetus*^ Wo have a collection of letters to of the 5th c. B.C. He was called first halfhim from his brother, of which the first from the plough in 458 to save the Romangives elaborate advice on the methods of army, which was blockaded by the Aequiprovincial government. on Mt. Algidus. He was made dictator, defeated the enemy, and returned to hisCiceronian Age of Roman literature, a farm. He is often referred to as aterm sometimes used to signify the period, type of the old-fashioned Roman simplicity andcentring hi Cicero (q.v.), when that litera- frugality.ture first reached its zenith. See Rome, 8.A time of civil strife contrasting with Cinesias (Kinesids), an Athenian di-the Augustan age which followed it. thyrambic poet, who flourished in theCimmerians (Kimmcrioi), (1) a fabulous latter part of the 5th o. B.C. Not only hispeople, whose land according to Homer poetry, but also his irreligion and hiswas on the limits of the world, in the personal appearance made him the buttstream Oceanus. It was shrouded in mist of his contemporaries. Aristophanes ridi-and cloud and the sun never shone on it. cules him in the Birds and perhaps inIt was there that Odysseus had access to the Lysistrata* (qq.v.). Ho was con-the spirits of the dead. (2) In Herodotus demned by Plato (Gorgias) as a poetthe Cimmerians are an historical people, liv- who aimed at producing pleasure, noting originally to the N. of the Euxine Sea. good.In the 8th and 7th cc. B.C. pressure from Cinna, GIIus HELVTUS (d. 44 B.C.), anomadic tribes from Central Asia com- Roman poet, author of a poem on Zmyrnapelled them to invade Assyria and Asia (q.v.) or Myrrha, mother of Adonis, andMinor. In Assyria they wore defeated by of a Propempticon, a guide-book toSargon (705). In Asia Minor they twice Greece in verse. Neither work is extant.captured Sardis. The invasion, however, But we know that the Zmyrna showedeoems to have left no very permanent the learning and obscurity of the Alexan-traces, though a number of Greek colonies drian influence at its worst. He was aon the north coast of the Euxino (e.g. friend of Catullus (q.v.) and accompaniedSinope and Trapezus), founded in the 8th him to Bithynia. He was murdered by thec., had to be refounded in the next. mob at Caesars obsequies (see Shake- speare, Julius Caesar, m. iii), probably *CImon (Klmon), son of Miltiadcs (q.v.)and a Thracian princess, a distinguished owing to his being mistaken for CorneliusAthenian commander, and a bold and Cinna, one of the conspirators.ambitious aristocrat. He was elected Cinyras (Kinuras), a name derived fromstrategus in 479 B.C., and after the the Phoenician kinnor, meaning a harp, theostracism of his rival Themistocles and legendary first king of Cyprus and priestthe death of Aristides (qq.v.) became all- of the Paphian Aphrodite. He was re-powerful at Athens. His principal naval garded as the earliest singer and musician.achievement was the defeat of the Persian He became the father ol Adonis (q.v.)fleet at the mouth of the EurymedSn in468 but he also did much to consolidate by his own daughter, Myrrha. (?),Athenian power in the Aegaean, founding Circe (Kirk& in Greek mythology, acolonies, putting down pirates, and bring- daughter of Helios (q.v.) and sister of
  • 118. Clrcenses 106 GlaudianAeStes, king of Colchis (see Argonauts). The subject is the infatuation of Scylla,For the story of Circe and Odysseus see daughter of Nlsus king of Megara, forOdyssey. By Odysseus she was mother of Minos of Crete, who is besieging herTelegonus (q.v.). There was a legend hi fathers city. Nisus is safe so long as aItaly that she had her home on a promon- purple lock among his white hair remainstory of Latium, Circeii (see Aen. vii. 10-24), intact. To gain her object Scylla treacher-famous for its oysters (Hor. Sat. u. iv. 33). ously cuts off the lock. Megara is takenMilton in his Comus makes the magician and Scylla is dragged through the sea Comus the son of Circe and Bacchus. suspended from the ship of Minos. She is turned into a sea-bird (ciris), ever pur-Circenses, at Rome, contests and other sued with hatred by her father, who isdisplays in the Circus, including chariot-races Pancm et circenses* turned into a sea-eagle. (q.v.). wore,according to Juvenal (x. 78-81), the only Cistell&rta (The Casket), a comedy bythings that the degenerate Roman popu- Plautus, probably adapted from a playlace cared about. by Menander. The plot turns on theCircus Maximus, in republican times discovery by means of a casket of the trueand under the early empire the chief place parentage of a foundling girl, Selenium,of amusement of the Roman people, a who has passed into the care of a cour-circus lying between the Palatine and tesan, and has become the mistress of aAventine hills, where races and public young man, Alcesimarchus. She is found to be the daughter of a citizen, Demipho,spectacles were held (see PI. 14). At firstand probably down to some time in and is thereupon married to her lover.the 4th c. B.C. there was no permanent Cithaeron (Kithairon), a mountain rangestructure after this, permanent buildings ; between Attica and Boeotia, on whichwere gradually added. The circus was Pentheus, according to legend, met hisreconstructed by Julius Caesar, with three death at the hands of the Bacchanals. Seotiers of seats, the lowest of masonry, Bacchae.the others of wood. The wooden portion Cithara, see Music, 1.was repeatedly destroyed by fire, notablyin the great fire of A.D. 64, and restored. City of God, see Augustine.The circus reached its greatest size and Classic, a word, from Lat. classicus,splendour in the reconstruction of Trajan. meaning of the highest class*. AulusThe main structure was then of masonry, Gellius has classicus . . . scrip tor, noncovered both on the inside and on the proletarius, where tho word means high-outside with marble, profusely decorated. class, as opposed to low*. Littr6, how-The exterior consisted of three tiers of ever, takes the Fr. word classique asarches, like the Colosseum. The arena was meaning used in or belonging to theabout 600 yards long by 100 yards wide. classes of colleges and schools, and it isExternally the building was about 700 probable that this notion has influencedyards long and, if the additions made in the word in its extension from the stan-imperial times on the slopes of the adjoin- dard authors to tho ancient authorsing hiDs are included, about 200 yards generally,together with the associatedwide. The east end was semi -circular, the languages, literature, &c. The wordwest end, where stood the carceres from classic* has become synonymous withwhich the chariots issued, was curved. ancient Greek and Roman. In theThe arena was divided along its length by narrower sense the classical age of Greekthe spina (see Chariot-races), on which literature is generally regarded as havingstood shrines and statues. The seating ended about 325 B.C., when the conquestscapacity has been much discussed. The of Alexander the Great brought about thecircus is stated hi the 4th c. to have con- changes described under Hellenistic Age.tamed 385,000 loca, which has been Similarly the classical age of Latin litera-variously interpreted; it probably means ture may be said to have ended with the385,000 running feet of scats, or room for close of the reign of Augustus. But itabout 200,000 spectators. must be remembered that in both lan-ClVis, a poem in hexameters doubtfully guages there were writers of almost theattributed to Virgil (q.v.). It contains first rank after the classical period, suchlines which appear also hi the Eclogues as Theocritus and Tacitus.and Georgics . It may have been written Classicianus, JtJLius, see Britain, 2.by one of the poets, such as Gallus (q.v.), Claudiaof the circle to which Virgil belonged, and Quinta, see Cybele.Virgil may have contributed to it verses Claudian (Claudius Claudianus), the lastwhich he subsequently introduced into his great poet of the heathen world, a paganown poems. at heart though perhaps nominally a
