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IEA Energy Conservation andEmissions Reduction in Combustion         (E.C.E.R.C.) I. A.          Belgian Contributions
Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
IEA "Energy Conservation and EmissionsReduction in Combustion" I. A. Tasks shared and not costs shared I.A. 12 participant...
Active Research Activities (March 2011) Annex 1: Individual Contributor Tasks Annex 2: Sprays in Combustion (Collaborative...
Annex 1: Individual Contributor Tasks Area 1 : Advanced Piston Engine Technology Area 2 : Advanced Furnace Technology     ...
Belgian activities(Advanced Furnace Technology : Area 2)  Subtask 2.1H : INVESTIGATION ON COMBUSTION IN OIL BURNER  FLAMES...
Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
SUBTASK 2.4.FChemical Kinetics Studies of Flames and Soot                 FormationInstitute of Mechanics, Materials and C...
Chemical Kinetics Studies of Flames and   Soot Formation    Experimental studies of hydrocarbons and/or oxygenated species...
Experimental studies                                                       1.2E-01                                        ...
ModelisationElaboration of kinetic modelPredict the evolution for concentrations of present species inthe flame (from fres...
Elaboration of « UCL » kinetic modelThe kinetic model includes the detailed formation and consumptionreactions of species ...
Flames with additivesObjectives of experiments                                                             φ              ...
Flames of methylal (DMM)                    OH H   CH3OCH2OCH3       H OH                    OH O                     OH O...
Conclusions and perspectivesElaboration of the reaction mechanism, named « UCL »:Past studies:      Methane (CH4), ethane ...
Conclusions and perspectives                           Application of the                          mechanism of ethyl     ...
Publications2008-2011: 17 articles ( ≈ 30 posters / oral presentations)V. Dias, J. Vandooren, Comb. and Flame 158 (2011) 8...
Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
SUBTASK 2.1.I Study of Combustion and Heat Transfer inIndustrial Furnaces Fired with Gas Burners            Using Preheate...
POLYTECH= Faculty of Engineering of the University of Mons (founded thanks to theassociation of the University of Mons-Hai...
Participation in ECERC since 1992  Context: Reduction of NOx emission in furnaces with air preheating at high  temperature...
Diluted combustion furnaces       At semi-industrial scale (300kW)        o Commercial burner (REGEMAT WS)        o Fired ...
Diluted combustion furnaces  At laboratory scale I (3kW)   o Simplified geometry (co-flow)   o Fed with natural gas or syn...
Diluted combustion furnaces      At laboratory scale II (30kW) = current project      o Configuration similar to industria...
Publications       2006-20111      D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, E. Sezgin, P. Lybaert:          Flameless combustion of CH4/CO/H...
Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
SUBTASK 2.1.HThe use of liquid biofuels in heating systems :                   a review                 University of Lièg...
17% of CO2 emissions in Europe are related tospace heating function of gas and oil-fired boilers                          ...
There are different pathways to convertbiomass to biofuels
Vegetable oils combustion is feasableif the viscosity is reduced  Vegetable oil viscosity is 35 mm²/s at 40° compared     ...
CO emissions reduction with vegetableoil addition             Alonso et al., Energy & Fuels, Vol. 22, No 5, 2008.
Biodiesels are good candidates topetroleum diesel fuel substitution Biodiesels have similar physical properties to diesel ...
Burning biodiesel decreases mostpollutants emissions            Macor et Pavanello, Energy, Vol. 34, pp. 2025-2032, 2009.
Bioethanol combustion in heating systems ismore problematic Bioethanol is less viscous than diesel and can lead to   lubri...
Bioethanol flame emissivity decreasescompared to diesel fuel flame emissivity   Barroso et al., Fuel processing technology...
Bioliquids combustion in heatingsystems: Some conclusions Vegetable oils can be burnt in boilers if their viscosity is   r...
Future work : What are the effects of fuelcomposition on flame temperature andpollutants emission?                        ...
Other topics• Combustion control and performance ofhousehold condensing boilers• Feasibility study of the diluted combusti...
Publications2006-2011L. Arias, S.Torres, D. Sbarbaro, P. Ngendakumana : On the spectral bands measurements for combustion ...
Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
Conclusions and Perspectives Future works: Combustion of gases         with   low    calorific   values   in furnaces(UMon...
Conclusions and PerspectivesComplementary themes and efforts among Belgian partnersBalance between fundamental and applied...
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8. véronique dias ecerc - emissions reduction in combustion

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Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in Combustion
- Implementing Agreement

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Transcript of "8. véronique dias ecerc - emissions reduction in combustion"

  1. 1. IEA Energy Conservation andEmissions Reduction in Combustion (E.C.E.R.C.) I. A. Belgian Contributions
  2. 2. Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
  3. 3. IEA "Energy Conservation and EmissionsReduction in Combustion" I. A. Tasks shared and not costs shared I.A. 12 participant countries : BEL, CAN, CHE, DEU, FIN, GBR, ITA, JPN, KOR, NOR, SWE and USA Executive Committee (ExCo) : 1 delegate and 1 alternate per participant country Chair and vice-chair of the ExCo are elected (each year) by rotating procedure 3 Meetings per year: March 2012: Strategy group (USA) April 2012: ExCo in Paris (France) October 2012: Task Leaders Meeting (TLM) + ExCo (Republic of Korea) I.A.s public web site : http://ieacombustion.net/default/aspx
  4. 4. Active Research Activities (March 2011) Annex 1: Individual Contributor Tasks Annex 2: Sprays in Combustion (Collaborative Task): CHE, FIN, JPN Annex 3: Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (Collaborative Task): CAN, JPN, KOR, SWE Annex 4: Advanced Hydrogen Fueled Internal Combustion Engines (Collaborative Task): CAN, JPN, KOR, USA Annex 5: Alternative Fuels (Collaborative Tasks): BEL, CHE, FIN, KOR, SWE Annex 6: Nanoparticles Diagnostics (Collaborative Tasks): CAN, ITA Annex 7: Hydrogen Enriched Lean Premixed Combustion for Ultra- Low Emission Gas Turbine Combustors (Collaborative Task): CHE, NOR, SWE Annex 8: Supporting Activities
  5. 5. Annex 1: Individual Contributor Tasks Area 1 : Advanced Piston Engine Technology Area 2 : Advanced Furnace Technology Subarea 2.1 : Burner Phenomena (UMons, ULg) Subarea 2.2 : Gas Flows Subarea 2.3 : Fuel/air Mixing Subarea 2.4 : Flame processes (UCL) Subarea 2.5 : Postflame process Area 3 : Fundamentals (development of diagnostics tool and simulation codes) Area 4 : Advanced Gas Turbine Technology
  6. 6. Belgian activities(Advanced Furnace Technology : Area 2) Subtask 2.1H : INVESTIGATION ON COMBUSTION IN OIL BURNER FLAMES Contributor : Université de Liège Thermodynamics Laboratory – Thermotechnics Subtask 2.1I : STUDY OF COMBUSTION AND HEAT TRANSFER PHENOMENA IN INDUSTRIAL FURNACES FIRED WITH GAS BURNERS USING PREHEATED AIR Contributor : Faculté Polytechnique de l’Université de Mons Thermal Engineering and Combustion Unit Subtask 2.4F : CHEMICAL KINETICS STUDIES OF FLAMES AND SOOT FORMATION Contributor : Université catholique de Louvain Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering
  7. 7. Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
  8. 8. SUBTASK 2.4.FChemical Kinetics Studies of Flames and Soot FormationInstitute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering Pôle TFL – Thermodynamics and Fluid mechanics Université catholique de Louvain Véronique Dias and Hervé Jeanmart Veronique.Dias@uclouvain.be and Herve.Jeanmart@uclouvain.be
  9. 9. Chemical Kinetics Studies of Flames and Soot Formation Experimental studies of hydrocarbons and/or oxygenated species, by analysis flame structures at low pressure Elaboration of kinetic model to understand emission formation: conversion of reactants, formation of pollutants, effects ofadditives… Reduction of the kinetic model according to initial conditions Use of reduced mechanisms in industrial processes (engines, furnaces, boilers, …)
  10. 10. Experimental studies 1.2E-01 2.00E+03 1.80E+03 1.0E-01 1.60E+03Premixed flat flames stabilized on a 1.40E+03 Temperature (K) 8.0E-02burner at low pressure, analyzed Mole fraction 1.20E+03 6.0E-02 1.00E+03by: 8.00E+02 X-CO2 4.0E-02-mass spectrometry (MS) X-TOLUENE X-C6H6 6.00E+02 4.00E+02-or by gas chromatography (GC). 2.0E-02 Temperature 2.00E+02 0.0E+00 0.00E+00 0.00 0.33 0.65 0.96 1.28 1.61 1.93 Height Above the Burner (cm)
  11. 11. ModelisationElaboration of kinetic modelPredict the evolution for concentrations of present species inthe flame (from fresh gases to burned gases)InterestObtain valuable informations: degree of conversion rate ofreactants, formation rate of pollutants, effects of additives onthe soot formation,…Integration of these kinetic mechanisms in CFD simulationmodels of industrial processes (engines, boilers, furnaces...)
