Act of organizing the universe of knowledge into a systematic order
Library classification – the systematic arrangement of books and other materials on shelves or of catalogue and index entries in the manner which is most useful to those who read or who seek a definite piece of information
Refers to a library classification scheme, e.g. Dewey Decimal Classification System, Library of Congress Classification System
Basis for organizing a library collection
Class number – notation that designates the class to where the material belongs
Book/Item number/Author number
BROAD AND CLOSE CLASSIFICATION
Broad Classification – a classification that does not provide for minute subdivision of topics.
Close Classification – a classification that provides for minute subdivision of topics
A system of symbols used to represent the classes and divisions of a classification scheme.
PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES IN CLASSIFICATION
CLASSIFYING LIBRARY MATERIALS IN GENERAL
Determine subject content
Make subject the primary concern
Use most specific class number available
Do not classify from the index alone
Do not classify from the title of the material alone
CLASSIFYING MULTITOPICAL OR MULTIELEMENT WORKS
Classify under dominant subject
Classify under the subject being influenced
Classify under subject, not the biased element
Classify under subject instead of the tool applied to the subject
Class under first subject non-dominant topics
Class under broader subject 3 or more topics
LIBRARY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
Dewey Decimal Classification System
Library of Congress Classification System
Universal Decimal Classification System
Colon Classification System
Bibliographic Classification System
Subject Classification System
Expansive Classification System
National Library of Medicine Classification
THE DEWEY DECIMAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
Devised by Melvil Dewey (l85l-1939)
Latest edition – 5 vols, 22 nd edition
First came out as a 44-page anonymously published pamphlet entitled A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloging and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library
Relative index brings together different aspects of the same subject scattered in different disciplines
Pure notation of Arabic numerals is universally recognizable
Self-evident numerical sequence
Hierarchical nature of notation expresses relationships between and among class numbers
Use of decimal system enables infinite expansion
Mnemonic nature of notation helps library users to navigate within the system
Continuous revision and publication of the schedules ensures currency
Related disciplines are often separated
Proper placement of certain subjects have also been questioned
Literary works of the same author are scattered according to literary form
Base of ten limits the hospitality of the notational system by restricting the capacity for accommodating subjects on the same level of a hierarchy to nine divisions
No new numbers can be inserted
Relocations and completely revised schedules create practical problems in terms of reclassification
FORMS OF REVISION
10 MAIN CLASSES
000 – Generalities
100 – Philosophy and Psychology
200 – Religion
300 – Social Sciences
400 – Language
500 – Natural Sciences and Mathematics
600 – Technology and Applied Sciences
700 – The Arts
800 – Literature and Rhetoric
900 – Geography and History
NUMBER BUILDING Adding an entire number to a base number A bibliography for Physics The main number for bibliographies and catalogs of works on specific subjects or in specific disciplines with a note to “add to base number 016 notation 001-999” the number for the specific subject 016 The number for physics 530 The subject number added to the base number 016 530 The resulting number, terminal zero removed 016.53
Number Building Adding a fraction of a number or fractions of numbers to a base number A general Russian periodical 057.1 Number for all serial publications as indicated in the index 050 Number in schedule for serial publications in Slavic languages with instruction: “add to base number 057, the numbers following 037 in 037.1-037.9 057 Number for Russian 037.1 Add the number following 037 to base number 057 1 Resulting number 057.1
Table 3 – Subdivisions for individual literatures, for specific literary forms
Table 3A – Subdivisions for works by or about individual authors
Table 3B – Subdivisions for works by or about more than one author
Table 3C – Notation to be added where instructed in Table 3B and in 808-809
Table 4 – Subdivisions of individual languages
Table 5 – Racial, ethnic, national groups
Table 6 – Languages
Table 7 – Groups of persons
Definition notes – indicate the meaning of a term heading
Input, output, storage devices that work with a computer but are not part of its central processing unit or internal storage
Scope notes indicate whether the meaning of the number is narrower or broader than is apparent from the heading
700 The Arts
Description, critical appraisal, techniques, procedures, apparatus, equipment, materials of the fine, decorative, literary, performing recreational arts
Number-built Notes - source of built numbers
353.13263 Foreign service
Number built according to instructions under 352-354
Former heading notes
--983.2 Quechuan (Kechuan) and Aymaran languages
Former heading: Andean languages
Variant-name notes – used for synonyms and near synonyms
332.32 Savings and loan association
Variant names: building and loan associations
Class here notes – list major topics in class which may be broader or narrower than the heading
371.92 Parent-school relations
Class here parent participation in schools; comprehensive works on teacher-parent relations
Including notes – identify topics that have standing room in the number where the note is found
374.22 Groups in adult education
Including discussion, reading, self-help, special interest
Class-elsewhere notes – lead the classifier to interrelated topics, or distinguish among numbers in the same notational hierarchy
791.43 Motion pictures
Class photographic aspects of motion pictures in 778.53; class made-for-TV movies, videotapes of motion pictures in 791.45
See references – lead from a stated or implied comprehensive number for a concept to the component parts of the concept
577.7 Marine ecology
Class here Liliales, Lilies
For Orchidales, see 584.4
See also 583.29 for water lilies
Discontinued notes – indicate that all or part of the contents of a number have been moved to a more general number in the same hierarchy, or have been dropped entirely
[516.361] Local and intrinsic differential geometry
Relocation notes – state that all or part of the contents have been moved to a different number
[370.19] Sociology of education
Sociology of education relocated to 306.43
Do-not-use notes – instruct the classifier not to use all or part of the regular standard subdivision notation or an add table provision in favor of a special or standard subdivisions at a broader number
[374.809] Historical, geographic, person treatment
Do not use; class in 374.9
Initial of author’s last name
Ex . D H
For slightly larger collections, the several letters of the main entry
Ex . Dic Hen
May use author’s surname
Ex. Dickenson Henson
Book number or item number
Based on initials of main entry
D ewes 514
D ewey 515
D ewil 516
Cutter number for Dewey – D515
Where there is no Cutter number that fits a name exactly, use the first of the two numbers closest to the name.