  • 119. Claudius 107 deisthenesChristian. He was a Greek, spent his child- that the majority of his clausulae conformhood at Alexandria, was at Rome from to a definite type, in which a cretic ( vabout 395 to 404, and wrote in Latin A.D.. or sometimes a molossus ( --- ) Is followeda number of official poems in hexameters, by two or more syllables trochaic or cretiosome in praise of the young emperor in their rhythm. Thus:HonOrius, of his ministers, and especially Non haberemus u wof the great general StilichS (see Gibbon, 1 Cessit audaciae w wDecline and Fair, c. xxix); others in |abuse of their enemies, in particular of (In)commodo civitatis w| w v^Rufmus (the guardian at Constantinople of Quintilian (x. 2. 18) says that an oratorArcadius, brother of Honorius), and of the thinks it a capital imitation of the styleeunuch Eutrflpius, the successor of Ruflnus of Cicero to close a period with essoin the favour of Arcadius. He also wrote videatur*. This is a variety of the above,epics on the wars against the Goths and in which two short syllables are substi-against the usurper Gildo in Africa ; these tuted for the second long of the cretic,are in effect eulogiums of Stilicho. Thesepoems show sincere enthusiasm for the Cleanthes (KleantJies), of Assos in theRoman empire, great technical and Troad (c. 330-c. 231 B.C.), the successor ofrhetorical skill, and a vigour at times Zeno as head of the Stoic (q.v.) school. Hereaching high eloquence, though both his was author of a noble hymn to Zeus,panegyric and his invective are extrava- which survives. The thought is pantheis-gant. He makes abundant use of allegory tic, and in the poem Zeus is not the god ofand mythological episode and allusion. mythology but the spirit that permeatesHe was honoured for his work with a and rules the universe. Cleanthes em-bronze statue erected in the Forum of phasized the religious side of the StoicTrajan. In addition to the above political doctrine. poems, Claudian wrote an Epithalamium*on the marriage of Honorius, an unfinished Cleisthenes (Kleisthents), (1) the foundermythological poem Do Raptu Proser- of Athenian democracy, son of Mcgaclespinae* (which contains picturesque de- the Alcmaeonid (q.v.), who marriedscriptive passages), and a number of short Agariste the daughter of Cleisthenes,pieces, idylls and epigrams, mostly in tyrant of SIcyon (see (2) below. After theelegiacs, on a great variety of subjects fall of the tyrant Hippias (510) therethe Nile, the Phoenix, a porcupine, a was an oligarchic movement in Athenslobster, a statue, a landscape, &c. The headed by Isagoras and supported bybest-known is the idyll on the Old Man Sparta. Cleisthenes put himself forwardof Verona, imitated from Virgils descrip- as the champion of democracy and over-tion of the old gardener of Tarentum threw the aristocrats. He completely re-(Georg. iv. 125 et seq.). It was translated organized the State on a democraticby Cowley. basis. He broke up what remained of the old organization based on familyClaudius (Tlbtrius Claudius Drusus N&roOermdnicus), Roman emperor A.D. 41-54, groups and substituted a new system based on topography. He divided thethe nephew of Tiberius and younger of Attica into demes (demoi) orbrother of Germanicus (see Julw-Claudian territory parishes, of which the city of AthensFamily, and Rome, 10). He wrote an comprised five (he may have taken exist-autobiography, which is not extant, more ing demes as the basis). All citizens wereelegant in stylo than sensible, according inscribed on the register of one or other ofto Suetonius. He was an antiquarian and the demes, and many metics (q.v.) andhistorian of no mean authority. He wrote freedmen were admitted to the citizenship.a history of the reign of Octavian from27 B.C. to A.D. 14, and a shorter history Each deme had its own finances and itsfrom the death of Julius Caesar and in demarch, elected by its assembly (agora), ;Greek twenty books of Tyrrhenica* (a which dealt with local affairs. Cleisthenes further divided the population of Atticahistory of the Etruscans) and eight books into ten tribes (phulai), distributed overof *Carchedonica* (a history of Carthage).None of these works has survived. His the demes so that no tribe had a con- tinuous territory, or represented a locallearning, combined with a certain un- interest; on the contrary, in each tribegainliness and dullness of wit, has caused were comprised areas In the districts ofhim to be compared to James I. the city, the shore, and the interior. TheClausula, hi Latin rhetoric, the closing tribes were named after Attic heroes (withwords of a period. The rhythm of the whom they had in fact no special con-dausulae of Ciceros speeches has been nexion) and were thus given a fictitiouscarefully studied, and it has been found blood-relationship. The phratriai (q.v.)