  12. 12. Elaboration of « UCL » kinetic modelThe kinetic model includes the detailed formation and consumptionreactions of species from C1 to C10. It contains 568 reactions and107 chemical species.This reaction mechanism has been extended and validated usingflat flames experiments:-Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6)-Ethylene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2), isobutene (iC4H8)-Benzene (C6H6)-Dimethoxymethane (C3H8O2), diethoxymethane (C5H12O2), ethanol (C2H5OH)-Formaldehyde (CH2O), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)http://veroniquedias.github.com/UCLouvain-Mechanism/
  13. 13. Flames with additivesObjectives of experiments φ C2H4 /O2 /Ar with C3H8O2 or C5H12O2 (φ = 2.5)Observe and measure the reduction of 4.5E-02concentrations for the soot precursors (with 4.0E-02φ constant) with additives C3H8O2 (DMM) et 3.5E-02C5H12O2 (DEM). Fraction molaire 3.0E-02 By keeping the equivalence ratioconstant,(φ), the ratio C/O decrease : 2.5E-02 → Reduction of mole fractions for 2.0E-02hydrocarbons produced in the rich ethylene 1.5E-02flame. - 19,8 % with DMM 1.0E-02 - 16,4 % with DEMObjectives of modelisation 5.0E-03 0.0E+00Elaborate a kinetic model able to predict 0 10 20 30the concentration of species present in these Distance au brûleur (mm)flames C2H2Understand the effect of the additives onthe reduction of soot precursors formation
  14. 14. Flames of methylal (DMM) OH H CH3OCH2OCH3 H OH OH O OH OCH3OêHOCH3 (DMM2) CH3OCH2OêH2 (DMM1) CH3OCHO CH3OêH2 H OH CH3OêO O2 Rich flame of DMM M Lean flame of DMM H CH3O• CH2O O H OH OH O M OH HêO CO CO2 O2
  15. 15. Conclusions and perspectivesElaboration of the reaction mechanism, named « UCL »:Past studies: Methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6) Ethylene (C2H4), acetylene (C2H2), isobutene (iC4H8) Benzene (C6H6) Dimethoxymethane (C3H8O2), diethoxymethane (C5H12O2) Ethanol (C2H5OH) Formaldehyde (CH2O), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)Present studies: Acetic acid (CH3COOH)Future experimental and modeling studies of flame structure: Triacetine (C9H14O6) Methyl valerate or methyl pentanoate (CH3CH2CH2CH2COOCH3) => Use of the mechanism in industrial processes (engines, furnaces, boilers, …)
  16. 16. Conclusions and perspectives Application of the mechanism of ethyl acetate and ethanol in an HCCI engine
  17. 17. Publications2008-2011: 17 articles ( ≈ 30 posters / oral presentations)V. Dias, J. Vandooren, Comb. and Flame 158 (2011) 848-859 ;V. Detilleux, J. Vandooren, Proc. Comb. Inst. 33 (2011) 217-224 ;X. Lories, J. Vandooren, D. Peeters, Int. J. Quant. Chem. DOI:10.1002/qua.23035 (2011) ;N. Leplat, P. Dagaut, C. Togbé, J. Vandooren, Comb. and Flame 158 (2011) 705-725 ;X. Lories, J. Vandooren, D. Peeters, Int. J. Quant. Chem. DOI:10.1002/qua.23142 (2011) ;X. Lories, J. Vandooren, D. Peeters, Computional and Theoretical Chemistry 966 (2011) 244-249 ;V. Dias, J. Vandooren, Fuel 89 (2010) 2633-2639 ;V. Dias, X. Lories, J. Vandooren, Combust. Sci. And Tech. 182 (2010) 350-364.N. Leplat, J. Vandooren, Combust. Sci. and Tech. 182 (2010) 436-448 ;X. Lories, J. Vandooren, D. Peeters, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12 (2010) 3762-3771C. Renard, V. Dias, P. J. Van Tiggelen, J. Vandooren, Proc. Comb. Inst. 32 (2009) 631-637 ;V. Detilleux, J. Vandooren, J. Phys. Chem. A 113 (2009) 10913-10922 ;V. Dias, C. Renard, J. Vandooren, Z. Phys. Chem. 223 (2009) 565-577 ;V. Detilleux, J. Vandooren, Combustion, Explosion and Shock Waves 45 (2009) ;X. Lories, J. Vandooren, D. Peeters, Chem. Phys. Letters 452 (2008) 29-32 ;N. Leplat, A. Seydi, J. Vandooren, Combust. Sci. and Tech. 180 (2008) 519-532 ;V. Detilleux, J. Vandooren, Combust. Sci. and Tech. 180 (2008) 1347-1469;
