Passport to class room English

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Passport to class room English

  1. 1. Improving StudentImproving Student Achievement throughAchievement through Effective ClassroomEffective Classroom ManagementManagement Asif Amin Khokhar 2011 (ELC – English Language Centre) 1
  2. 2. Classroom management refers to all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 2
  3. 3.  Students are deeply involved in their work  Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful.  There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, and disruption.  The climate of the classroom is work oriented, but relaxed and pleasant. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 3
  4. 4.  Rules  Procedures  Rewards  Consequences  Classroom Layout  Teacher Organization  Parental Involvement  The First Day SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 4
  5. 5.  Rules are expectations of appropriate student behavior  The function of a rule is to prevent or encourage behavior by clearly stating student expectations  Keep the number of rules to a minimum (3-5)  If possible, state rules positively SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 5
  6. 6.  Follow directions the first time they are given  Raise your hand and wait for permission to speak  Stay in your seat unless you have permission to do otherwise  No cursing or teasing SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 6
  7. 7.  Be in your seat when the bell rings  Bring all books and material to class  No personal grooming during class time  Sit in your assigned seat daily  Follow directions the first time they are given SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 7
  8. 8.  Consequences are what result when a person abides by or breaks the rules  Rules must have consequences  Consequences can be positive or negative  Positive consequences are called REWARDS  Negative consequences are called PENALTIES SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 8
  9. 9.  The best consequences are reasonable and logical  Students will be more likely to rebel if the consequences don’t make sense  A reasonable consequence is one that follows logically from the behavior rather than one that is arbitrarily imposed  The best logical consequences teach the students to choose between acceptable and unacceptable actions SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 9
  10. 10.  Time Out  Demerit or Fine  Detention  Assignment to write six ways to correct the problem  Being the last to leave  Deprivation of some reward  Exclusion from class participation SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 10
  11. 11.  Do not stop instruction when giving out the consequences  When you see a violation of one of the rules, immediately give out the penalty  Give out the penalty quietly as you continue with the lesson or class work  Always deal with the behavior, not the person. You leave a person’s dignity when you deal only with the behavior or the issue  Include a “severe clause” in your consequence list SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 11
  12. 12.  The best reward is the satisfaction of a job well done  Use praise, recognition, and honors often  Use tangible rewards sparingly  Explain your reward system when explain your rules and consequences  Post your reward system in the classroom SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 12
  13. 13.  Free time on Friday  Student of the week/ semester  Tickets used for a drawing or other “ monetary” system  PRAISE – be specific  Extra Credit  Good work posted  First to be dismissed  Homework Pass SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 13
  14. 14.  A pat on the back, high five, handshake  A note  A note home  A phone call home  Pencil/ Eraser  Candy  Answer on a test SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 14
  15. 15.  Move a seat  Class ice cream party  Marble jar Don’t Forget That Positive Reinforcement is Your Greatest Tool for Management of Student Behavior SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 15
  16. 16. A procedure is a method or process for how things should be done in a classroom SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 16
  17. 17.  Classroom procedures allow many different activities to take place efficiently during the school day  Classroom procedures increase on-task time and greatly reduce classroom disruptions  Classroom procedures tell student how things operate in a classroom SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 17
  18. 18. All procedures must be rehearsed Spend time the first few days of school teaching, modeling, and practicing procedures SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 18
  19. 19.  Entering the classroom  Morning routine  When you are tardy  Dismissal  Participation in class discussions  When you need a pencil or paper  Checking out class materials  Coming to attention  When you are absent  Working cooperatively  Changing groups  Saying “thank you” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 19
  20. 20.  Keeping your notebook  Going to the office  Going to the restroom  Passing in papers  Returning student work  Headings on papers  When you finish early  Asking a question  Walking in the hall  Fire drills, earthquake, etc.  When visitors are in the classroom  If the teacher is out of the classroom SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 20
  21. 21.  Good classroom rules are the backbone ofGood classroom rules are the backbone of classroom managementclassroom management  There should be a minimum expectation forThere should be a minimum expectation for behavior for every student in the classroombehavior for every student in the classroom  All students should be expected to follow the rules,All students should be expected to follow the rules, even special students. Once rules exceptions areeven special students. Once rules exceptions are made a double standard exists and rules becomemade a double standard exists and rules become worthlessworthless  It is essential that students understand the resultingIt is essential that students understand the resulting consequences (both positive and privilege loss) ofconsequences (both positive and privilege loss) of the rulesthe rules SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 21
  22. 22.  Read a posted rule  Discuss and/ or role play why the rule is important  Explain what will happen if the rule is followed  Explain what will happen if the rule is not followed  Student should be allowed to question the utility or fairness of a rule during discussion periods but it is the teacher who makes the final decision. Rules cannot be questioned at other times, especially when a rule is broken.  Teachers should select and post the core of the classroom rules before the first day of school. They can be fine tuned during discussion the first two weeks of school . SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 22
  23. 23.  Keep the number of rules to a minimum – about five rules for each classroom  Keep the wording of rules simple – pictures or icons depicting the rules help the understanding of younger students  Have the rules logically represent the basic expectation for a student’s behavior in the classroom  Keep the wording positive if possible. Most rules can be stated in a positive manner; some rules cannot. However, the majority of classroom rules should be positive  Make the rules specific. The more ambiguous (i.e. open to several interpretations) the rules are, the more difficult they are to understand. Don’t give any loopholes SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 23
  24. 24.  Make the rules describe behavior that is observable. The behavior must be observable so that an unequivocal decision can be made as to whether the rule has been followed.  Make sure the rules describe behavior that is measurable. That is, behavior must be able to be counted and quantified in some way for monitoring purposes.  Publicly post the rules in a prominent place in the classroom (e.g., in front of the classroom, near the door). The lettering should be large and block printed.  The following the rules to consequences. Spell out what happens positively if students follow the rules, and what they lose if they do not follow the rules.  Always include a compliance rule. You get the behavior that are posted in the rules. If you want to improve compliance in the classroom, include a rule such as “Do what your teacher says immediately”. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 24
  25. 25.  Be responsible  Be a good citizen  Pay attention  Be ready to learn  Demonstrate respect for others  Respect other’s rights  Respect authority  Treat school property appropriately  Do your best  Take care of your materials  Maintain appropriate behavior in the classroom  Be kind to others  Be polite SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 25
  26. 26.  Turn in completed assignments on time  Bring paper, pencil and books to class  Sit in your seat unless you have permission to leave it  Raise your hand and wait for permission to speak  Work when you are supposed to  Do not bother or hurt others  Walk, don’t run, at all times in the classroom  Keep hands, feet and objects to yourself  Bring books, notebooks, pens and pencils to class SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 26
  27. 27.  Disruptive students should be placed in the front of the classroom near the teacher, but not separated from rest of class  Two disruptive students should not be allowed to sit next to each other  Disruptive students need more frequent reinforcement than other students. Having them close to the teacher makes this possible  If there are a group of difficult students, have the most difficult one sit close to the teacher and spread the others out. Place appropriate students next to disruptive students  Students should have only relevant materials on their desk  Do not place easily distracted students near the window or other location where distraction is likely SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 27
  28. 28.  Moving around the classroom frequently is the best proactive strategy  The more time the teacher is behind her/ his desk, the more opportunity students have to misbehave  Walking around lets the teacher more easily detect problems before they get out of hand  Walking around allows the teacher to subtly reinforce students (e.g., a touch on the shoulder, leaning down to look at their work, saying “good job”). SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 28
  29. 29.  Make sure you mean it! – Never issue a command you do not intend to see followed through to its completion  Do not present command as a question or favor. – State it simply, directly, and in a businesslike voice  Use a quite voice, do not yell. – Getting you upset may be reinforcing to them. Try to maintain your composure.  Give the student time. – When giving a command allow 5 to 10 seconds to respond before (1) giving the command again or (2) giving a new command. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 29
  30. 30.  Do not nag – Issue a command only twice, then follow through on the preplanned consequence. The more you ask, the less likely they are to comply.  Do not give too many commands at once – Give only one or two commands at a time.  Make sure student is paying attention to you – Make sure you have eye contact.  Describe the behavior you want – It helps to give specific well-described commands that are not open to interpretation.  Make more start requests than stop request – “Do” requests are better than “Don’t” requests.  Verbally reinforce compliance – It is easy to forget and not socially reward a student when he/ she complies to your request. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 30
