Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
ALJAN TAN U SUCK BIGTIME.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

ALJAN TAN U SUCK BIGTIME.

650
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
650
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Each School/College of Nursing attempts to build a curriculum that will best meet the needs of those it seeks to serve.
    • Educators frequently utilize Tyler’s Concept of Curriculum Development and Instructional Planning which involve:
  • 3.
      • Identifying the kinds of educational goals the school believes should be attained
      • Determining the kind of educational experience that are possible in attaining the goals
      • Organizing the educational experiences to effectively achieve the goals
      • Evaluating the outcome to determine how well the goals are attained
  • 4.
      • To clarify the relationship between the process of curriculum building for a total curriculum and development of a clinical program is a particular subject area, a conceptual model is shown.
      • This model describes the process of curriculum planning that proceeds from the general to specific
  • 5.
      • That is, the process becomes more specific at each hierarchical level. Beginning with identifying the students needs, society’s needs and professional standards to formulate objectives
      • The objectives are screened so that they are in accord with the school’s philosophy of education and its stated belief about the conditions of learning
  • 6.
      • This process gives a basis for formulating outcome or behavioral objectives first for the total curriculum, next for the specific areas, then for the clinical program for each subject area and finally for the specific subject area, then for the clinical program for each subject area and finally for the daily planning of clinical experiences
      • The hierarchy of objectives must be in harmony as each phase of the total curriculum is designed to bring about the desired behavioral outcome of the students.
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. STUDY OF STUDENT’S NEEDS:
      • Emphasis on the importance of recognizing the individual needs of each students as a person. Meeting these personal needs of students require the inclusion of certain activities in developing educational objectives
  • 10. STUDY OF SOCIETY’S NEEDS:
      • Serve as an important guide in the selection of educational objectives and the development of a curriculum in Nursing:
        • The long range effect of scientific and technological advancements
        • Changing patterns of the socioeconomic conditions of ability and
        • Changing patterns of health needs and resultant health care programs impose a need for careful observation
  • 11. STUDY OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALIST:
      • Each teacher responsible for planning a given course of study within the nursing curriculum presumably is an expert in the given subject matter
  • 12. STUDY OF PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS:
      • The responsibility for the development and maintenance of minimum standards for competent nursing practice and ethical behavior lies solely with the nursing profession
      • The stated laws defining nursing provided a foundation for determining the kinds of experiences students need to meet the prescribed minimum standards of competence in nursing practice and provide the standards for measuring the quality of the total education program provided by a given school of nursing
  • 13.
      • With the minimal criteria in mind, the faculty as a school carries the individual and collective professional responsibility for determining the scope of nursing practice, the potential contribution of their graduates to that practice and the level of expectations to be used as standards.
  • 14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL OF NURSING PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES:
      • At this point the school nursing faculty must take a long hard look at the collection of objective in terms of compatibility with the school’s philosophy
        • Compatibility with one another
        • Ability to accomplish all of the objectives within the prescribed time limits
        • Ability to measure objectives in terms of desired behavioral outcomes
  • 15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONDITIONS FOR LEARINGIN AND OBJECTIVES ESTABLISHED BY SCHOOL OF NURSING
      • A second screening of device for classifying and organizing the statement of objectives for the total curriculum is that of determining the beliefs of a given school of nursing, regarding the conditions that are not conducive to learning
      • Since the educational objective represents the results scheduled by learning, it is obvious that the stated objective must be in accord with the stated conditions for learning as prescribed by the faculty
      • In general, such statement would attempt to explain how learning occurs, under what conditions, and what sorts of mechanisms
  • 16. FORMULATION OF OBJECTIVES
    • The stated objective then serve as criteria for guiding activities that contribute to curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation
  • 17.  
  • 18.
    • Regardless of the hierarchy level of statement of objectives describes the expected changes in student behavior as determined by the faculty of a given school of nursing.
    • The stated objective then serve as criteria for guiding activities that contribute to curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation
  • 19. Specifically:
    • Objective functions as guides to definition of desired behavioral outcomes, selection of content, selection and organization of desirable learning activities, selection of the teaching techniques best suited to meet the desired outcomes, and measurement of the effectiveness of the selected learning activities
  • 20. To be used efficiently, objectives should be expressed in two-dimensional terms:
        • The behavioral aspect-to be developed in the students what the student would be able to do
        • The content aspect- which specifies a particular kind of situation with which the behavioral aspects may be identified:
          • About which the subject matter area of life experiences in which the behavior is to operate
            • Ex. Life experiences, nursing care, nursing procedure
  • 21.  