  18. 18. Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
  19. 19. SUBTASK 2.1.I Study of Combustion and Heat Transfer inIndustrial Furnaces Fired with Gas Burners Using Preheated AirFaculty of Engineering of the University of Mons Pôle Energie – Thermal Engineering and Combustion Unit Delphine Lupant Delphine.Lupant@umons.ac.be
  20. 20. POLYTECH= Faculty of Engineering of the University of Mons (founded thanks to theassociation of the University of Mons-Hainaut and the Faculty ofEngineering of Mons)Research is organized around 5 multidisciplinary research centers : Information and Technologies Materials Risks Biochemical systems and bioprocesses (BIOSYS) Energy: Thermal Engineering & 3 themes : Combustion Unit Energy and buildings Combustion and problems of CO2 Transport and production of electrical energy
  21. 21. Participation in ECERC since 1992 Context: Reduction of NOx emission in furnaces with air preheating at high temperature (Rational use of energy) Methodology: o Run experiments on furnaces built in our laboratory (funded by SPF) o Concurrently, use a commercial software (ANSYS Fluent) to model the combustion and use the measurements as validation data Benefits: o Guidance and services contracts for industrial partners (FIB, Drever) o Expertise in numerical modeling (AGC, Arcelor,…) Since 2000: Flameless Oxidation or Diluted Combustion = New Combustion technique which combine high efficiency + very low NOx emission
  22. 22. Diluted combustion furnaces At semi-industrial scale (300kW) o Commercial burner (REGEMAT WS) o Fired with natural gas + air o Furnace is available for international research partners (IFRF) o Used to test industrial burners (services contracts) o Main results:EXP: heat transfer, emissions, efficiencySIM: validation of global combustionmodels with temperature and speciesmeasurements in the furnace
  23. 23. Diluted combustion furnaces At laboratory scale I (3kW) o Simplified geometry (co-flow) o Fed with natural gas or synthetic mixture (CH4, CO, H2, N2, CO2) The objective was to study the evolution of the operating conditions required to sustain diluted combustion with low calorific value gases (products from gasification of biomass or from steel industry) Diluted combustion offers a smart way to solve flame stabilization problems Preheated and Combustion chamber encountered in standard burners diluted air due to the significant variations of their heating value (fuel flexibility) Fuel
  24. 24. Diluted combustion furnaces At laboratory scale II (30kW) = current project o Configuration similar to industrial furnaces (burner geometry, injection velocities, load) but at small scale 50%COGSpecies NG COG BFG Wood gas 50%BFGCH4 90% 35% - 18% 1%H2 - 60% 5% 33% 16%CO - 5% 25% 15% 21% FuelCO2 1% 25% 13% 12% Preheated airN2 2% 45% 21% 50% The objective is to study the evolution of the heat transfer (in the furnace and to the load), the combustion efficiency, the NO and CO emissions with those alternative fuels and give rules of design for industrial furnaces Interest from industrial partner (sponsorship from Arcelor-Mittal)