  • 120. Gleitus 108 Cleomenessurvived in the constitution of Cleisthenes Fathers, but also conspicuous for his wideas a kind of religious community for knowledge of Greek literature, especiallycarrying out certain cults, but were re- of Greek philosophy. His writings aboundorganized so that no citizen could be in quotations and anecdotes, and containexcluded from them. Each tribe furnished passages of interest to Greek scholarship ;annually fifty members to the Council of he has preserved many details concerningState (Boule), taken from the denies of the the Orphic and Eleusinian Mysteries. Hetribe by lot proportionately to their popu- was probably born at Athens, and studiedlation. These groups of fifty exercised in and taught at Alexandria. His principalturn the Prytany (prutaneia) or function works were Protreptikos or an Exhorta- of executive committee of the Boule, each tion* to the Greeks (an attack on pagangroup holding office for one tenth of the religion and philosophy), Paidagogos (ayear. Each tribe furnished its military course of religious instruction), and Stro-contingent of a regiment of hoplites and mateis or Miscellanies (in which he aimsa squadron of cavalry. at reconciling Christian faith with reason Cleisthenes subordinated the Boule and and philosophy).the Areopagus (q.v.) to the supreme Cleobis and Biton, two Argives who,authority of the Ecclesia or assembly of according to a story placed by Herodotusall the citizens, which met regularly at in the mouth of Solon, drew their motherleast once in the period of each prytany, in a chariot a distance of 45 stadia to theand might deal with any important State Heraeum (q.v.) to attend a festival ofquestion. In one respect Cleisthenes was Hera. The men of Argos, who stood near,conservative: the existing magistracies commended the strength of the youths,were retained, and the archons could be and the women blessed their mother. Butchosen only from the two wealthiest the mother herself prayed the goddess toclasses of the population. The Eupatrids grant her sons the greatest blessing that(q.v.) retained the priestly offices. See man could receive. Thereafter the youthsalso Strategus. fell asleep in the temple of the goddess Cleistheues sought to safeguard his con- and died as they slept; the goddess thusstitution by the institution of ostracism showing that it is better for a man to die than to live. An inscription on a statue (2) Of Sicyon, tyrant in the early 6th c. of Cleobis and Biton has been discoveredHis policy was consistently anti- Dorian at Delphi.and in particular anti-Argive. In this hewas only carrying on the policy of earlier Cleomenes (Kleomenes). (1 ) Cleomenes I,Orthagoridao (descendants of Ortha- King of Sr>arta (c. 520-c. 490 B.C.). He freedgoras, reputed founder of the dynasty). Athens (q.v.) from the tyranny of Hippias.He would not allow rhapsodes to recite He subsequently supported the aristo-Homeric poems (because of their frequent cratic reaction in that city headed byreferences to Argives) and attempted to Isagoras against Cleisthenes, and wasexpel the worship of the Argive hero besieged in the Acropolis with IsagorasAdrastus (q.v.). This, together with his and obliged to capitulate. When, beforeabandoning of the Dorian tribe-names at the Persian War, Aegina was suspectedSicyon, seems to have led up to open war of favouring the Persians, he forced thewith Argos, in which the latter State had Aeginetans to give hostages for their goodthe bettor. Earlier, Cleisthenes had taken conduct to Athens.part hi the Sacred War (q.v.) of c. 590. (2) Clcomenes III, the last great king ofHis reign is said to have lasted 31 years. Sparta (236-222 B.C.). Following his pre-For the story of the wooing of his daughter decessor Agis IV, he attempted to restoreAgaristo, see under Hippocleides. Spartan power by a series of reforms (3) A character ridiculed by Aristo- designed to rehabilitate the constitutionphanes in his Birds, Knights, Clouds, of Lycurgus. Ho proposed to abolish the *and Thesmophoriazusao . We know from ephorate, extend the powers of the kings,Lysias (xxv. 25) that he was a professional free helots, and make a new distributioninformer. of the land. This was in 226-5. BeforeCleitus (Kleitos), brother of the foster- that, Cleomenes had built up a strongmother of Alexander the Great and ono position in the State by his successful wars the Achaean League (q.v.). Theof his cavalry commanders. He saved againstAlexanders life at the Granicus, and was reforms were in part carried out; but in 222 (or 223) Cleomenes was defeated atsubsequently killed by him in a drunken Sellasia by the Achaeans under Aratus ofbrawl (see Alexander the Great, 6). Sicyon and fled to Egypt, where he wasClement of Alexandria (c. A.D. 160- put to death soon afterwards. His ideasc. 215) was not only one of the early Greek (and those of Agis) may have influenced