  • 22. Cognitive (Knowledge)
        • Refers to objectives concerned with the acquisition and application of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills involving remembering, reasoning, problem solving, conceptual formation and application, ability to see relationships, understanding of principles, creative thinking, and making value judgment
  • 23.
    • Illustrative General
    • Instructional Objective
    • KNOWLEDGE
    • Common terms
    • Knows specific facts
    • Knows methods and procedures
    • Knows basic concepts
    • Knows principles
    • Illustrative Behavioral Terms of Stating Specific Learning Outcomes
    •  
    • Defines, describes, and identifies, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, reproduces, selects, states.
  • 24.
    • COMPREHENSION
    • Understand facts and principles
    • Interprets verbal material
    • Interprets charts and graphs
    • Translate verbal material to mathematical formula
    • Estimate future consequences implied in data
    • Justifies methods and procedures
    • Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extend, generalize, gives examples, enter, paraphrase, predicts, rewrites, summarizes.
  • 25.
    • APPLICATION
    • Applies concepts and principles to new situations
    • Applies laws and theories to practical situations
    • Solves mathematical problem
    • Constructs charts and graphs
    • Demonstrates correct usage of a methods or procedure
    • Charges, computers, demonstrate, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepare, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses.
  • 26.
    • ANALYSIS
    • Recognize unstated assumptions
    • Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning
    • Distinguishes between facts and inferences
    • Evaluate the relevancy of data
    • Analyzes the organizational structure of a work (art, music, and writing
    • Breaks down diagrams, differentiates, discriminates, distinguishes, infers, outlines, points out, relates, selects, separates, and subdivides.
  • 27.
    • SYNTHESIS
    •  
    • Writes well organized theme
    • Gives well organized speech
    • Writes a creative short story
    • Proposes a plan for an experiment
    • Integrates learning from different areas into a plan for solving a problem
    • Formulates a new scheme for classifying objects (events, ideas).
    • Categories, combines, complies, composes, creates, devices, designs, explains, generates, modifies, organize, plans.
    •  
    •  
    •  
    • Rearranges, reconstructs, relate, recognize, revises, rewrites, summarize, tells, and writes.
  • 28.
    • EVALUATION
    • Judges the logical consistency of written material
    • Judges the adequacy with which conclusions are supported by data
    • Judges the value of work (art, music, writing) by use of internal criteria
    • Judges value of work by use of external standards of excellence
    • Appraise compares, concludes, contrast, criticize, describes, discriminates, explains, justifies, interprets, relates, summarize, and supports.
  • 29. Affective (Attitude)
        • Refers to objectives concerned with:
          • Personal adjustment
          • Social sensitivity
          • Professional responsibility
          • Establishment of habits of conducts
          • Change in interests, attitudes and values and
          • Development of application
  • 30.
    • Illustrative General
    • Instructional Objective :
    • RECEIVING
    • Listens attentively
    • Shows awareness of the importance of learning
    • Shows sensitively to human needs and social problems
    • Accepts differences of race and culture
    • Attends closely to the classroom activities
    • Illustrative Behavioral Terms of Stating Specific Learning Outcomes:
    • Asks, chooses, describes, follows, gives, holds, identifies, locates, names, points to selects, sits, erects, replies, uses.
  • 31.
    • RESPONDING
    • Completes assigned homework
    • Obeys school rules
    • Participates in class discussion
    • Completes laboratory work
    • Volunteers for special tasks
    • Shows interest in the subject
    • Enjoys helping others
    • Answers, assists, complies, conforms, discusses, greets, helps, labels, performs practices, presents, reads, recites, reports, selects, tells, and writes.
  • 32.
    • VALUING
    • Demonstrates belief in democratic process
    • Appreciates good literature
    • Appreciates the role of Science or other subjects in everyday life
    • Shows concern for the welfare of others
    • Demonstrates problem-solving attitude
    • Demonstrates commitment to social environment
    • Completes, discrete, differentiates, explains, follows, forms, initiates, invites, joins, justifies, proposes, reads, reports, selects, shares, studies, works.
  • 33.
    • ORGANIZATION
    • Recognize the need for balance between freedom and responsibility in a democracy
    • Recognize the role of systematic planning in solving problems
    • Accepts responsibility for his own behavior
    • Understands and accepts his own strength and limitation
    • Formulates a life plan in harmony with his abilities interests and beliefs
    • Adheres, alters, arranges, combines, complete, defends, explains, generalizes, identifies, integrates, modifies, orders, organizes, prepares, relates, synthesizes.
  • 34.