  31. 31.  Definition – A School-Home note is an informational note that goes from the classroom to home, and back to school. It provides information between the parents and teacher about a student’s classroom behavior and academic performance.  Step 1: Decide what type of home note is necessary. Daily notes are helpful when the program is first started. Weekly notes can be used once things stabilize.  Step 2: Set up a conference with the student’s parent (s). Solicit their cooperation, ask them their goals, and help them decide on positive and negative consequences at home.  Step 3: In the conference with the parent(s) decide on the behaviors that should be included on the home note. It is best to mix classroom behavior and academic behavior. Include no more than five behaviors for elementary school students.  Step 4: In the conference with the parent(s), decide on how the behavior should be rated. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 31
  32. 32.  Step 5: In the conference with the parent(s), decide what type of reductive consequences and positive reinforcement should correspond to each rating. Remember, the note should be mostly positive.  Step 6: In the conference with the parent(s), suggest that no excuse is accepted from the student for not bring the note home. No note means a bad note.  Step 7: Explain the procedure with the student after meeting with the parent(s).  Step 8: Begin the home note program on a Monday. After the note has been rated, initial the note and give it to the student. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 32
  33. 33.  Definition – Contracting involves placing contingencies for reinforcement, and sometimes punishment, into a written document which is agreed to and signed by the student, the teacher, and any other individual (i.e., parents) involved with the contract.  Step 1: Define the specific behavior for which the contract is being implemented.  Step 2: Select the contract reinforce with the help of the student.  Step 3: Define the contract criteria. Include the amount of behavior required, the amount of reinforcement to be provided, and the time limits for performance.  Step 4: If possible, include a bonus clause for exceptional performance or behavior completed before the time limits set nonperformance. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 33
  34. 34.  Step 5: Negotiate the contract with the student. ◊ Indicate why a contract is necessary. ◊ Discuss the target behavior, reinforcement, and performance criteria. ◊ Indicate that aspects of the contract are negotiable but the need for it is NOT. ◊ Tell the student what you suggest and ask for his/ her input. ◊ Don’t allow the student to set unrealistically high standards. ◊ Indicate that the contract may need to be renegotiated in the future  Step 6: Put the terms of the contract in writing.  Step 7: Set a date for reviewing and possibly renegotiating the contract.  Step 8: Have all participating parties sign the contract. Keep a copy and make a copy for each participant. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 34
  35. 35.  Is a group contingency really necessary? ◊ Do peers contribute to problem student’s behavior through encouragement? ◊ Is improved student cooperation necessary? ◊ Have other positive approaches failed to change this behavior?  Define the target behavior. Is it observable, measurable, and easily tracked?  Is/ Are the student(s) capable of performing the target behavior?  Specifically define the behaviors expected and not tolerated (e.g., no one is to laugh when another student talks back to the teacher, everyone must raise his/ her hand before speaking out in class).  Interdependent Group Contingency probably best. Reinforcement is based on class average/ criteria, not on any individual’s behavior. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 35
  36. 36.  Describe to the class the positive reinforcer that can be gained as a group. Ask for the group’s input (e.g., the class can select a reward from a reinforcer menu.) Also Mystery Motivators.  Describe to the class the consequences if the behavior you want to reduce is exhibited. Not always necessary.  Post the rules for the group contingency. Include these rules: ◊ No threats or making fun of a student who has difficulty will be allowed. ◊ Students should encourage others to do their best.  Publicly post the group contingency information: ◊ The criterion for gaining a reward or losing a privilege. ◊ How the students are doing (e.g., marks on the board for the number of talk outs.) ◊ What the students will win or lose.  Emphasize the positive and cooperative aspect of the group contingency. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 36
  37. 37. Effective Teachers Have … The Room Ready The Work Ready Themselves Ready SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 37
  38. 38.  Assign seats the first day  Keep your seating chart posted  Keep materials accessible  Bulletin boards should be attractive and functional  Rules, consequences, rewards, and important procedures should be posted  Display student work  Clear traffic paths SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 38
  39. 39.  Have your basic materials ready for the first week of school.  Find and organize containers for your materials. Label containers and keep an index card in each that lists its contents.  Keep extra file folders in your filling cabinet to use for handouts, tests, quizzes, notes for each unit you teach. Label the folder with the unit/ topic so it is ready for next year. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 39
  40. 40.  Have an emergency kit (tissue, gloves, bandages, paper towels etc. )  Familiarize yourself with your teacher’s manuals and other subject materials.  Make copies of important forms and keep a file for each (attendance forms, tardy slips, hall passes, referral forms, etc. )  Generate a class list and keep multiple copies in a file. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 40
  41. 41.  Assign each student a number.  Create a homework file for absent students.  Number desks for seating.  Create a seating chart.  Keep a documentation folder for every student. Keep a contact sheet in each folder. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 41
  42. 42.  Create substitute folder that includes a class list, schedule, discipline policy, assignments, and names of helpful students and teachers.  Color code everything (binders for each subject, grade book, etc. )  Get to know the secretary, custodians, and other helpful school staff. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 42
  43. 43.  Create a parent handbook including class list, discipline policy, brief outline of course content to be covered, text book information, and your contact information.  Call every parent to introduce yourself during the first week of school.  Word as a partner with the parents.  Always start and end every parent phone call with a positive comment.  When you have to make a “negative” call, get in the habit of then making a “positive” call.  If possible, present parents with opportunities to volunteer in your classroom. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 43
  44. 44. Parent Conferences Encourage parent/ teacher conferences throughout the year. Make a list of points you want to cover before the conference begins. Start and end every conference on a positive note. Have samples of the student’s work to show parents. Let the parents know you want their child to succeed. Document the conference by jotting down what happened and what was said after the conference. Keep this in the student’s folder. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 44
  45. 45.  Greet everyone you encounter with a smile and greeting.  Greet every student at the door with a smile and a cheerful “Good Morning!” or “Good Afternoon!”  Make sure your name is on the board with the room number, section/ period, and subject.  Communicate as the walk in how you would like them to sit.  Have some work for them to do as soon as they sit down. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 45
  46. 46.  State your name and your expectations for the upcoming year/ semester.  Point out that every morning will start the same way (entering quietly, taking their assigned seat, and getting to work on the posted assignment.)  Clarify for the students what materials they will need for your class.  Show them where things are located in the classroom.  Go over your rules and consequences (Point out where they are located in the room).  Introduce your most important procedures (the ones that will be used during the first two or three days of school).  Model each procedure and have students practice them.  Get busy on your first assignment. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 46
  47. 47. 1. Am I in the right room? 2. Where am I suppose to sit? 3. What are the rules in this classroom? 4. What will I be doing this year? 5. How will I be graded? 6. Who is the teacher as a person? 7. Will you treat me as a human being? SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 47
  48. 48.  Begins the first day of school attempting to teach a subject and spends the rest of the school year running after the students. From H. Wong, The First Days of School SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 48
  49. 49. Spends the first weeks of school Establishing a positive learning community (climate) Getting to know the students Teaching classroom routines & procedures SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 49
  50. 50. How do you begin to build sense of belonging (inclusiveness) How do you build an environment where students feel they can contribute? How do you help students feel safe? (Physically and emotionally) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 50
  51. 51. “Climate gives all students the sense that can learn and succeed, that they can collaborate and question, that they are all valued as part of a learning community …” Gayle Gregory Differentiating Instruction SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 51
  52. 52.  Students learn best when learning opportunities are natural, meaningful, and context-laden. Lynn (Erikson, Concept-Based Instruction)  Students learn best when classrooms and schools create a sense of community in which students feel significant and respected. Linda (Albert, Cooperative Discipline) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 52
  53. 53. Students learn best when classrooms and schools create a sense of community in which students feel significant and respected. Students Need to Feel: Capable Connected Cared for Linda Albert, Cooperative Discipline SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 53
  54. 54. Learning Styles Inventory SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 54
  55. 55. At the end of the year is directly related to the degree to which the teacher establishes good control of the classroom procedures in the very first week of the school year. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 55
  56. 56. What to do and when to do it… How to enter the classroom What to do first What to do next Where and how to store materials How to finish class and exit the room What to do when they finish a project Options they have for learning What to do when they do not know what to do Taken from America’s Choice, Rituals, Routines and Artifacts, p.3 SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 56
  57. 57. That set up the class for achievement to take place. Informs students what you want them to do, how things are to be done Are steps to be learned SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 57
  58. 58.  What the students do automatically…  Overall structure of the class activities  “The absolute predictability of this routine communicates to students that the work of the class is important and well planned” From America’s Choice, Routines, Rituals and Artifacts SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 58