  • 121. Cleon 109 Climaxthe Gracchi (q.v.) at Home. There is a feared by theRomans; there may havelife of Cleomenes by Plutarch. For an been something of the true patriot in her.imaginative modern reconstruction, see It is the romantic portrait, based onMrs. Mitchlsons Corn King and Spring Plutarch, which Shakespeare presents inQueen. his Antony and Cleopatra*. See C. A. H., vol. x, for an interesting reconstruction.Cleon (Klton) (d. 422 B.C.), an Athenian Cleopatra was a very ancient Greekdemagogrue prominent at the time of thePeloponnesian War, by trade a tanner, name, in Homer (II. ix. 556) that of the wife of Meleager, and in the legend of theviolent and dominating by character,determined to win power by his ascen- Argonauts that of the wife of Phineus.dancy over the people. It must be remem- Cleopatra VII was by descent a Mace-bered that he is known to us chiefly donian; it is a mistake to think of her as an Egyptian.through the writings of his enemies (nota-bly Aristophanes, q.v.). He was not a Cleophon (Kleophdn), an Athenian dema-coward, as Aristophanes suggests, but he gogrueprominent in the latter part of themay have been venal. Ho was in favour Peloponnesian War and in the restorationof an imperialist policy, and of a ruthless of democratic rule after the battle ofconduct of the war, by sea and land, until Cyzicus (see Athens, 5). Ho was tried andcomplete victory was obtained, at what- put to death in 404 by the oligarchs.ever cost, for it would pay the Athenians in Glepsydra (Klepsudrd), see Calendar, 4.the end. In 427 it was he who proposed,after the suppression of the revolt of Cleruch (KUrouchos), an Athenian citi- zen who held an allotment of land (kUros)Mytilene, the execution or enslavement ofthe inhabitants. He attacked unsuccessful in a foreign country. A cleruchy (klerou-generals, and his complaints of the slow- chid) or group of such cleruchs differedness of the operations against Sphacteria from a colony in that the cleruchs retainedled Nicias to propose to hand over charge their rights of Athenian citizenship, andof them to Cleon. By luck and shrewdness did not necessarily reside in their allot-Cleon was able to make good his promise ments. The system was introduced in the last years of the 6th c. B.C., but was muchto take Sphacteria and bring home theprisoners within twenty days. This achieve- developed in the 5th c. when it became anment made frl all-powerful at Athens. important feature in the Athenian im-But the vigorous operations that followed perial system, by providing a sort of per-proved unfortunate; among other disas- manent garrisons in foreign lands and inters Amphipolis and other towns hi Chal- the countries of the subject-allies. It wascidice fell into the hands of Brasidas (q.v.). also a means of making provision for theCleon was elected strategus, and com- poorer and landless citizens of Athens,manded the expedition for their recon- whose economic position was a constantquest. He met with some successes, but problem. The leader of a cleruchy waswas repulsed from Amphipolis and killed known as the oecist (oikistes). Important cloruchies were founded by Cimon and(422). His death and that of Brasidas, Pericles (qq.v.), notably in the Thraoianmortally wounded in the same engage-ment, removed the principal obstacles to Chersonese, Lemnos, Euboea, and Aegina.the Peace of Nicias. See also Aristophanes Client, at Rome, in republican times,and Knights. signified a dependant on a patrician, or more generally on a powerful or wealthyCleopatra VII (68-30 B.C.), daughter of patron, to whom he rendered services andPtolemy Auletes, king of Egypt (d. 51 from whom he received protection. TheB.C.), appointed by him as his successor relation of client to patron resembled thatjointly with her younger brother. She to chief, dignified by mutualwas famous for her beauty and charm, of vassalwhich she exercised on Julius Caesar (who loyalty. Under the empire the relationrestored her to her throne in 47 B.C. after became degraded. The clients were then of some richher expulsion by Pothinus, and had by merely hungry hangers-on his receptions, walkingher a son named Caesarion), and later on patron, attending behind him about the city, running hisMark Antony (q.v.) whose evil genius, errands, in return for a scanty dole ofaccording to the generally accepted view, food orshe became. (For the political aspect of money. This relation is especially illustrated by Martials poems.their relations, see under Antony.) Shetook her own life when Antonys cause Climax (Gk. for ladder, L. gradMiS), abecame desperate in 30 B.C. The true rhetorical figure in which successive notionscharacter of Cleopatra, behind the roman- are arranged in order of increasing impres-tic tales about her, we do not know, except siveness. Quintilian quotes as an examplethat she had personal courage and was (from the Ad Herennium) Africano