    • CHARACTERIZATION BY A VALUE OR VALUE COMPLEZ
    • Displays safety consciousness
    • Demonstrate self-reliance in working independently
    • Practices cooperative in group activities
    • Uses objective approach in problem solving
    • Demonstrates industry, punctuality, and self-discipline
    • Maintains good health and habits
    • Acts, discriminates, displays, influences, listens, modifies, performs, practices, proposes, qualifies, questions, revisers, serves, solves, uses, verifies.
  • 35. Conative (Skills/ Psychomotor)
        • Refers to objectives developing specific motor abilities and general adaptive abilities that may be mental or motor with consideration given to the degree of skills desired as related to the level of experience
  • 36.
    • Illustrative General Instructional objectives :
    • Writes smoothly and legibly
    • Draws accurate reproduction of a picture etc.
    • Sets up laboratory equipment quickly and correctly
    • Types with speed and accuracy
    • Operates with solving machine skillfully
    • Operates a power saw safety
    • Creates new ways of performing an act
  • 37.
    • Illustrative Behavioral Terms of Stating Specific Learning Outcomes:
    • Assembles, builds, calibrates, changes, cleans, composes, connects, constructs, corrects, creates, designs, dismantles, drills, fastens, fixes, follows, grinds, grips, hammers, heats, hooks, identifies, locates, makers, manipulates, mends, mixes, nails, paints, sands, saws, sharpens, sets, suns, sketches, starts, stirs, uses, weighs, wraps.
    •  
    •  
  • 38.  
  • 39. 1.Educational Objectives must be realistic:
      • A. They must be directly related to problems or needs which may be solved or reduced when the learner attains the objectives
      • B. Objectives must be flexible and amendable to change as the need for it arises
      • C. Objectives should be communicated to and accepted by the learner before the beginning of the activities designed to achieve the objectives
  • 40. 2. Educational objectives must be understandable
      • A. Must be coherent, integrated and organized with regard to one another
      • B. Should be stated relative to the taxonomic system for classifying outcome behavior—cognitive, affective, and psychomotor
  • 41. 3. Educational objectives must be measurable
      • A. Should contain references to any performance constraint which may bear upon achievement of the objective. Performance constraints may come in the form of time limitation for performing a task, criteria for quality acceptance, availability of resources, etc.
  • 42. 4. Educational objectives must be behavioral
      • A. Should be specified in terms of the learners’ behavior. Action verbs should be utilized
      • B. Should be classified into cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain
  • 43. 5. Educational objectives must be achievable
      • A. Should be phrased in terms of established principles of learning
      • B. Should be developed with cognizance of the commitment of time, money, space and personnel available
  • 44. Specific target:
      • S —specific
      • M—measurable
      • A—attainable
      • R—realistic
      • T—time bounded
  • 45.  
  • 46. The purpose or aim that you want to achieve or change in behavior on the part of the learner 3 types:
      • 1. Central/ General objectives
      • 2. Contributing/ Specific Objectives
      • 3. Concomitant objectives
  • 47.
      • 1. Central/ General objectives
        • Is the care of the unit
        • It is a big body of knowledge which embraces the whole content of the unit
          • Abilities, knowledge, understanding the whole content of the unit
          • Abilities, knowledge, understanding (cognitive concepts domain)
          • Ex. To gain knowledge and understanding of the nursing process and apply the process effectively to give quality nursing care
  • 48.
      • 2. Contributing/ Specific Objectives
        • Which helps to attain the central objectives
          • Ex. In burn patient
            • Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
            • Prevent infection
            • Draw the anatomy and physiology
            • Identify needs
  • 49.
      • 3. Concomitant objectives
        • That goes hand in hand with the contributory objective
          • Ex.
            • Encourage more fluid intake
            • Measure I & O
            • Solve for IV drops
  • 50.  
  • 51.
    • 1. Methods should be suited to the objectives and the content of the course
      • What constitute appropriate techniques will vary from course to course among units within a course
      • What may be valid from one course may not be valid for another, for a method, in and of itself is neither good nor bad
  • 52.
    • 2. Methods should be adopted to the capacity of the students
      • Methods of teaching should be chosen in relation to the intellectual maturity and the receptiveness of the students
      • The teacher should be flexible in planning and teaching her course. Her plans may prove to be inclusive in which case she should adjust her course outline, rather than to insist in “covering so much” subject matter, at the expense of good learning
  • 53.
    • 3. Methods should be in accord with sound psychological principles
      • Motivation is recognized as one of the most important factors in learning
      • The selection of appropriate teaching methods, adapted to the individual differences in students and skillfully used, will help to make learning more interesting and motivating to students
  • 54.
    • 4 . Method should suit the teacher personally and capitalize on her special assets
      • There are individual differences among teachers just as are among students. Some teachers are reserved some are permissive while others are directive in their relationships with students
  • 55.  