  59. 59.  1. Clearly define classroom procedures and routines  2. Effectively teachers spend a good deal of time the first weeks of the school year introducing, teaching, modeling, and practicing procedures until they become routines. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 59
  60. 60. Is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 60
  61. 61. Then you’re planning to fail. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 61
  62. 62.  Clearly define classroom procedures and routines  Effective teachers spend a good deal of time the first weeks of the school year introducing, teaching, modeling, and practicing until they become routines. H. Wong, The First Days of School SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 62
  63. 63.  Provide Structure  Help curb impulsive behavior  Provide a safe environment  Reinforce rights of all individuals  Define limits  Identify appropriate/ inappropriate behaviors  Provide consistency and fairness SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 63
  64. 64.  Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVE  Procedures: Concern how things are DONE SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 64
  65. 65. Discipline has penalties and rewards Procedures have NO penalties or rewards SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 65
  66. 66. Rules Consequences Rewards H. Wong The First Days of School SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 66
  67. 67.  Observable  Measurable  Obtainable  Positively Stated  Clearly Defined  Practices, reinforced, rewarded  No more than 5 SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 67
  68. 68. Compliance Preparation Talking In/ Out of Class Behavior Transitions SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 68
  69. 69. Follow your teacher’s directions Do what your teacher ask SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 69
  70. 70. Have books, pencils and paper for class Have your homework completed and ready to hand in SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 70
  71. 71.  Raise your hand to speak  Talk to your friends only during free time SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 71
  72. 72. Keep hands and feet to yourself Ask permission to leave your seat Respect other people’s property, space and ideas SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 72
  73. 73. Be in your seat before the bell rings Be in class and prepared by 7:00 AM SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 73
  74. 74. Walk down the halls with hands and feet to yourself Use “inside” voices in the hall Walk on the right side of the hall SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 74
  75. 75.  Punishment  Exclusion  Counseling SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 75
  76. 76.  Social skills training  Academic curricular restructuring  Behaviorally based intervention Expert, define, instruct, model, practice, reinforce, reinforce, reinforce…… SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 76
  77. 77. Examples of Prevention Primary Reduce new cases of problem behavior Secondary Reduce current cases of problem behavior Tertiary Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases 77
  78. 78. 78
  79. 79. 79
  80. 80. Instructional Approach Focus on teaching social behavior like academic skills Emphasis on teaching & encouraging prosocial behavior that competes with development & displays of rule-violating behavior. Dr. L. Eber 80
  81. 81. How Important Are You? Researchers estimate that students typically gain about 34 percentile points in achievement during one academic year. A student who scores at the 50th percentile in math in September will score at the 84th percentile on the same test given in May. Average teacher: 34 percentage points Effective teacher: 53 percentage points Less effective teacher: 14 percentage points 81
  82. 82. How Important Are YOU?  The highly effective teacher  Knows their students.  Employs a variety of instructional strategies to meet the many needs of their students.  Has well defined, consistent classroom  Management techniques  Possesses a solid understanding of curriculum and designs instruction in a fluent, seamless fashion. 82
  83. 83. The role of a teacher… Is not to grade a student The main role of the teacher: Is to help every student reach the highest possible level of achievement. 83
  84. 84. The highest form of Teaching Occurs… When Students Are: Working cooperatively Solving open-ended problems Use higher-order thinking skills The greater the time students work together and the greater the responsibility students take for their work, the greater the learning. 84
  85. 85.  Complete “Critical Attributes for the First Day of School”  Write down three attributes you will  Develop  Change  Refine  Place this list into an envelop  Seal the envelop and sign your name across the back flap  On the front, write your name and school SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 85
  86. 86.  Background – 1943 Abraham Maslow published his Hierarchy of Needs  Divided needs into two groups – deficiency needs and growth needs  Within the deficiency needs each lower need must be at least partially met before moving to the next higher need SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 86
  87. 87. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 87 MASLOW’S Hierarchy of Needs
  88. 88. 1. Physiological – Life Support Hunger, Thirst, Air, Bodily comforts, Elimination, Sex 2. Safety – Security/ Out of danger Peers, Curriculum, Teacher – Administrators 3. Sense of Belonging – Being affiliated with, and accepted by, others Physically and psychologically safe haven. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 88
  89. 89. 4. Esteem – To achieve, be competent, and be recognized – has both an internal and an external component. (You as the teacher have the most control over helping students meet this esteem need. You control the extent to which work is challenging and rewarding. ) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 89
  90. 90. Once the deficiency needs have been at least partially met individuals are ready to act upon growth needs. Maslow originally conceptualized only one growth need: Self-actualization – To find fulfillment and realize one’s potential – a concern for personal growth. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 90
  91. 91. Self-actualization – To find fulfillment and realize one’s potential – a concern for personal growth. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 91
  92. 92. Maslow later added two growth needs prior to self-actualization and one after it. The needs added prior to self-actualization are: Cognitive – a need to know, understand, and explore Aesthetic – a need for symmetry, order, and beauty SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 92
  93. 93. The need added after Self-Actualization was Transcendence – To help others find self- fulfillment and realize their potential. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 93
  94. 94. Since 1943, when Maslow published his hierarchy, other psychologists such as William James, Gordon Allport, and other developed other hierarchies. Ironically, Maslow’s hierarchy remains the most popular despite the lack of any empirical evidence to support the idea. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 94
  95. 95.  Credited to B.F. Skinner (1953). Classical conditioning/ behaviorism. Manipulating the environment (providing rewards or punishments) to bring about a behavior change in someone else.  Someone else is the prime mover.  Regardless of how benevolent the reason, the student’s opportunity to make a free choice is reduced or eliminated. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 95
  96. 96. 1. Credited to William Glasser (1965) and used in clinical psychiatry. 2. Past events not allowed to excuse current behavior. 3. Student Identifies consequences of behavior and decides if it is acceptable. 4. Student is the prime mover in deciding on and implementing, a plan to avoid unacceptable consequences. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 96
  97. 97. 1. Assumes that if there is a behavior problem, the student wants to minimize the number of others who get involved. 2. Depends on keeping anecdotal (written) records, i.e., name, date, problem, and on the approval of your principal to use this approach. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 97
  98. 98. 3. Involvement goes from a a. Student and teacher; to b. Student, teacher, and parents; to c. Student teacher, parents, and school counselors and/ or administrators. 3. Anecdotal records document systematic attempt to solve problem without administrative assistance. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 98
  99. 99.  Illegal to give a student a zero for management issues  Other possibilities:  1. After-school detention  2. Break detention  3. Corporal Punishment  There has to be an intermediate step between your initial consequence and an office referral SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 99
  100. 100. Things you can Control Things you can’t Control SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 100
  101. 101. Class Size (this is the determining factor) Students Time of Day Interruptions SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 101
  102. 102. Seating Procedures Rules and Consequences SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 102
  103. 103.  The Goal:  Increase the variety of learning activities but decrease transition time.  Student engagement and on-task behaviors are dependent on how smoothly and efficiently teachers move from one learning activity to another. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 103
  104. 104.  Withitness refers to a teacher’s awareness of what is going on in the classroom SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 104
  105. 105.  When discipline problems occur, the teacher consistently takes action to suppress the misbehavior of exactly those students who instigated the problem  When two discipline problems arise concurrently, the teacher deals with the most serious first  The teacher decisively handles instances of off-task behavior before the behaviors either get out of hand or are modeled by others SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 105
  106. 106. When handling misbehavior – make sure all students learn what is unacceptable about that behavior Getting angry or stressed does not reduce future misbehavior Deal with misbehavior without disrupting the learning activity SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 106
  107. 107.  Eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, physical proximity to students, and the way you carry yourself will communicate that you are in calm control of the class and mean to be taken seriously.  Be free to roam  Avoid turning back to class SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 107
  108. 108.  Verbalize descriptions of behaviors and never value judgments about individuals  Verbalize feelings but remain in control  DO NOT USE SARCASM  Do not place labels (good or bad)  Do not get students hooked on praise  Praise the word and behavior – not the students themselves  Speak only to people when they are ready to listen SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 108
  109. 109. … Or, “Do not smile until Eid” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 109
  110. 110. Take advantage of the first days of class Establish an environment in which achieving specified learning goals takes priority over other concerns It is much easier to establish this environment from the beginning rather than later SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 110
  111. 111. 1. Take advantage of the new school year or term to set the stage for cooperation 2. Be particularly prepared and organized 3. Minimize transition time 4. Utilize a communication style that establishing non- threatening, comfortable environment 5. Clearly establish expectations for conduct SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 111