  • 122. Clio 110 Clothing and Toiletvlrtutem industria, virtus gloriam, gloria Clothing and Toilet.aemulos comparavit. 1. Greek clothing An anticlimax (a word apparently firstfound In Popes Art of Sinking, 1727) is The dress of the Athenians of the 5ththe opposite of a climax; the addition of and 4th cc. consisted normally of two gar-a particular which, instead of heightening ments, each composed of an oblong piecethe effect, lowers it or makes it ludicrous. of woollen or linen cloth (a) the CHITON :Of. Bathos. or tunic, worn next to the skin, doubled round the body, pinned over each shoulder,Clio (Kletfy, seeM uses. and held in by a girdle at the waist, leav-Cloaca Maxima, a great sewer at Rome, ing the arms free. This was worn by menascribed to the Tarquins, but probably falling to the knee, by women longer.dating from early republican times, and (b) The HlMATTON or cloak, worn by men ;reconstructed under Augustus. Starting it was laid from behind on the twofrom the valley of Subura it drained the shoulders, and the right end thrown overmarshy ground at the foot of the Capitol the left shoulder, but so as to leave theand so made possible its use as the Roman right hand exposed. It could bo drawnForum. It was vaulted and paved, and over the head. Workmen, who could notwhore it emptied into the Tiber it was afford the himation (it cost 16-20 drach-about 10 ft. wide and 12 ft. high. The mas), wore a single garment, known as thesystem of sewers of which it formed part ExOans, of coarse stuff made at Megara,was regarded, with the aqueducts and with a goat-skin for cold weather. Theroads, as among the most wonderful con- outer garment of women was the amplestructions of ancient Rome. The Cloaca PEPLOS, pinned over the shoulders, andMaxima still forms part of the drainage variously draped according to the fashion.system of the modern city. See PI. 14. Horsemen wore a short mantle known as * the CHLAMYS. It was usual for men toCloanthus, in the Aeneid, a companion strip entirely for exercise or sport. Theof Aeneas. He figures in the boat-race colour of Greek mens dress was prevailing(Bk. V). white ; but workmen wore dark stuffs, andGlddia, the sister of P. Clodius (q.v.) and women gay -coloured materials. Hats werowife of the consul Q. Mctellus Color, a not generally worn, except when travel-woman notorious for her profligacy. ling or hunting ; the PETASOS was a broad-Among her lovers was Catullus (q.v.), brimmed felt hat, said to have been,who celebrated her as Lesbia. She was introduced from Thessaly with the chla-the bitter enemy of Cicero (q.v.), who mys the PtLos was a round felt cap, with ;fiercely attacked her in his speech Pro little or no brim, chiefly worn by workmen.Caelio. Sandals and shoes wore worn out of doors ;Clodius Albinus, DECIMUS, see Britain, tanning and shoemaking were active in- dustries at Athens, and womens shoes 2. were often luxurious and highly decorated.Clodius Pulcher, PUBLIUS, a patricianof the Claudian gens, notorious for his 2. Greek ornaments and toiletviolence and profligacy and as the enemy Bracelets, rings, and ear-rings wore worn.of Cicero. His profanation of the mysteries Tho British Museum has a silver armlet,of the Bona Dea hi 62 B.C., the defeat by in the form of a coiled snake, of tho 4th orCiceros evidence of his attempt to prove 3rd c. B.C., inscribed with the name of itsan alibi (though in fact Clodius was Cletis. Cosmetics were used, as we owner,acquitted at the trial), the vengeance he know from Xenophons Oeconomicus*.took as tribune hi 58 by driving Cicoro Greek men usually wore beards, but razorsinto exile, his feud with Milo carried on are mentioned in Homer. There wereby street fights between gangs of ruffians, public baths attached to the gymnasia,and his death in 52 in one of these riots, but they wore not of tho elaborate charac-are related under Cicero, 3 and 4. Ho ter found at Rome ; bathing scenes repre-was brother of Clodia (q.v.). sented on vases show men standing about a large vessel, into which an attendantCloelia, according to legend, a Romanmaiden who was one of the hostages given may be pouring water. Tho oil-flask (lecythus) for anointing was an essentialto the Etruscan king Porsena in the course requisite for a bath.of his war with the newly founded Romanrepublic. She escaped, and swimming the 3. Roman clothesTiber returned to Rome. She was again Mens dress in republican times con-surrendered to Porsena, who in admira- sisted of an inner garment, the tunica,tion of her courage released her together and an outer the toga. The TUNICA waswith some of her companions. first introduced at Rome as a form of dress
  • 123. Clothing and Toilet 111 Cloudsfor the poorer classes. It was then adoptede.g. patrician magistrates wore a red high-as an under-dress, first of all by patricians. soled calceus, senators a black calceus,It was a shirt-like garment, usually with both with a small crescent of ivory.short sleeves, reaching to about the knee. Women wore it white or coloured. UnderThe TOGA was a white woollen garment, the empire great splendour was shown inroughly semicircular, sometimes about the colour and adornment of shoes. The6 yards long by 2 at its greatest width, CALIGA was a hob-nailed boot worn bybut of which the size does not seem soldiers and peasants. Sandals (SOLEAE)to have been definitely fixed. Various were worn indoors, but were taken offpassages show that it was worn large when guests reclined at dinner. To ask foror small according as one wanted to be ones sandals (posccre soleas) was theostentatious or not. One end of it nearly signal that one was going away.reached the ground in front, while theother was thrown over the left shoulder, 6. Roman toilet, rings, <&c.brought under the right arm, and again Roman men at first wore long hair andthrown over the left shoulder. It was beards. Hair-cutting and shaving wereworn by citizens only and was the obliga- introduced from Sicily about 300 B.C.tory dress on oflacial occasions, even in Scipio Aemilianus (q.v.) is said to haveimperial times when more convenient gar- been the first to shave daily. The customments had come into use. The toga virilis, of shaving or wearing the beard shortthat worn by the ordinary citizen, was continued under the empire. Roman ra-entirely white. The toga praetexta, worn zors were made of iron and, since theyby certain priests and magistrates and were liable to rust, very few survive (therealso by free-born boys until they reached is one in the British Museum). The head-manhood, was bordered with a purple dress of Roman women was at first simple,stripe. Women at first wore the toga, but became very elaborate under thelater the STOLA, a garment with slits on empire false hair was used, and decorated ;either side for the arms, gathered up ivory hairpins, besides cosmetics. Combsbelow the breast by a girdJe. They wore were of ivory, bone, or wood. Mirrors werealso the PALLA, a mantle, over the stola. generally of silver-plated bronze. WigsThe LACERN A was a mans rough outer cloak and false hair were hi use in Ovids day.worn on journeys against the weather; Martial refers to the use of false teeth, andalso later a more elegant outer garment- the use of gold in dental operations isworn in Homo at the games and other mentioned in an old law quoted by Cicerooutdoor functions (it was prohibited by (De leg. ii. 24, 60). Senators and otherAugustus in the Forum and Circus). The eminent persons wore a gold signet-ring;TRABEA was a cloak worn by the eques- others a ring of iron. The use of the goldtrian order, by the consul at certain cere- ring came to be a sign of free birth, andmonials, and by augurs and various orders was granted even to freedmen and laterof priests. Suetonius gives three kinds of to soldiers irrespective of their rank in thetrabea: (a) entirely of purple, (6) purple army. Betrothal rings were used (thereand white, (c) purple and saffron. Wool is a gold one in the British Museum). Thewas dyed from an early date with saffron, BULLA was a small box containing anindigo, kermes, and the purple dye of the amulet worn by free -born Roman childrenmurex shell-fish. At first it was prepared round the neck it was of gold, bronze, or ;by the women of the family, but, with the leather according to the wealth of thegrowth of the proletariate, guilds of fullers, parents. It was worn by boys till they&c. sprang up. The use of linen, cotton, assumed the toga virilis, by girls probablyand silk came in later, with the develop- till they married. Se