  25. 25. Publications 2006-20111 D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, E. Sezgin, P. Lybaert: Flameless combustion of CH4/CO/H2 fuel blends Proceedings of the "European Combustion Meeting ECM 2011", Cardiff, 20112 E. Sezgin, D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, P. Lybaert: Développement de diagramme de stabilité de flamme en combustion diluée, Actes du Congrès Annuel de la Société Française de Thermique, pp 351-356, 20103 D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, P. Lyabert: Impact des sondes de prélèvement sur la mesure d’espèces réactives en oxydation sans flamme, Actes du Congrès Annuel de la Société Française de Thermique, pp 363-368, 20104 D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, P. Lybaert: Influence of probe sampling on reacting species measurement in diluted combustion, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 34, 516–522, 20105 E. Sezgin, B. Pesenti, D. Lupant, P. Lybaert: Development of stability diagrams of flame in diluted combustion, Proceedings of the "European Combustion Meeting ECM 2009", Vienne, 20096 G. Seggio, B. Pesenti, P. Lybaert, P. Ngendakumana: Feasibility study of the diluted combustion in a semi- industrial boiler at low temperatures, Proceedings of the 8th european conference on industrial furnaces and boilers, Vilamoura, 20087 D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, P. Lybaert: Characterization of flameless combustion of natural gas in a laboratory scale furnace, Proceedings of the "European Combustion Meeting ECM 2007", Chania, 20078 D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, P. Evrard, P. Lybaert: Numerical and experimental characterization of a self-regenerative flameless oxidation burner operation in a pilot-scale furnace, Combustion Science and Technology (I. Glassman and R. A. Yetter eds.), Vol 179: 437–453, 20079-10 D. Lupant, B. Pesenti, P. Lybaert: Assessment of combustion models of a self-regenerative flameless oxidation burner, Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Industrial Furnaces and Boilers, Porto, 2006 + Proceedings of the 7th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Mons, 2006
  26. 26. Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
  27. 27. SUBTASK 2.1.HThe use of liquid biofuels in heating systems : a review University of Liège Thermodynamics Laboratory – Thermotechnics Philippe Ngendakumana pngendakumana@ulg.ac.be
  28. 28. 17% of CO2 emissions in Europe are related tospace heating function of gas and oil-fired boilers Ref: ecoboiler.org
  29. 29. There are different pathways to convertbiomass to biofuels
  30. 30. Vegetable oils combustion is feasableif the viscosity is reduced Vegetable oil viscosity is 35 mm²/s at 40° compared C to 2.7mm²/s for gasoil it must be reduced by preheating (to 80° or C) mixing to gasoil LHV of vegetable oils (37MJ/kg) 10% lower than LHV of diesel (43MJ/kg) Vegetable oil must be appropriately stored to avoid oxidation and filtration problems
  31. 31. CO emissions reduction with vegetableoil addition Alonso et al., Energy & Fuels, Vol. 22, No 5, 2008.
  32. 32. Biodiesels are good candidates topetroleum diesel fuel substitution Biodiesels have similar physical properties to diesel fuels (viscosity 4mm²/s at 40° C) LHV of biodiesels (37MJ/kg) 10% lower than LHV of diesel (43MJ/kg) Quality requirements are defined in the standards EN14213 They are quite stable but strong oxidizing agents must be avoided
  33. 33. Burning biodiesel decreases mostpollutants emissions Macor et Pavanello, Energy, Vol. 34, pp. 2025-2032, 2009.