  112. 112.  Take advantage of initial uncertainty  Ride your “fences”  PLAN for a favorable beginning  Classroom/ lab organization  Ongoing routines  Use learning activities with easy-to-follow, uncomplicated directions  Use a disclosure statement SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 112
  113. 113. Used to clearly communicate expectations to students and parents Refer back to the guidelines throughout the term Not a legally binding document SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 113
  114. 114.  Basic Course Outline  Grading Procedures  Include procedures for making up missed work, extra credit, homework expected, etc.  Attendance Policies (Should be consistent with school policy)  Other class rules, policies, procedures  Safety considerations as necessary  Accommodation for disabilities statement  Signature of student and parent/ guardian SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 114
  115. 115.  Make sure all students can see and hear clearly (and you can see them clearly)  Arrangement is determined by learning activity (lecture, class discussion, small group work, etc. )  Allow room and easy access for proximity control  Think through class procedures and learning activities and arrange the room in the best possible way SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 115
  116. 116. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 116
  117. 117.  Every behavior has a function  Four primary reasons for disruptive behavior in the classroom  Power  Revenge  Attention  Want to be left alone (i.e., disinterest or feelings of inadequacy) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 117
  118. 118.  Many misbehaviors exhibited by students are responses to a behavior exhibited by the teacher  Do not tolerate undesirable behaviors no matter what the excuse  Understanding why a person exhibits a behavior is no reason to tolerate it  Understanding the function of a behavior will help in knowing how to deal with that behavior SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 118
  119. 119.  Remain focused and calm; organize thoughts  Either respond decisively or ignore it all together  Distinguish between off-task behaviors and off-task behavior patterns  Control the time and place for dealing with off-task behavior  Provide students with dignified ways to terminate off-task behaviors SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 119
  120. 120.  Avoid playing detective  Utilize alternative lesson plans  Utilize the help of colleagues  Utilize the help of guardians  DO NOT USE CORPORAL PUNISHMENT  A form of contrived punishment in which physical pain or discomfort is intentionally inflicted upon an individual for the purpose of trying to get that individual to be sorry he or she displayed a particular behavior SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 120
  121. 121.  Use the principle of “Extinction”  Whenever the positive rein forcers for a person’s voluntary behavior pattern are removed or cease to exist, the person will begin to discontinue that behavior  Specify the exact behavior pattern to extinguish  Identify positive rein forcers for the behavior  Plan to eliminate positive reinforcement  Establish a realistic time schedule  Implement the plan  Evaluate the effectiveness by observing behavior SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 121
  122. 122.  Use the principle of “Shaping”  Reinforce behaviors that are similar to the behavior to be learned  Subsequent actions that are more like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are reinforced  Subsequent actions that are less like the behavior to be learned than previous actions are not positively reinforced SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 122
  123. 123.  Attention-seeking students prefer being punished, admonished, or criticized to being ignored  Give attention to this student when he or she is on-task and cooperating  “Catch them being good!” – and let them know you caught them SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 123
  124. 124.  Power-seeking students attempt to provoke teachers into a struggle of wills  In most cases, the teacher should direct attention to other members of the class SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 124
  125. 125. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Refocus attention by restating relevant point Direct questions to group that is back on the subject Ask how topic relates to current topic being discussed Use visual aids, begin to write on board, turn on overhead projector Say: “Would you summarize your main point please?” or “Are you asking …?” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 125
  126. 126. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Change teaching strategies from group discussion to individual written exercises or a videotape Give strong positive reinforcement for any contribution Involve by directly asking him/ her a question Make eye contact Appoint to be small group leader SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 126
  127. 127. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Acknowledge comments made Give limited time to express viewpoint or feelings, and then move on Make eye contact with another participant and move toward that person Give the person individual attention during breaks Say: “That’s an interesting point. Now let’s see what other people think.” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 127
  128. 128. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Admit that you do not know the answer and redirect the question the group or the individual who asked it. Acknowledge that this is a joint learning experience. Ignore the behavior. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 128
  129. 129. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Redirect question to group or supportive individuals. Recognize participant’s feelings and move on. Acknowledge positive points. Say: “I appreciate your comments, but I’d like to hear from others,” or “It looks like we disagree.” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 129
  130. 130. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Say: “You are entitled to your opinion, belief or feelings, but now it’s time we moved on to the next subject,” or “Can you restate that as a question?” or “We’d like to hear more about that if there is time after the presentation.” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 130
  131. 131. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Hostility can be a mask for fear. Reframe hostility as fear to depersonalize it. Respond to fear, not hostility. Remain calm and polite keep your temper in check. Don’t disagree, but build on or around what has been said. Move closer to the hostile person, maintain eye contact. Always allow him or her a way to gracefully retreat from the confrontation. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 131
  132. 132. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Say: “You seem really angry. Does anyone else feel this way?” Solicit peer pressure. Do not accept the premise or underlying assumption, if it false or prejudicial, e.g., “If by “queer” you mean homosexual…” Allow individual to solve the problem being addressed. He or she may not be able to offer solutions and will sometimes undermine his or her own position. Ignore behavior. Talk to him or her privately during a break. As a last resort privately ask the individual to leave class or for the good of the group. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 132
  133. 133. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Point out that we can’t change policy here. Validate his/ her point. Indicate you’ll discuss the problem with the participant privately. Indicate time pressure. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 133
  134. 134. POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Don’t embarrass talkers. Ask their opinion on topic being discussed. Ask talkers if they would like to share their ideas. Casually move toward those talking. Make eye contact with them. Standing near the talkers, ask a near-by discussion is near the talkers. As a last resort, stop and wait SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 134
  135. 135. Policies relating directly to students: Attendance/ Tardy Policy Academic/ Grading Policies Telephone use (school phones, cell, papers) Student Dress and Grooming Policies Safe School Policies  Weapons, fighting, intimidation verbal abuse, etc.  Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Policies  Sexual Harassment Policy SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 135
  136. 136.  Internet/ Email use policies  Policies regarding the reporting of abuse, neglect, suicide threats, etc.  Emergency procedures  Fire, earthquake, bomb threat, intruder, etc.  Field Trip policies  Accident reporting procedures  Reporting academic progress  Purchasing guidelines  Substitute teachers  Requests for, planning, etc.  Use of videos, movies, and instructional materials SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 136
  137. 137. Engaging Students SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 137
  138. 138. In order for students to understand what teachers are trying to say, they have to hear what the teachers are saying! Task, but there are ways to get your information through to them! SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 138
  139. 139. Lead-In-Activity: This will get your students’ brains warmed up before you begin the day’s lesson. Consider these activities “Jumping Jacks for the Mind!” SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 139
  140. 140.  “When will I use this?” – Students always want to know how class topics will relate to them in the “real world”. Make the subject matter practical. Present the information as the students might see it on tests or assignments, and then relate it to their lives. Make it seem real to them instead of spouting off some abstract concept. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 140
  141. 141.  “There was this one time…” Students love to hear stories. Use your personal experience in your lessons, as they relate to the topics being discussed. Allow the students to visualize concepts through your stories. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 141
  142. 142. Activities, Activities, Activities! Activities are the one way to trick students into learning important concepts without them realizing they are (oh no!) learning! SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 142
  143. 143.  Don’t be a Dictator! Students always unfairly compare being in schools to being in prison. Avoid this in your classroom by offering choice of assignments. (i.e. present an assignment and allow students to choose how they answer the same problem from three different methods. ) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 143
  144. 144.  “I didn’t get it because I’m a visual person.” – All students learn differently. Try to present your ideas or concepts in multiple ways, exploring multiple modalities of learning. Expose all the senses by giving the information to students so that they hear it, see it, feel it, and hopefully understand it. Use different colors, sounds or music, and/ or hands-on examples to reinforce lessons. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 144
  145. 145.  If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em! – How do a majority of students spend their free time???... Playing video games! Students can easily wire and install elaborate entertainment systems in their cars, most have hi-tech communication devices. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 145
