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Major Motivation Theories Classification of Motivation Theories 1. Content of motivation theories 2. Process motivation theories 3. Reinforcement theory Specific Motivation Theory a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. ERG theory c. Two-factor theory d. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Goal-setting theory c. Expectancy theory Type of Reinforcement a. Positive b. Avoidance c. Extinction d. Punishment
Self- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Acquired Needs Theory Affiliation Power Achievement
A Comparison of Four Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) ERG Theory (Alderfer) Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland) Achievement & power Achievement &Power Affiliation Not classified Not classified Motivating needs are developed through experience. Motivators Motivators Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance factors will not motivate employees. Growth Growth Relatedness Existence Existence Unmet needs can be at any level simultaneously. Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Needs must be met in a hierarchy order.
Through the consequences for behavior, employees will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways.
Avoidance Extinction Positive Punishment 4 Types of Reinforcement
Giving Praise 1. Tell the employee exactly what was done correctly. Planning Leading Organizing Controlling 2. Tell the employee why the behavior is important. 3. Stop for a moment of silence. 4. Encourage repeat performance
1. Need (Unmet need or want to be satisfied at work) Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs Theory ERG Theory Two-Factor Theory Acquired Needs Theory 2. Motive (Selecting behavior to satisfy need) Process Motivation Theories Equity Theory Goal-Setting Theory Expectancy Theory The Motivation Process with the Motivation Theories
(continued ) 3. Behavior (Employee action to satisfy need) 4. Consequence (Manager behavior and/or natural outcome of employee action) Reinforcement Theory 5. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction (The degree to which the need is met and for how long before dissatisfaction reoccurs, creating an unmet need)