  34. 34. Bioethanol combustion in heating systems ismore problematic Bioethanol is less viscous than diesel and can lead to lubrification problems in the pumps LHV of bioethanol is 35% lower than that of the diesel quantity of fuel injected must be adapted (greater capacity injection nozzle or increased injection pressure) Storage is more hazardous as bioethanol flash point is around 13° (compared to 60° for diesel fuel) C C
  35. 35. Bioethanol flame emissivity decreasescompared to diesel fuel flame emissivity Barroso et al., Fuel processing technology, Vol. 91, pp. 1537-1550, 2010.
  36. 36. Bioliquids combustion in heatingsystems: Some conclusions Vegetable oils can be burnt in boilers if their viscosity is reduced Biodiesels are good candidates to fuel oil substitution. Pollutants emissions are mainly decreased but there is no clear trend for NOx emissions Bioethanol combustion is more difficult to achieve in conventional burners (low viscosity, low energy content, low vapor pressure, different flame emissivity)
  37. 37. Future work : What are the effects of fuelcomposition on flame temperature andpollutants emission? 370 KW boiler equipped with visualisation windows We will burn biodiesels of various origins and compositions: to evaluate the effects of fuel composition on flame temperature and NOx emissions to evaluate the boiler performance working with different biodiesels
  38. 38. Other topics• Combustion control and performance ofhousehold condensing boilers• Feasibility study of the diluted combustionin a semi-industrial boiler at lowtemperatures (compared to furnaces)• Combustion of wood pellets in a domesticheating boiler
  39. 39. Publications2006-2011L. Arias, S.Torres, D. Sbarbaro, P. Ngendakumana : On the spectral bands measurements for combustion monitoring, doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.09.018D. Makaire, P. Ngendakumana : Simulation model of a gas-fired condensing boiler at full load operation in steady- state regime, ASME-ATI-UIT 2010 Conference on Thermal and Environmental Issues in Energy Systems.D. Makaire, P. Ngendakumana : Modelling the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers working in steadystate conditions, Paper presented at 21st "journées détudes" of the Belgian Section of the Combustion Institute, Liège (Belgium), May 2010D. Makaire, P. Ngendakumana : Modèle de simulation des performances dune chaudière fioul à condensation de chauffage domestique, Energies et transports durables : SFT10, Le Touquet (France), 25-28 mai 2010K. Sartor, P. Ngendakumana : Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Spark Ignition Engines, Paper presented at 21st "Journées d’Etudes" of the Belgian Section of the Combustion Institute, Liège (Belgium), May 2010Luis E. Arias Parada. Arias : Photodiode-based sensor for flame sensing and combustion process monitoring, by means the global detection of flame spectral information, PhD thesis, University of Concepcion (Chile), March 2009D. Makaire and Ph. Ngendakumana, Simulation model of a semi-industrial fuel oil boiler in steady-state regime. Proceedings of the 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference (EUROTHERM 2008). Eindhoven (The Netherlands), May 18-22, 2008G. Seggio, B. Pesenti, P. Lybaert, P. Ngendakumana: Feasibility study of the diluted combustion in a semi-industrial boiler at low temperatures, Proceedings of the 8th european conference on industrial furnaces and boilers, Vilamoura, 2008A. Ballant, D. Makaire, P. Ngendakumana : Modelling of a domestic gas-fired condensing boiler, Paper presented at 21st "journées détudes" of the Belgian Section of the Combustion Institute,, GENT (Belgium), May 6-8, 2008
  40. 40. Presentation of ECERCStudies at UCLStudies at UMonsStudies at ULgConclusions and Perspectives
  41. 41. Conclusions and Perspectives Future works: Combustion of gases with low calorific values in furnaces(UMons-UCL) Transition from commercial to open-source CFD software for combustion (UMons-UCL) Feasibility studies of diluted combustion without air preheating (UMons-ULg) Lending of experimental equipments, troubleshooting of experiments and measurement techniques (ULg-UMons-UCL)
  42. 42. Conclusions and PerspectivesComplementary themes and efforts among Belgian partnersBalance between fundamental and applied researchScientific production (publications, thesis)Outcomes: Kinetic models (UCL) Experimental database (UCL, UMons) Semi-industrial size test facilities (UMons, ULg)Perspectives: Facilities available for industrial test Industrial deployment of numerical tools and know how Insights into long-term research plans at an international level through the ECERC agreement (TLM and ExCo)
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