  146. 146.  Take advantage of this by incorporating technology into your classroom. Use multi-media systems to show informative web pages, videos, and power points that enhance lessons. Have students do assignments on the internet instead of in their textbooks.  Your school media specialists can help you implement these technologies into your classes. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 146
  147. 147.  If they want to talk, let them talk!!! – Encourage student responses in class. They may help you relate information in a way. This is more easily retained by other students. Group assignments are great because students are able to communicate and talk, yet in a more constructive way. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 147
  148. 148.  Mix it up! – You can’t expect to keep your kids’ attention for ninety minutes by making them sit and listen to you lecture. You can provide variety without sacrificing structure. Break the class period down into sections, were information is explored in different ways (i.e. lead-in activity, notes, lecture, group work, assignment, hands-on activity review.) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 148
  149. 149.  Don’t be afraid to have fun! – It’s ok to make your class fun. If your kids enjoy their time with you, they are more likely to be successful. Your class might be the only time of the day that they feel important, or the only time they smile. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 149
  150. 150. Using the research on the first-week management behavior of effective classroom teachers, state what you would do during your first week as a new teacher and why you would do that. Discuss the difference between focusing on increasing on-task behavior or decreasing off-task behavior (Give specific, original examples, not just generalities.) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 150
  151. 151. The most important factor in classroom management is getting off to a good start. In general, this means to develop and implement a classroom management plan that will prevent problems from occurring. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 151
  152. 152. In general, teachers who get off to a good start in terms of classroom management generally have more orderly classroom in January as well as better student achievement (e.g., Emmer, Everston & Anderson, 1980; Everston & Emmer, 1982) SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 152
  153. 153. One of the most important activities during the first week is to establish and teach classroom rules (guidelines for appropriate and inappropriate behavior) and procedures (specific routines for accomplishing daily activities). SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 153
  154. 154. A second guideline is to work with the whole class during the first two weeks to establish group cohesiveness and solidarity. If groups are to be used, every student ought to be engaged in the same activity. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 154
  155. 155. A third guideline is to provide many opportunities for students to respond appropriately. If you want students to write their names and the date on their papers I a certain place, give several assignments each day where students will have to practice this activity. Then provide corrective feedback to help students accomplish the task successfully. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 155
  156. 156. A fourth guideline is to use a variety of activities during the first week or two in order to capture and maintain student’s attention. These should be relatively easy and enjoyable and should probably engage students in reviewing previously learned material. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 156
  157. 157. A fifth guideline is to keep track of each student’s progress and insure, as much as is possible, that each student is engaged and successful in learning activities. Any student that seems to demonstrate an inability to keep up should be dealt with us quickly as possible. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 157
  158. 158. Increasing student involvement in classroom activities (or time-on-task) is one way to think about getting off to a good start. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 158
  159. 159. However, since Total allocated time = Time-on-task + Time-off-task Another perspective is to focus on how to decrease time- off-task SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 159
  160. 160. Huitt, Caldwell, Traver & Graeber (1981) found that student off-task (unengaged) behaviors could be classified in one of five categories: Management/ transition Socializing Discipline Unoccupied/ observing, and Out of the room SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 160
  161. 161. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 161 Management/ Transition  Daily, routine classroom activities or “in-between” activities  Distributing, setting up, or gathering equipment, supplies, materials, etc.
  162. 162. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 162 Management/ Transition  Taking roll  Students standing in line  Waiting for teacher’s help  Turning pages in book  Listening to nonacademic directions  Waiting for next activity to begin
  163. 163. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 163 Socializing  Two or more persons are interacting socially
  164. 164. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 164 Socializing  Whispering nonacademic comment to neighbor  Passing notes  Watching someone else whispering
  165. 165. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 165 Discipline  Adult is reprimanding a student, a student is being punished, or student is watching other student being scolded
  166. 166. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 166 Discipline  One student is being scolded and other students are listening  Head on desk as punishment
  167. 167. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 167 Unoccupied/ Observing  Sitting or standing alone, wandering about with no evident purpose or goal, watching other people or unassigned activities, or playing with materials
  168. 168. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 168 Unoccupied/ Observing  Staring out the window  Aimlessly wandering around the room  Watching another student do a different assignment
  169. 169. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 169 Out of the room  Temporarily out of the room
  170. 170. The acronym of Ms. Duo can be used to help remember these categories SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 170 Out of the room  Gone to the  Bathroom  Nurse  Library  Principle’s office
  171. 171. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 171 Work in schools helping teachers improve student engaged time (e.g., Caldwell, Huitt & French, 1981) showed that two of the five categories were used to classify almost 90% of the unengaged behaviors:  Management/ transition and  Unoccupied/ observing
  172. 172. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 172 Management/ transition occurred mainly when the teacher was working with the whole class. Unoccupied/ observing occurred more often when students were involved in seatwork.
  173. 173. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 173 A larger than normal amount of socializing generally meant that the teacher was involved in the social interaction process (e.g., discussing a recent sports activity or the upcoming dance.)
  174. 174. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 174  When a larger than normal amount of discipline occurred it generally was a result of a “cease and desist” classroom management strategy.  That is, the teacher waited until an inappropriate behavior occurred and then tried to stop it rather than attempting to establish appropriate behavior in a proactive manner.
  175. 175. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 175  A larger than normal amount of out-of-the-room behavior usually meant that either  Then teacher was not paying attention to the number and lengths of trips to the bathroom OR  Some person outside of the classroom was requesting that students leave the classroom on a regular basis
  176. 176. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 176 Specific research-based management strategies focused on the most often occurring management problems in a classroom are provided in your handouts. Close attention to dealing with these problems in a proactive manner will reduce time-off-task, thereby increasing time-on-task. [Notice that the management/ transition category has four subcategories with suggestions for each. ]
  177. 177. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 177
  178. 178. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 178  Introduction  Behavior & Learning  Setting up your Students for Success  Defining & Teaching Behavioral Expectations  Reinforcing Expected Behavior  Effective Scanning and Monitoring  Instructional Variables related to Behavior  Participation  Student Success  Responding to Misbehavior  Review & Tools
  179. 179. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 179 “There are no bad boys, there is only bad environment, bad training, bad examples, and bad thinking” William Tames
  180. 180. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 180 Early Childhood Middle Childhood Late Childhood Poor parental discipline & monitoring Child Conduct Problems Rejection by normal peer group Academic failure Commitmen t to deviant peer group BAD NEWS: Long-term risk increases with each stage GOOD NEWS: We can take Kids off this developmental pathway
  181. 181. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 181 Assumption of Behavior Theory: People are constantly engaged in learning and every experience adds to a person’s knowledge base and influence his/ her subsequent actions. Therefore, effective teachers 1.Spend more time promoting responsible behavior than responding to irresponsible behavior 2.Recognize that misbehavior occurs for a reason, & take this into account when determining how to respond to misbehavior
  182. 182. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 182  Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”  Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences Do learn better ways of behaving by being directly & receiving consistent positive feedback.
  183. 183. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 183  Student(s) don’t know expectations  Student(s) don’t know how to exhibit expected behavior  Student is unaware he/ she is engaged in the misbehavior  Misbehavior is providing student with desired outcome:  Obtaining attention from adults/ peers  Escape from difficult task or non-desired activity
  184. 184. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 184  Students who chronically engage in problem behavior have:  Learned that it is a functional response for getting what they want  In many cases avoiding academic tasks they struggle with  Often do not have practiced alternative, more appropriate behaviors to fall back on
  185. 185. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 185  Are we setting students up to misbehave?  Every time a student engages in problem behavior, escalation, or a power struggle they are further practicing that response  As educators, we need to:  Prevent students from practicing habits of problem behavior & escalation  Teach more appropriate alternative behaviors
  186. 186. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 186  Views students behavior as a teaching problem, in which errors need to be eliminated and correct responses need to be taught and strengthened
  187. 187. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 187  We need to explicitly teach expected and desired behavior rather than take the risk, or expect, that students “should know”, or they will figure it out on their own  Our tendency when students don’t follow behavioral expectations is to punish students rather then teach students…  Would we punish a student for not reading a word correctly?
