A Prevention-Centered
Homelessness Assistance System:
A Paradigm Shift?
Dennis Culhane,
Stephen Metraux and
Thomas Byrne
Typology of Single Adult Homelessness
(Philadelphia)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
Transitional Episodic Chronic
...
Disability Rates
(Single Adults in Philadelphia)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
Mental Illness Physical Substance
...
Implications
 Transitionally Homeless: Prevention and
Relocation Assistance
 Episodically Homeless: Low Demand Residence...
What has been done?:
Chronic Homeless Initiative
Congress and Bush/Obama have increased
funding $600 million since 2003; ...
Typology of Family Homelessness
(Massachusetts)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Transitional Episodic Long-stayers
% of...
Intensive Service Histories of
Families
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
Child Welfare
Placement
Inpt MH Inpt SA Any one
Transit...
Income Sources
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Earned Income SSI
Transitional Episodic Long-Term (n=99)
The Average Cost of
Shelter Stays by Type
(Massachusetts)
Transitional $11,550
Episodic $21,450
Long-term $48,440
Does ...
Conclusions
 Policies and programs driving long stays
 Characteristics of “graduates” may reflect
selection effects of p...
V
o
l
u
m
e
Cost per Case
Model Service System
for Addressing Housing Emergencies
Prevention Supportive
Housing
Shelter Ad...
Shelter
Day Care
Employment
Assistance
Housing
Placement
Family Supt
Services
MH/SA
Services
Prevailing Model Emerging Mod...
Target Population Prevention Objective
Most At – Risk Protocols for Institutional
Discharges
Imminently Homeless Crisis In...
Most At-Risk
 Prisoners awaiting discharge
 Patients Exiting Hospital or Detoxification
 Youth Exiting from FC
 Domest...
Imminently Homelessness
(HH w/ Eviction Notice, Shelter Requestors)
 For Primary Tenants – Landlord Tenant Mediation
and ...
Homeless
 Crisis Intervention (same as for “imminently
homeless”) for newly homeless to restore prior
tenancy or provide ...
Shelter admission
Community-
based
Prevention
(Diversion and
Stabilization)
Rapid
Exit:
Relocation
Up to 2-4
weeks
shelter...
The English Experience:
Prevention Oriented System
Funded in 2003
 New Ethos: All Cases Can Be Prevented/Rehoused
 50% D...
Systems Transformation
 From “the Continuum” to “the Network”
 Creating a New Field of Practice: Housing
Stabilization
...
Challenges
 Engaging Human Services Systems: Prevention
Concept has to be embraced across systems
 Local Housing Authori...
Issues for Philanthropy
 Engaging and convening community stakeholders
 Supporting “systems change” and “culture
change”...
Suggested web resources
 National Alliance to End Homelessness web site:
HPRP Resources section, includes “guides for
goo...
A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift?
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A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift?

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Dr. Dennis Culhane's presentation on homelessness at the Center for High Impact Philanthropy Donor Education Seminar.

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A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift?

