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A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift?



Dr. Dennis Culhane's presentation on homelessness at the Center for High Impact Philanthropy Donor Education Seminar.

Dr. Dennis Culhane's presentation on homelessness at the Center for High Impact Philanthropy Donor Education Seminar.



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    A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift? A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift? Presentation Transcript

    • A Prevention-Centered Homelessness Assistance System: A Paradigm Shift?
      • Dennis Culhane,
      • Stephen Metraux and
      • Thomas Byrne
    • Typology of Single Adult Homelessness (Philadelphia)
      • Transitionals:
        • 1.19 stays
        • 20.4 days
      • Episodics:
        • 3.84 stays
        • 72.8 days
      • Chronics:
        • 1.53 stays
        • 252.4 days
    • Disability Rates (Single Adults in Philadelphia)
    • Implications
      • Transitionally Homeless: Prevention and Relocation Assistance
      • Episodically Homeless: Low Demand Residences (Safe Havens), Harm Reduction, Transitional Housing, Residential Treatment
      • Chronically Homeless: Permanent Supportive Housing
    • What has been done?: Chronic Homeless Initiative
      • Congress and Bush/Obama have increased funding $600 million since 2003; 45% increase
      • 80,000 units created
      • HUD reported a 30% decline in CH from 05 to 09
    • Typology of Family Homelessness (Massachusetts)
      • Transitionals:
        • 1.0 stays
        • 105 days
      • Episodics:
        • 2.0 stays
        • 195 days
      • Long-Stayers:
        • 1.0 stays
        • 444 days
    • Intensive Service Histories of Families
    • Income Sources
    • The Average Cost of Shelter Stays by Type (Massachusetts)
      • Transitional $11,550
      • Episodic $21,450
      • Long-term $48,440
      • Does not include McKinney-Vento funding or non-DTA public service contracts.
    • Summary
      • Cluster patterns are robust across sites
      • Most families (75%) leave quickly and don’t return
      • A small number (5%) return repeatedly
      • 20% of families have long stays, using 50% of resources
      • BUT – unlike singles – long stays do not indicate personal barriers to housing stability
    • Conclusions
      • Policies and programs driving long stays
      • Characteristics of “graduates” may reflect selection effects of policies and programs
      • Most costly service users are not differentially service-needy
      • Need for reform
    • Volume Cost per Case Model Service System for Addressing Housing Emergencies Prevention Supportive Housing Shelter Admission Diversion, Relocation, and Emergency Rental Assistance Mainstream systems Community- Based programs
    • Shelter Day Care Employment Assistance Housing Placement Family Supt Services MH/SA Services Prevailing Model Emerging Model Housing Stabilization Day Care Employment Assistance Shelter Family Supt Services MH/SA Services Turning the Continuum of Care Inside – Out?
    • Target Population Prevention Objective Most At – Risk Protocols for Institutional Discharges Imminently Homeless Crisis Intervention and Tenancy Preservation (Shelter Diversion) Homeless Emergency Shelter and Rapid Rehousing
    • Most At-Risk
      • Prisoners awaiting discharge
      • Patients Exiting Hospital or Detoxification
      • Youth Exiting from FC
      • Domestic Violence Victims
      • Formerly Homeless
      • Protocols Needed with Standard Screening for Risk, Tenancy Preservation, and Rehousing Plans
    • Imminently Homelessness (HH w/ Eviction Notice, Shelter Requestors)
      • For Primary Tenants – Landlord Tenant Mediation and Relocation Grant (if necessary)
      • For Those Leaving Family/Friends:
        • Home visits
        • “ Options” counseling
        • Family mediation
        • Transition planning
        • Flexible emergency cash assistance
        • Employment coaching
    • Homeless
      • Crisis Intervention (same as for “imminently homeless”) for newly homeless to restore prior tenancy or provide relocation grant
      • At some threshold (3-4 weeks): Rehousing Plan
        • Deeper Assessment and Services Screen
        • Service Coordination – referral until “touch” is made
        • Relocation
        • Emergency Assistance - flexible cash assistance, can provide shallow rent supports, with six month review
    • Shelter admission Community-based Prevention (Diversion and Stabilization) Rapid Exit: Relocation Up to 2-4 weeks shelter Housing StabilizationService I Relocation, Critical Time Intervention CM, Temp Rental Ass. 1 year shallow rental subsidy Housing Stabilization Service II More intensive services, 1 more year of Temp Rent Ass. Shelter exit Transition to mainstream systems Long-Term Subsidy and Service Engagement “ Progressive Engagement” Approach
    • The English Experience: Prevention Oriented System Funded in 2003
      • New Ethos: All Cases Can Be Prevented/Rehoused
      • 50% Decline in Homelessness from 2003-2006
      • Keys to Success:
        • Flexible resources that could be tailored to client
        • Strong agency collaborations with mainstream systems
        • Timeliness – intervening as early and quickly as possible
    • Systems Transformation
      • From “the Continuum” to “the Network”
      • Creating a New Field of Practice: Housing Stabilization
      • New Service Priorities:
        • Tenancy Sustainment
        • Service Coordinators
        • Benefits Counselors
        • Housing Relocation Specialists
        • Family Mediation
        • Home Visitors
    • Challenges
      • Engaging Human Services Systems: Prevention Concept has to be embraced across systems
      • Local Housing Authority Participation – Need for some permanent subsidies for households with long-term needs
      • New Data Collection and Performance Standards Needed
    • Issues for Philanthropy
      • Engaging and convening community stakeholders
      • Supporting “systems change” and “culture change” activities
      • Mobilizing private sector participation into a housing and jobs network: landlords, legal services, employers
      • “ Home” programs – move-in assistance, house-starter kits, furniture banks, etc.
    • Suggested web resources
      • National Alliance to End Homelessness web site: HPRP Resources section, includes “guides for good practice”
      • Funders Together to End Homelessness:
      • http://funderstogether.org/