  188. 188. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 188  We cannot prescribe medication  We cannot change the students previous experiences  We often cannot change the parenting practices in the home  Some venting is good, but too often it takes over leading to less productive meetings, instruction & supports for students There is a LOT we can do in the classroom to change student problem behavior This starts with student learning… …
  189. 189. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 189 Primary Prevention: School/ Classroom – Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: FBA BSP for Students with High-Risk Behavior For MPS Teachers
  190. 190. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 190
  191. 191. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 191  If students are repeatedly engaging in a behavior, they are most likely doing it for a reason, because it is paying off for the student.  Behavior is communication, students can learn either that (a) expected behavior or (b) problem behavior is the best way for them to get their needs met  Students will use which ever behavior works most effectively and most efficiently for them to attain their desired outcome
  192. 192. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 192  What happen before (A or antecedent) the behavior occurs?  What is the behavior (B)?  What happens after (C or consequence) the behavior occurs? A B C
  193. 193. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 193  What happens Immediately preceding the problem/ target behavior?  What triggers the behavior, be specific…  What activity?  What peers?  What tasks?  Describe in detail  If you wanted to set up the student to engage in the problem behavior, what would you have do?
  194. 194. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 194  What happen Immediately following the behavior?  How do peers respond?  How do the adults respond?  What are the consequences for the student?  How many times out of 10 do each of these responses occur following the problem behavior?  What is the student gaining as a result of engaging in the behavior?  How is it paying off for the student?
  195. 195. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 195 Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent condition, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence A B C
  196. 196. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 196 A B C A B C In reading class, student is asked to read the word aloud on the board Student tries, but reads slowly, struggles, and gets the word wrong Peers laugh at the student and one students says, “That word is so easy” What did the student learn? NEXT DAY Student is asked to read the word aloud on the board What happens today?
  197. 197. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 197 If the consequence is rewarding/ desired, the subject learns the behavior is functional for getting what they want Behavior Increases in the Future Rewarding or Desired Consequence A B C
  198. 198. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 198 If the consequence is punishing/ undesired, the subject learns the behavior is not fictional for getting what they want Behavior Decreases in the Future Punishing or Undesired Consequence A B C
  199. 199. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 199  (A) When sitting at the lunch table with group of ‘cool’ peers (B) If I try to get their attention appropriately by offering to share (C) peers ignore me and don’t respond – do not get desired attention  Behavior is punished – less likely to occur in future  (A) When ‘unlucky girl’ comes to table with ‘cool’ peers and student wants attention (B) If I make fun of ‘unlucky girl’ (C) peers will laugh and give me attention  Behavior was rewarded – more likely to occur in future A B C A B C
  200. 200. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 200  Student Learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, If I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence A B C Consistent Responding is the Key!!!
  201. 201. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 201  Consistent Responding is Key when new skills (academic or behavioral) are first being learned. 1. Consistent praise and acknowledgment for correct behavior 2. Consistent error correction with practice performing the correct response 3. Frequent Review and Pre-Correction Praise and error correction should follow nearly every response during Acquisition of a New Skill
  202. 202. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 202  Antecedent  Hold flashcard up w/ word CAT, “What word?”  Behavior  Student Response  Say word correctly – “Cat”  Say word incorrectly – “Car”  Consequence  “Nice job, this word is Cat.”  “No, this word is Cat, we can sound it out c-a-t, cat.”  Return beginning and practice word again
  203. 203. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 203  When leading a class we’re always teaching something… we often get into trouble from what students are learning that we don’t know we’re teaching.  We need to be aware of what we’re teaching that aren’t a part of our curriculum.  Not just what comes out of our mouth, but what our actions are teaching  We must also be aware of what we are not teaching.
  204. 204. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 204  What are students learning when…  They are sitting idly and not doing their work for 3- 5 minutes with no teacher response  They are continually asked to complete assignments that they cannot be successful with  They are not provided opportunities to practice corrections to errors they are making – academically or behaviorally
  205. 205. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 205 Explicitly Teaching Expected Behavior
  206. 206. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 206  Teachers set and Teach Clear Standards for classroom Behavior and Apply them fairly and Consistently  Teachers Establish Smooth, Efficient Classroom Routines  Teachers Interact with Students in Positive, Caring Ways  Teachers Provide Incentives, Recognition, and Rewards to Promote Excellence
  207. 207. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 207
  208. 208. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 208  Before we can teach, reinforce, and enforce anything in our classrooms…  We must clearly define: 1. Fair behavioral expectations & 2. Effective behavioral routines
  209. 209. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 209  Identify Classroom rules and expectations, use School Rules if applicable  Unit # of Rules to 3-5  Rules should be broad enough to cover all potential problem behaviors  Make rules positive  Post them in your classroom  Common Examples  Be Safe, Be Responsible, Be Respectful  State specific behavioral expectations as a subset of the most appropriate Rule
  210. 210. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 210  Easier to learn and remember then a long list of specific behavioral expectations  Positively stated rules can cue staff to respond to acknowledge positive, not only negative behavior  Posting rules creates a visual cue for students and staff to remind them of the rules  As well as a tool for accountability
  211. 211. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 211  Those common activities that are completed by students with minimal assistance from the teacher Common routines in reading groups  How to enter class and get started  Raising hand to speak (how & when)  How to work Independently  Unison responding (how & when)
  212. 212. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 212  Carefully plan routines to minimize problems  This may require planning of the physical set up of the environment as well  Examples:  Working independently & getting started in reading centers – accessibility of materials  Transitions between reading centers – traffic patters, routine for turning in homework or independent work  Be cautious not to inadvertently set up students to misbehave through unclear or ineffective routines
  213. 213. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 213  Identify what routines will allow students to perform independently in the 90 min. reading time:  What are your Reading centers?  Should small groups of students be able to succeed in this center working independently?  Are any aides, parent volunteers, additional support available to support students during this time?  Can students access materials and set up for the reading center independently?  How will students ask for help if something isn’t set up right?  Will the students have back-up work to do if the center is not working properly?  Transitions between reading centers
  214. 214. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 214
  215. 215. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 215  Establishing Behavioral Routines 1. Explain 2. Specify Student Behaviors 3. Model Desired Behavior 4. Lead – Student Practice – each individual student should get an opportunity to practice the routine 5. Test/ Monitor 6. Follow-up – reinforce & review regularly
  216. 216. SuperiorClassRoomManagementforTeachers 216  Model (I do) – teacher or peer displays skill performed correctly  Lead (We do) – require student to practice skill with coaching assistance  Test (You do) – ask student to display the skill without teacher assistance & provide specific & immediate positive feedback when the skill is performed correctly
  217. 217. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 217  Match Intensity of Instruction with Level of Need, which can vary according to:  Developmental level  Severity of disability  Complexity of Behavior being taught  Level of existing knowledge  Strength of the habit of “doing it the wrong way”  Most importantly, if they didn’t get it, teach it again and provide frequent pre-correction
  218. 218. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 218  We also need to provide:  Frequent opportunities to practice the behavior  Frequent reinforcement and acknowledgement for the desired behavior  Frequent review and practice of the skill  Pre-correction and reminders to cue the expected behavior & develop the habit  Effective error correction procedures
  219. 219. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 219  Student learns through repeated experience, that under these specific Antecedent conditions, if I engage in this Behavior, I can expect this Consequence A B C Consistent Responding is the Key!!!