  1. 1. A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift? Dennis Culhane, Stephen Metraux and Thomas Byrne
  2. 2. Typology of Single Adult Homelessness (Philadelphia) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Transitional Episodic Chronic % of Persons % Days Used  Transitionals:  1.19 stays  20.4 days  Episodics:  3.84 stays  72.8 days  Chronics:  1.53 stays  252.4 days
  3. 3. Disability Rates (Single Adults in Philadelphia) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Mental Illness Physical Substance Abuse Any One Transitional Episodic Chronic
  4. 4. Implications  Transitionally Homeless: Prevention and Relocation Assistance  Episodically Homeless: Low Demand Residences (Safe Havens), Harm Reduction, Transitional Housing, Residential Treatment  Chronically Homeless: Permanent Supportive Housing
  5. 5. What has been done?: Chronic Homeless Initiative Congress and Bush/Obama have increased funding $600 million since 2003; 45% increase 80,000 units created HUD reported a 30% decline in CH from 05 to 09
  6. 6. Typology of Family Homelessness (Massachusetts) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Transitional Episodic Long-stayers % of Persons % Days Used  Transitionals:  1.0 stays  105 days  Episodics:  2.0 stays  195 days  Long-Stayers:  1.0 stays  444 days
  7. 7. Intensive Service Histories of Families 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Child Welfare Placement Inpt MH Inpt SA Any one Transitional Episodic Long-Term
  8. 8. Income Sources 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Earned Income SSI Transitional Episodic Long-Term (n=99)
  9. 9. The Average Cost of Shelter Stays by Type (Massachusetts) Transitional $11,550 Episodic $21,450 Long-term $48,440 Does not include McKinney-Vento funding or non-DTA public service contracts.
  10. 10. Conclusions  Policies and programs driving long stays  Characteristics of “graduates” may reflect selection effects of policies and programs  Most costly service users are not differentially service-needy  Need for reform
  11. 11. V o l u m e Cost per Case Model Service System for Addressing Housing Emergencies Prevention Supportive Housing Shelter Admission Diversion, Relocation, and Emergency Rental Assistance Mainstream systems Community- Based programs
  12. 12. Shelter Day Care Employment Assistance Housing Placement Family Supt Services MH/SA Services Prevailing Model Emerging Model Housing Stabilization Day Care Employment Assistance Shelter Family Supt Services MH/SA Services Turning the Continuum of Care Inside – Out?
  13. 13. Target Population Prevention Objective Most At – Risk Protocols for Institutional Discharges Imminently Homeless Crisis Intervention and Tenancy Preservation (Shelter Diversion) Homeless Emergency Shelter and Rapid Rehousing
  14. 14. Most At-Risk  Prisoners awaiting discharge  Patients Exiting Hospital or Detoxification  Youth Exiting from FC  Domestic Violence Victims  Formerly Homeless Protocols Needed with Standard Screening for Risk, Tenancy Preservation, and Rehousing Plans
  15. 15. Imminently Homelessness (HH w/ Eviction Notice, Shelter Requestors)  For Primary Tenants – Landlord Tenant Mediation and Relocation Grant (if necessary)  For Those Leaving Family/Friends:  Home visits  “Options” counseling  Family mediation  Transition planning  Flexible emergency cash assistance  Employment coaching
  16. 16. Homeless  Crisis Intervention (same as for “imminently homeless”) for newly homeless to restore prior tenancy or provide relocation grant  At some threshold (3-4 weeks): Rehousing Plan  Deeper Assessment and Services Screen  Service Coordination – referral until “touch” is made  Relocation  Emergency Assistance - flexible cash assistance, can provide shallow rent supports, with six month review
  17. 17. Shelter admission Community- based Prevention (Diversion and Stabilization) Rapid Exit: Relocation Up to 2-4 weeks shelter Housing Stabilization Service I Relocation, Critical Time Intervention CM, Temp Rental Ass. 1 year shallow rental subsidy Housing Stabilization Service II More intensive services, 1 more year of Temp Rent Ass. Shelter exit Transition to mainstream systems Long-Term Subsidy and Service Engagement “Progressive Engagement” Approach
  18. 18. The English Experience: Prevention Oriented System Funded in 2003  New Ethos: All Cases Can Be Prevented/Rehoused  50% Decline in Homelessness from 2003-2006  Keys to Success:  Flexible resources that could be tailored to client  Strong agency collaborations with mainstream systems  Timeliness – intervening as early and quickly as possible
  19. 19. Systems Transformation  From “the Continuum” to “the Network”  Creating a New Field of Practice: Housing Stabilization  New Service Priorities:  Tenancy Sustainment  Service Coordinators  Benefits Counselors  Housing Relocation Specialists  Family Mediation  Home Visitors
  20. 20. Challenges  Engaging Human Services Systems: Prevention Concept has to be embraced across systems  Local Housing Authority Participation – Need for some permanent subsidies for households with long-term needs  New Data Collection and Performance Standards Needed
  21. 21. Issues for Philanthropy  Engaging and convening community stakeholders  Supporting “systems change” and “culture change” activities  Mobilizing private sector participation into a housing and jobs network: landlords, legal services, employers  “Home” programs – move-in assistance, house- starter kits, furniture banks, etc.
  22. 22. Suggested web resources  National Alliance to End Homelessness web site: HPRP Resources section, includes “guides for good practice”  Funders Together to End Homelessness: http://funderstogether.org/
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