Computer concepts


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Computer concepts

  1. 1. Computing FundamentalsSoftware and hardware interactionand types of software 1
  2. 2. Hardware and Software Interaction Users interact with computers by: Input devices Output devices Application programs 2
  3. 3. Data Input Keyboard Entering text and numbers Uses software to interact with the user Mouse Select and reposition items Scanner Capture images Microphone Input voice commands 3
  4. 4. Software Commands Activate modules of instructions Ways to activate a command Click a word in a menu Click a button Pressing a function key Voice commands 4
  5. 5. Software Applies Rules & Processes Rules make decisions for software Some common rules: AutoCorrect  Change commonly misspelled words AutoFormat as you type  Convert text to fractions  1/2 into ½  Convert e-mail address to hyperlink 5
  6. 6. Software Communicates Results Results are often sent to output devices Monitor  Most common Printer  Hard copy of results CNC – Computer Numeric Control  Instructions for automated machinery 6
  7. 7. Steps of the Development Process Software creation takes several steps Results of proper development  Reliable software  Easy to use 7
  8. 8. Programming Written in a language computers understand Words have single meanings Basic grammar structure (syntax) Computer languages Visual Basic C++ <html> COBOL <head> <script type="text/vbscript"> function myFunction() myFunction = "BLUE" Pascal end function </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/vbscript"> document.write("My favorite color is " & myFunction()) </script> <p>A function procedure CAN return a result.</p> </body> </html> 8
  9. 9. Debugging Software malfunction called a bug Teamwork can reduce errors Ancillary programs Catch simple mistakes Does not stop problems with:  Faulty logic  Unanticipated input combinations  Unrecognized hardware components 9
  10. 10. Beta Review Review revised software prior to release Beta version Newly revised version of software not yet released for public sale Beta tester Report errors Often voluntary Requires confidentiality Test software on their PC 10
  11. 11. Instructions and Help Manuals Often created while in beta release Digital forms accompany software Access methods  Click Help (Menu bar)  Press F1 Most up-to-date manuals and help files typically found on the company’s Web site 11
  12. 12. Quality Control Beta tester comments compiled Software revisions are made New version number assigned  Versions can be numbers or text  Office XP  Corel Draw 10 Delicate balance Do we fix all the bugs or do we sell the product now and fix problems later? 12
  13. 13. Software Updates After release additional errors are identified Fixes are created to repair known issues Downloadable from the Web Often free for legal users Commonly known as: Updates Patches Service packs 13
  14. 14. Upgrading Software Major revision to software New interfaces New features Support for new technology Investment required Normally less expensive than full versions Check hardware requirements Often requires newer, more powerful hardware  RAM, CPU, hard disk space, video card, etc. 14
  15. 15. Reasons to Update and Upgrade Updates protect us from: Viruses – Antivirus updates Hackers – Firewall updates User meltdown – System locking up over and over again Upgrades allow us to: Access new tools, features, and gizmos Stay compatible with the rest of the world Utilize new hardware to its full potential 15
  16. 16. Methods of Staying Up-to-Date Downloads from the Web Updates – Secure or unsecured downloads Upgrades – Secure downloads  Purchase key codes (access codes) online Order CD from manufacturer Network-based installation Done by system administrator Primarily for site licensed software 16
  17. 17. Basic Word Processing Concepts Input is received Stored in RAM Manipulated within capabilities of program  Format - Bold, italics, font color, etc.  Input graphics Ideal for editing  Faster than retyping on typewriters Displayed on the screen 17
  18. 18. Word Processing Documents From memos and letters to entire books Can utilize advanced features Index and table of contents Save as a Web page Graphics Common file extensions .docx – Microsoft Word 2007 .doc – Microsoft Word 2003 & earlier .odt – Writer 18
  19. 19. Spreadsheet Concepts Used to display numbers in a variety of ways Formulas Calculations of values in other cells Worksheet – Single table of cells Workbook – Collection of worksheets Layout Columns – Letters Rows – Numbers 19
  20. 20. Spreadsheet Basics Cell – Where column and row cross Identified by pairing column and row designation Formulas Algebraic equation Start with “=” (equal sign) Functions Predefined equations Functions can be a formula or part of a formula 20