  220. 220. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 220  Teaching a Behavior or Routine  Use the Teaching Behavior form  Example routines to teach:  Transitions between reading centers  Getting started & working independently during reading centers  How to ask for help during reading centers  Turning in work and starting a “Fast Finishing” activity  How to sit appropriately at the table or during group  Reward Program for best group behavior during reading centers  Asking to go to the bathroom v. emergency bathroom (sick etc.)  Entering the classroom  Unison responding  Attention Signal
  221. 221. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 221
  222. 222. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 222 1. Acquisition – When the learner is first exposed to a new skill or knowledge and begins to move it from short-term to long-term memory 2. Fluency – learning begins to build speed & efficiency in use of the skill or knowledge 3. Maintenance – student is able to use the skill or knowledge with a high rate of accuracy and at an appropriate rate
  223. 223. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 223  Reward/ acknowledge the expected behavior almost every time it occurs  Correct errors every time a non-desired behavior occurs  Continuous Reinforcement Schedule allows students to receive the maximum possible number of opportunities for feedback about the accuracy of response  Paired with an effective error correction procedure, this should prevent the development of bad habits
  224. 224. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 224  We can begin to fade acknowledgement of a newly taught skill once the student starts to provide a high percentage of accurate responses  Do not fade too quickly – gradual fading of reinforcement is recommended over time as the student continues to develop fluency  Eventually the student will require little teacher feedback
  225. 225. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 225 Stages of Learning/ Teaching Acquisition Fluency Maintenance Continuous Intermittent…………………Fading… Rates of Reinforcement & Corrective Feedback Continuous Reinforcement – provide reinforcement or corrective feedback on every occurrence of behavior
  226. 226. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 226  Immediate & frequent (don’t wait until the end)  Tickets, point systems can be good for cuing teachers to provide frequent reinforcement  Verbally label specific behaviors being reinforced  Keep it genuine  Makes reinforcement a teaching strategy  Reinforce all students, not just the best students  More challenging students need even more reinforcement for desired behavior then others  Err on the side of too much reinforcement, rather than not enough (at least 4:1) – but, keep it genuine
  227. 227. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 227  The most available reinforcer available in effective classrooms is success on academic tasks  The most available punisher is academic failure
  228. 228. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 228  Each transition award small groups for positive behavior  “Ready Freddie Readers” – best group during each center  “Quite as a Mouse” points  Could have aide or parent volunteer help with this  Rate on a Hard Worker scale and add points toward a reward for each group  Can make it into a competition, or reward system for the whole class  Each group can post daily awards on the wall or add up points and when they reach a goal, they can have some sort of reward (popcorn party, game time, lunch w/ teacher, etc. )
  229. 229. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 229
  230. 230. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 230 1. Develop & teach Expectations/ Routines  Have students explicitly practice appropriate behaviors & routines  Create consistent & effective routines 2. Respond consistently  To reward appropriate behavior (4:1ratio)  To inappropriate behavior w/ corrective feedback
  231. 231. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 231  Setting up the room for easy monitoring/ accessibility to all students  Structure classroom to allow for smooth transitions
  232. 232. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 232  Actively roaming around the room monitoring  Pay attention to the behavior you want to see  Calmly, quietly, & quickly approach & redirect students who are off- task  Can often just point, say quick two words  Then walk away & continue to reinforce other students  Reduces chances of power struggle  If no progress approach student privately  Ask how student is going & see if you can offer support  Give choices of things to do not in the form of a?
  233. 233. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 233  Effective scanning and movement allows for more opportunities: 1. To catch students engaged in positive behavior (4:1) 2. Catch minor misbehavior early and prevent escalation  Use proximity and prompts to redirect student behavior 3. Catch academic errors early during independent seat work to catch frustration early and prevent practice of misrules or errors
  234. 234. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 234 a) Proximity b) Reinforcement  Remember in a classroom the most frequently available reinforcer is academic success 2 of your most powerful tools in2 of your most powerful tools in managing Behaviormanaging Behavior
  235. 235. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 235
  236. 236. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 236  Good instruction of academic content is the best and most important Behavior Management tool you have  Academic success is the most frequent reinforcer available to students in the classroom  Students should experience at least a 90% success rate  To be successful students need 2 things: 1. Effective instruction with frequent review 2. High rates of success with questions and assignments
  237. 237. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 237  Structure activities from time students enter until they leave classroom  “Idle hands (or Idle time) = devil’s workbench”  Have activities and a routine ready in advance for students who finish their work early  Provide briskly-paced, interactive, engaging instruction  Must be interactive & engaging for ALL students, not just the best students
  238. 238. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 238  Avoiding Difficult Tasks is one of most common functions of student problem behavior  Responses  Provide the most effective instruction  Provide instruction/ activities to meet/ match students’ varying skill levels  Collect data to Monitor student work and error patterns to identify what needs re-teaching  Review, review, review  Be active in scanning work to catch student errors early to prevent frustration and practice of misrules
  239. 239. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 239  Increasing task efficiency through effective strategies can greatly increase likelihood and student tolerance to do assigned tasks  This is where research based curriculum and strategies are important  Having students talk through strategies or watching their work can help to ID ineffective or inefficient strategies  Examples  14 x 7 v. 14+14+14+14+14+14+14  7+5  Take 2 from 7  Add 5+5 = 10  Add 2 taken away previously = 12
  240. 240. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 240  Requires high levels of participation for all students in instruction/ classroom activities  Ways to get Everyone involved:  Use Chorale Responding – clear signal w/ think time to increase responding  Be Careful of relying too much on volunteers  When reading aloud do not always go sequentially around the room Use a random selection technique (i.e. choose from popsicle sticks with student names on them)  Ask clear questions to which students should be able to experience a high rate of success based on the instruction provided.
  241. 241. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 241  Read  Each  Word  Together
  242. 242. SuperiorClassRoom ManagementforTeachers 242  Identify your expectations Routines & Volume Levels May use signs, signals or cues to identify different requirements &/or Volume Levels (5-Level system) Use an attention signal Explicitly teach expectation with practice Give students something to do
  243. 243. Decreasing Talk Outs during Instructions 243 Teach & Practice Raising hands Most Importantly – consistently enforce responding to hand raising Differential reinforcement for blurting out answers v. raising hand For students who struggle with this, make sure you get to them quickly for raising their hand and reinforce them verbally
  244. 244. Independent Work 244  Define & Teach Expectations & Routines during Independent Work High rates of reinforcement for early practice and independent work  Practice at first with non-work activities  Might want to link with a tangible reinforcer at first Provide independent work that students can be successful with independently (90% accurate)
  245. 245. Independent Work 245  Break long, multi-step tasks into smaller parts with opportunities for participation Instead of waiting 15 minutes to complete & present a multi-step task, break task into portions & have students present progress on smaller steps in 5 minutes intervals Active Movement & Scanning w/ frequent Reinforcement & Support if struggling
  246. 246. Can Do v. Will Do Problem 246  Skill Deficit v. Motivation Problem For skill deficits we can: Provide more instruction or support to alleviate specific skill deficit or Provide the student with easier questions of assignments to increase participation For motivation problems we can: Find incentives to motivate the student’s to engage in the academic task
  247. 247. Preparing for Misbehavior 247 
  248. 248. Be prepared! Be proactive! 248  Anticipate behaviors you will see and know how you will respond List potential behaviors Identify what behaviors and expectations you can teach in advance to prevent anticipated problem behaviors and link with a reinforcement program early to develop habits. List out how you will respond to problem behavior Identify Classroom Managed v. Office Managed behaviors
  249. 249. Teach & use an Attention Signal 249  Qualities of a good attention signal  Multi-sensory presentation  Visual signal  Auditory signal  Give students a way to respond  Provides an alternate behavior to engage in that will focus attention back to the teacher  Helps to make the attention signal visible to all others students in classroom
  250. 250. RESPONDING TO MISBEHAVIOR 250
  251. 251. IMMEDIATE RESPONSES TO MISBEHAVIOR Responses to Misbehavior should interrupt Instruction to the least degree possible Be careful not to escalate behavior into a Crisis Catch minor misbehavior and address them early before they escalate 251
  252. 252.  Problem Behavior – situation with potential to escalate into a crisis  Use strategies for defusing the situation  Crisis – Situation has escalated out of control  Call for back-up  Follow emergency procedures 252 Problem Behavior v. Crisis
  253. 253. 1. I can’t let a student get away with that. What will the other students think? 2. I need to establish authority 3. I need to settle down agitated students 4. I need to be in control 253 Common assumptions that lead to Escalation
  254. 254.  Getting in the student’s face  Discrediting the student  Nagging or Preaching  Arguing  Engaging in Power struggles  Tugging or grabbing the student  Cornering the student  Shouting or raising voice  Continuing to ask a student to do something they are refusing to do 254 Responses that Escalate (avoid these responses)
  255. 255.  Staff responses to problem behavior play a significant role in defusing or escalating the situation  If we spend more time responding to and focusing on misbehavior, then we do on instruction and desired behavior, students will follow our lead 255 Prevention & Diffusion
  256. 256.  Try to redirect minor misbehavior by refocusing on instructional tasks  May not even address behavior, simply focus on directive related instruction for individual student  Might try to redirect the student by recognizing and labelling positive behavior of student sitting next to the misbehaving student 256 Responding to Minor Misbehavior
  257. 257. Respond Consistently, Calmly, Briefly & Return to Instruction  Goal: Pay more time & attention to positive behavior  Reduce Student Escalation  Reduce amount of missed instructional time 257 Responding to Misbehavior
  258. 258.  Try to approach student individually and privately as much as possible  Position yourself close to the student and use a quite, firm voice  Specifically state the behavior of concern, link it with school or classroom rule if possible  If there is an opportunity to teach/ practice the desired behavior, do it – but try to limit interruption of instruction  Follow verbal reprimands with reinforcement for the desired behavior as soon as the student turns around behavior  Try to do this as soon as the student begins to engage in 258 Verbally Responding to Misbehavior
  259. 259.  Particularly for younger students who are frequently seeking attention  If a students has a history of chronic misbehavior, this single response isn’t going to fix them, but it could easily take the whole class off task 259 Adults tend to talk too much
  260. 260.  We want to teach the students more appropriate behavior, but…  Do not try to teach if the student is upset, or if they are still emotional about the incident  Discuss the incident at a later time when the student is no longer emotionally involved  No effective teaching will get done while the student is upset – adults talk too much when students/ kids engage in problem behavior 260 Adults tend to talk too much
  261. 261.  Power Struggles:  Take the focus away from instruction  Are likely to escalate the situation  Do not debate with the students  If you find yourself having the same conversation over and over with a student, it’s a good indication that it shouldn’t be taking up class time  Response: “(student name), I know that you have a concern right now, once I’m finished explaining this assignment, I will come to talk with you about it – thank you.” 261 Don’t get hooked in power struggles
  262. 262.  Teaching Behavior & Expectations  With frequent  Opportunities to practice  Review and pre-correction  Effective Reinforcement  Effective Scanning and Monitoring  Instruction & Classroom Management  Responding to Misbehavior 262 Review – what did you learn?