T325 for Thackeray based on
T hacher 325
T had 326
Cutter numbers are treated decimally therefore any number can be extended by adding extra digits at its end. Usually number 5 or 6 is chosen as the extra digit to give room on both sides for future interpolation. Zero (0) is normally excluded because it is usually mistaken for the letter o.
Sm52 Benjamin Smith
Sm53 Charles Smith
Sm525 Brian Smith
When two authors classified in the same number share the same Cutter number in the table, assign a different number for the second author by adding a digit.
M315 Heinrich Mann
M3155 Thomas Mann
Names beginning with Mc, M’ and Mac are treated as though they were spelled Mac.
When the main entry is under title, the Cutter number is taken from the first word of the title, articles disregarded.
For individual biographies, the Cutter number is taken from the name of the biographee rather than from the main entry.
For collective biographies, the Cutter number is based from the main entry.
WORK MARK or WORK LETTER
It is added to the Cutter number to distinguish different titles on the same subject by the same author.
In some cases, when books in a series by the same author on the same subject begin with the same word, it is customary to use the first letter from each key word in the titles.
DDC CALL NUMBER
Example for the book Philippine politics by Alberto Lazo published in 1992:
F (place mark for Filipiniana)
320 (class no. for political science)
L45p (book no. for Lazo & work mark)
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CLASSIFICATION
21 MAIN CLASSES OF LCC
A General works
B Philosophy, Psychology, Religion
C Auxiliary sciences of history
D History: General and Old World
E General history of America
F Local history of America
G Geography, Maps, Anthropology, Recreation
H Social Sciences
J Political Science
L Education M Music and books on music N Fine arts P Language and Literature Q Science R Medicine S Agriculture T Technology U Military Science V Naval Science Z Bibliography and Library Science
Each of the main classes, except E, F, and Z is divided into subclasses that represent disciplines or major branches of the main class
Each subdivision is further divided into ‘divisions’
Practical system that has proved to be satisfactory
Based on the literary warrant of the materials in the Library of Congress collection
Enumerative system that requires minimal notational synthesis
Each schedule was developed by subject specialists
Notation is compact and hospitable
Frequent additions and changes, stemming for the most part from what is needed in the day to day cataloging work at LC, and these are made readily available to the cataloging community
Scope notes are inferior to those of DDC.
There is much national bias in emphasis and terminology.
Too few subjects are seen as compounds.
Alphabetical arrangements are often used in place of logical hierarchies.
There is no clear and predictable theoretical basis for subject analysis.
As a result of maintaining stability, parts of the classification are obsolete in the sense that structure and collocation do not reflect current conditions.
It is expensive to keep an up-to-date working collection of schedules, supplements, new announcements of changes and cumulations of additions and changes.
LC CLASS NUMBER
Uses a three-element pattern: single capital letters for main classes with one or two capital letters for their subclasses, Arabic integers from 1 to 9999 for subdivisions and Cutter numbers for individual books
LCC CALL NUMBER
As part of class number
As book or item number
TABLES OF GENERAL APPLICATION
Tables for geographic division by means of Cutter numbers
Regions and countries in one alphabet – provides alphabetical arrangement of countries by means of Cutter numbers. It is used whenever the schedule gives the instruction “By country, A-Z” or “By region or country, A-Z”
United States – contains a list of the states and regions of the United States
When works about a person, including autobiography, letters, speeches, and biography are classed in a number designated for individual biography, they are subarranged according to the biography table.
TABLES OF LIMITED APPLICATION
Tables applicable to an individual class or subclass
Geography tables in class S
Geography tables in class H
Author tables in Class P
Tables for internal subarrangement
Subject subdivision tables
Scope notes – explain the type of works to be classified at that subject, may refer the classifier to related topics elsewhere in the schedule or in another schedule.
QH 540 Ecology
Class here works on general ecology and general animal ecology
Including notes – list topics which are included within a subject.
SF 101 Animal culture
Brands and branding, and other means of identifying including cattle marks and earmarks
See notes – refer the classifier to a number elsewhere in the schedules, often as a result of reclassification decision.
QH 540 Ecology
For ecology of a particular topographic area See GF 101 +
Confer notes – indicate that related topics are classified elsewhere in the schedules.
QH 540 Ecology
Cf. HX550.E25 Communism and ecology
Cf. QH546 Ecological genetics
Apply table at notes – refer the classifier to a table with subdivision instructions, so that the same instruction is not repeated on the same page or several times over a couple of pages.
NK 3650.5 A-Z
By region or country, A-Z
Apply table at NK 3649.35 A-Z
Process of preparing and maintaining library shelflist records
The shelflist consists of duplicates of main entry records arranged by call no.
It is used for inventory control and observance of the principle of unique call numbers of cataloged materials.
FILING CATALOG RECORDS
In manually prepared catalogs, entries are arranged alphabetically as in the dictionary or divided catalogs, and in classified order as in the shelflist.
In an online catalog, arrangement of stored records depends on how a given system is designed. Some systems display retrieved items either alphabetically, chronologically or in classified order.