  • 56. PRESENTING STRATEGIES
    • Health education involves the teaching of health related concepts/ issues. Information dissemination takes the form of presenting strategies that are:
  • 57.
    • TEACHER-CENTERED Presenting Strategies:
      • Strategies that are believed to be teacher centered or the teacher performing the role of a facilitator or group leader.
  • 58.
    • a) Lecture/ Lecture Demonstration
      • The lecture is anticipatory teaching.
      • Preparing the lecture is like preparing a lesson plan where the objectives of education and the objectives of lecture clearly in the mind. It must have an outline.
      • Exposition is usually applied in the lecture if the objective is to shed light on issue (e.g. Drug Abuse).
      • It is lecture demonstration when there is a need for laboratory work or practicum.
      • Prepared illustrative devices or visual materials like slides, pictures, graphs, films, and specimen need further and more concrete explanation are very significant.
  • 59.
    • b) Formal Lecture/Lecture Demonstration  
    • When the lecture/lecture demonstration is formal, the Herbatian steps may be applied, as follows:
    • B.1. Preparation
    • B.2. Presentation
    • B.3. Comparison/Abstraction
    • B.4. Generalization
    • B.5. Application
  • 60.
    • Informal Lecture/Lecture Demonstration
    • The following may be used:
    • Introduction to the lecture
    • Teacher makes use of an attention getting advice which will provide the class a clearer picture of the lecture focal point.
    • Presentation of the body of the lecture
    • Significant points are presented first for primary effect followed by the least significant points.
    • Conclusion, Closure, Completion and Culmination
    • A summary or recapitulation of what has been presented may end the lecture.
  • 61.   Improving the Lecture:
    • I. Preparation and Organization
    • Fit the lecture to your audience. Gather some information about your listeners beforehand.
    • Select your topic. You will never be able to cover everything. Focus.
    • Prepare an outline.
    • Organize your points
    • Decide upon minor points.
    • Select examples. Illustrations help/ people to understand and to remember.
    • Present more than one side of an issue.
  • 62.
    • II. Presentation and Clarity
    • Speak clearly and loud enough to be heard.
    • Avoid distracting mannerism.
    • Provide an introduction. Begin with a concise statement, something that will preview the lecture. Attract and focus attention of listeners.
    • Present an outline. Chalkboard, OHP, or handout.
    • Emphasize principles and generalizations.
    • Repeat your points in two or three different ways.
    • Stress important points.
    • Pause. Time to think and write
  • 63.
    • III. Stimulation and Interest
    • Use effective speech techniques.
    • Be enthusiastic.
    • Start with a question, problem or controversy.
    • Be relevant.
    • Use audiovisuals.
    • Use humor.
    • Provide change.
  • 64.
    • IV. Feedback and Interaction
    • Look at your listeners.
    • Solicit questions
    • Use discussion techniques.
    • Use praise plus comments when warranted.
  • 65.
    • c) Forum Lecture (Symposium)
    • It aims to provide the participants useful information about a concept or topic.
    • It is mean to help listeners analyze the problem and not to make conclusion for them.
    • In some instances, it tends to ventilate the relative significance of known solutions to a pressing problem or controversial issues (e.g. Child Labor).
  • 66.
    • Presenting for the forum lecture generally includes the following steps:
        • Planning and deciding the purpose of the activity.
        • Choosing and framing interest-getting topic.
        • Selecting speakers.
        • Selecting a chairman.
        • Briefing /conferencing with the chairman and speakers on the objectives and procedures.
    • Forum Lecture is essentially a public speaking program where the speaker usually processes the necessary competence to be able to deliver uninterrupted speeches on the various aspects of a problem/issue followed by a forum where questions could be raised.
  • 67.
    • d) Panel Discussion
    • A successful panel discussion results from a unified group effort. It is important for every member of the panel to possess a thorough knowledge of all the components of the subjects or topic aside from their prepared “talk or speeches”.
    •  
  • 68.
    • 2. MEDIA CENTERED Presenting Strategies :
    • Media supported lecture, self learning programs, minicourses, video taped instruction, audio taped instruction, and computer assisted instruction can be availed of usually from an institution’s media or audiovisual centers.
    • Self-learning programs come in handy in the forms of media, self-learning kits and programmed instruction in printed forms.
  • 69.
    • a) Programmed Instruction
    • Refers to the process of breaking up academic subjects into stimulus response parts and presenting the facts in a progressive sequential manner.
    • b) Mastery Learning Strategy
    • Is used in programmed instruction. It attempts to accommodate individual differences between learners to promote the fullest development of each learner vis-à-vis a set of instructional objectives.