  21. 21. Spreadsheet ProcessesVariety of features Charts – Pie, bar, scatter plot Data analysis 100 Sorting and filtering 80 60 East West 40 North 20 What-If analysis 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Crunch values in equation to get desired results 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 21
  22. 22. Spreadsheet Documents Possible uses P&L (profit & loss statement) Investment tracking Expense reports Grade book Budget Common file extensions .xlsx – Microsoft Excel 2007 .xls – Microsoft Excel 2003 & earlier .ods – Calc 22
  23. 23. Presentation Software Concepts Visual aids Graphics Clip art and digital pictures Charts Text Titles Bulleted lists Animation Holds audience attention 23
  24. 24. Presentation Basics Slides Image composed of text, graphics, etc. Slide show Group of slides Extra features Speaker notes  Displayed on screen Student handouts  Printouts  Slide miniatures 24
  25. 25. Presentation Documents Possible uses Educational presentation Display at trade shows Interactive Web pages Common file extensions .pptx – Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 .ppt – Microsoft PowerPoint 2003 & earlier .odp – Impress 25
  26. 26. Database Concepts Database A collection of organized data Stores huge amounts of information Used in the retail sales environment  Inventory system  Point of sale Considered more difficult for beginners 26
  27. 27. Database BasicsPrimary components of most databases Tables  Store the data Queries  Filter the data  Ask a question of the data  Which customers live in Colorado? Forms  Input, edit, and view data Reports  View the data – On screen or printed 27
  28. 28. Database Documents Possible uses Customer records Inventory system Bill payment tracking Common file extensions .accdb – Microsoft Access 2007 .mdb – Microsoft Access 2003 & earlier .odb – OpenOffice Base 28
  29. 29. Memory UsageDatabase programs use RAM differently Store only active record in RAM Automatically saves Saves a record when moving to the next record Power failure  Loss of current record, not all records 29
  30. 30. Graphic and Multimedia Basics Limited by hardware CPU, RAM, hard drive, video card Limited by software Necessary software not installed Purchase legal copies Download trial versions  Adobe – 90-day try and die Avoid copyright infringement  Don’t share your legal software  Microsoft Hotline: 1-800-RU-LEGIT 30
  31. 31. Graphics Software Concepts Basic graphics programs Built into some software  PowerPoint, Word, etc. Microsoft Paint – Windows Sophisticated programs Able to manipulate pictures  Remove items, recolor hair, etc. Adobe Photoshop Elements Adobe Photoshop Microsoft PhotoDraw 31
  32. 32. File Types Image types .bmp – Bitmap .gif – Graphics interchange format  256 colors maximum and could be animated .jpg – Joint Photographic Expert Group  16 million colors maximum Sound and video .wav – Uncompressed audio .mp3 – Compressed audio .mov – QuickTime movie 32
  33. 33. Other Multimedia SoftwareSoftware for manipulating sound and video High hardware requirements Can be very expensiveExamples Liquid Edition 6 Pro ≈ $1000  Video and audio editing + DVD authoring ULead Studio ≈ $150  Video and photo editing + DVD authoring AlamDV ≈ $100  Futuristic video tweaking  Laser blast, Fire, Star Wars style light sabers 33
  34. 34. Other Types of Software Bundle or suite  Designed to complement each other  Convenient exchange of data Personal information manager (PIM)  Microsoft Outlook, Act, GoldMine Accounting  Microsoft Money, Quicken, Peach Tree Web authoring  Flash MX, Microsoft FrontPage, Dream Weaver Project management  Microsoft Project 34
  35. 35. How to Select Software Similar to choosing a computer Identify the tasks: What are you making? Is it simple or complex? Look for software that meets your needs Problems that arise Too complex to use Incompatible with other software 35
  36. 36. Software Performs Similar Tasks Not apparent which software to useExample: Table Word processing programs use tables Spreadsheets and databases also use tables Choose software based on need  Word processing – Basic table of entries  Spreadsheet – Calculated values  Database – Large quantities of data 36
  37. 37. Common Incorrect Uses Generating queries and reports Spreadsheets are great for storing data Spreadsheets are not great for complex queries and complex summarization reports Need to convert to database Calculations in tables Microsoft Word tables support formulas  Formulas do not auto recalculate like a spreadsheet  Manual “formula refreshing” required  Right-click cell  Refresh 37