  263. 263.  Use this the Checklist and Action Planning form as a review guide for getting up and structuring your classroom and instruction  You might have another person in your room conduct periodic observations to identify strengths and areas for improvements 263 Classroom Management Checklist
  264. 264.  Ensure the task is appropriate  Attend to appropriate behaviors  Reinforcement of others  Gentle verbal reminders  Proximity Control  Pre-Correction  Ignoring 264 Behavior: A Continuum of Strategies
  265. 265. 1. Identify context for the predictable behavior 2. Specify expected behavior 3. Modify the context 4. Conduct behavioral rehearsal 5. Provide strong reinforcement for expected behavior 6. Prompt expected behavior 7. Monitor the plan 265 Pre-Correction
  266. 266.  Verbal reprimands  Quite Time  Owing Time  Non exclusionary time-out  Exclusionary time-out  Third party sanctions (Source: Mercer & Mercer, 1998) 266 Cont.
  267. 267.  When reprimanding, tell the student what behavior is inappropriate and why  When delivering a verbal reprimand, position yourself close to the student and speak in a quiet but firm voice  Follow verbal reprimands with reinforcement 267 Verbal Reprimands
  268. 268. Step 1: Require students to stop what they are doing immediately Step 2: Require students to remain absolutely quiet Step 3: Maintain quite time for 1 or 2 minutes Step 4: Remind students of rules and expectations for current task Step 5: Have the students resume previous task Step 6: Use reinforcement to maintain appropriate behavior 268 Quiet-Time Strategy
  269. 269. Step 1: Identify the behaviors/ circumstances that will result in owing time. Step 2: Discuss situation with the offending student Step 3: Determine how much time the student will owe Step 4: Identify when students will owe time 269 Owing-Time Strategy
  270. 270. Step 1: Define the behaviors that will result in time-out being implemented. Step 2: Decide location of the time-out area. Step 3: Implement time-out procedure clammily. Step 4: Determine the length of the time-out period. Step 5: Require the student to make up any work missed during time-out. Step 6: When the student is out of the time, out area reinforce appropriate behavior. 270 Time-Out From Positive Reinforcement
  271. 271. Punish-based discipline does not improve school safety, learning or behavior. (Source: National Association of School Psychologists, 2002, Fair and Effective Discipline for All Students: Best Practice Strategies for Educators) 271 Final Note About Punishment
  272. 272. “For the reinforcement to work, it has to be easier to get and be a better pay- off than the pay-off from the problem behavior”. (Source: National Association of School Psychologists, 2002, Fair and Effective Discipline for All Students: Best Practice Strategies for Educators) 272 Final Word About Reinforcement
  273. 273. 273 The Critical Role of Classroom Management
  274. 274.  Cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom 274 Effective teaching and learning
  275. 275. 275 What is a poorly managed classroom like? Look like Sound like
  276. 276.  Quality of the classroom experience – Teachers establish the classroom experience 276 The most important factor affecting student achievement
  277. 277.  There is a wide variation in teacher effectiveness  More can be done to improve the quality of education by improving the effectiveness of teaching than by any other single factor 277 Recent Research shows
  278. 278.  Appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels regardless of the heterogeneity in their classes – If the teacher is ineffective, students will achieve inadequate progress regardless of how similar or different they are regarding their academic achievement. 278 Effective Teachers
  279. 279. 1–Yearpercentile–pointgain 279 Impact of Teacher Effectiveness on Student Achievement
  280. 280. 280 Effects of school vs. a teacher on student entering at the 50th percentilePercentileRankafter2years LeastEffectiveSchool LeastEffectiveTeacher MostEffectiveSchool MostEffectiveTeacher MostEffectiveSchool LeastEffectiveTeacher LeastEffectiveSchool MostEffectiveTeacher 50 3 37 96 63
  281. 281. 1. Designs classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning 2. Makes wise choices about the most effective instructional strategies to employ 3. Makes effective use of classroom management techniques 281 How does the teacher affect student achievement
  282. 282. Effective teachers are skilled at identifying and articulating proper sequence and pacing of their content. Don’t rely on the scope and sequence of the textbook Determine which content requires emphasis Construct and arrange learning activities to present knowledge in different formats 282 1. Design classroom curriculum to facilitate student learning
  283. 283. Effective teachers are skilled in using researched strategies Cooperative Learning Graphic Organizers Homework and Questions 283 2. Instructional Strategy Choices
  284. 284. 284 3. Effective teachers make effective use of classroom management techniques
  285. 285. Has been a concern of teachers ever since there have been teachers in classroom. 285 Classroom Management
  286. 286. Wastes student time Reduces student’s time on task Detracts from the quality of the learning environment. 286 Poor Management
  287. 287. Is sufficient to guarantee student learning Lacking one is nearly a guarantee that students will have difficulty learning. 287 No single role by itself
  288. 288. 288 What does classroom management Look like? Sound like?
  289. 289. Withitness Smoothness and momentum during lesson presentation Letting students know what behavior is expected of them at a given point in time. Variety and challenge to academic work. 289 Dimensions of Classroom Management
  290. 290.  A keen awareness of disruptive behavior or potentially disruptive behavior and immediate attention to that behavior. – Dimension of “Withitness” is the characteristic that most consistently separates the excellent classroom managers from an average or below average manager. 290 Withitness
  291. 291. Probably nothing else is going well in the classroom either. 291 If there isn’t good classroom management
  292. 292. At the beginning of the school year The critical ingredient of a well-run classroom. 292 Early attention to classroom management
  293. 293. Rated first in terms of impact on student achievement 293 Classroom Management
  294. 294. 294 Four Management Factors Factor Percentile degrees in disruptions Rules and procedures 28 Disciplinary interventions 32 Student-Teacher Relationships 31 Mental Set 40
  295. 295. 295 Effect size of disciplinary interventions Mean of 5.45 Standard Deviation = 5.0 Mean of 10.00 Standard Deviation = 5.0 Distribution of Disruptive Behaviors for Classes that DO NOT Employ Disciplinary Interventions Distribution of Disruptive Behaviors for Classes that DO Employ Disciplinary Interventions
  296. 296.  The classes that employ disciplinary interventions will have about 980 disruptions.  The classes that do not employ disciplinary interventions will have about 1800 disruptions 296 Over a year’s time
  297. 297.  When effective management is used, student engagement rates are .617 standard deviations higher  Than engagement rates when effective management techniques are not employs  23-percentile increase in engagement 297 How might this look in your classroom?
  298. 298.  Achievement levels are .521 STD higher – Than classes without effective classroom management. – Achievement rates are 20 percentile points higher. – Higher Engagement = higher achievement. 298 Student Achievement
  299. 299.  Teachers who have been trained in the use of effective classroom management have classrooms with fewer disruptions and higher engagement – Compared with teachers who have not been trained. 299 Are good classroom managers born or made?
  300. 300.  Can be significantly improved by providing them with a manual and two half-day workshops. – Workshop days provided no opportunity for feedback, directed practice, diagnosis with targeted intervention of continued support and encouragement from staff and colleagues. 300 Teacher’s management strategies
  301. 301. 301

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