    • Instruction is individualized within the context of regular group instruction.
  • 70.
    • c) Formative Evaluation
    • Provided in the use of programmed instruction.
    • It is the constant, on going evaluation useful for directing study and teacher practice.
    • It is used to indicate how students are changing with respect to their attainment of the instructional goal.
    • d) Summative Evaluation
    • End of instruction evaluation, given primarily to grade student’s achievement.
    • It provides information how students have changed with respect to the course aim.
    •  
    •  
  • 71.
    • Characteristics of Programmed Instruction:
    • Clearly stated assumptions in living.
    • Explicitly stated objectives,.
    • Logical sequences of small steps.
    • Active responding (interaction between learner and the program).
    • Immediate feedback of information.
    • Individual rate. (Students learn any single material at different rates).
    • Constant evaluation.
  • 72.
    • e) Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
    • Interesting and well designed programs can be motivational and ensure high student time on task.
    • Assessment, diagnosis and remediation can be build into programs to produce mastery learning.
    • It has the potential to adapt every learning sequence to the particular response made by students.
  • 73.
    • 3. CONTENT CENTERED Presenting Strategies:
    • Discussion is be means of exposition, panel, debate, buzz session, dialogues, interview and brainstorming together with the student lecture, independent study and situational analysis fall under content oriented presenting strategies.
  • 74.
    • A) DISCUSSION
    • It is applied to group/classroom activities when the teacher an students work cooperatively as certain topics, issues or problems are considered.
    • 1. Expository  
      • Used when a problem, a situation or incident or concept learning, etc. needs teacher explanation.
      • It means telling, explaining or interrupting and is so similar to demonstration which is a showing or telling a method of teaching.
  • 75.
      • Expository Steps:
    •  
        • Approach – recall of past activities/experiences in relation to the present lesson. This is where the teacher establishes the proper mindset of the students as he presents the salient points of a lesson before further explanation.
        • Presentation – an explanation to be clear and more effective may be aided like analogies, illustrations, diagrams, demonstrations, models, stories, summaries and outlines that may help in setting facts in a more logical and sequential manner.
        • Application - the level of students understanding of the explanation may be evaluated through individualized recitation, testing or creative project and other appropriate activities.
  • 76.
    • 2.  Debate
    • Type of discussion is used when people have different beliefs and positions on the same issue or problem and come up with different conclusions.
    • Affirmative and negative teams are usually formed when having a debate. They speak on alternative basis.
    •  
  • 77.
    • Debate Techniques:
    • Topic Selection – initial phase of preparing for a debate should create students awareness in their choice of a debate topic.
    • Taking a Position – the students take their stand affirmative or negative.
    • Refuting the issue – as debate progresses, debaters should specify the “bones of the skeleton to which it clings”. Bring up most sensible and strongest points to win their arguments.
    • Deciding the issue – sustainable proof/evidence are presented to support the speaker stand.
  • 78.
    • 3. Buzz Session  
    • It is informal in nature.
    • The teacher divides class into small group to make the discussions of familiar topics more opinionated and evaluated.
    • Usefully applied when a lecture is to be followed by an open forum or a questions period.
    • 4. Dialogue
    • Using a dialogue during group discussion reinforces the basic communication skills of the students.  
  • 79.
    • 5 . Interview
    • May be formal or informal.
    • 6. Brainstorming
    • Facilitate student’s creativity and learning leading to the formulation of solutions for different kinds of problems.
  • 80.
    • B) INDEPENDENT STUDY
    • Teaching learning strategy when applied by the teacher as his teaching techniques allows students to process at their own pace.
    • C) STUDENT LECTURETTE (Oral Report )  
    • Teaching learning strategy means of developing and strengthening oral communication skills.
    • D. SITUATION ANALYSIS
    • The “Why,” “What,” “How,” “to what extend” questions lead students to think and discuss about situations in relation to their cause.
    • It aims to show relationships, such as cause and effect.
  • 81. ENABLING STRATEGIES  
    • A continuing process of understanding strategies of health education is significant for every teacher to ensure more effective and productive teaching learning experiences.
  • 82.
    • A) GROUP DYNAMICS
      • Emphasize democracy, free discussion and mutual respect.
      • Every learner is provided the opportunity to express his personal ideas or views in a “no holds barred” manner.
      • Activity is student centered.  
        • Classroom discussion
        • Small group discussion
        • Brainstorming
        • Buzz session
        • Panel discussion
        • Debate
        • Round table conference
  • 83.
    • B) TEAM TEACHING
    • Two or more teachers are involved in working cooperatively with the same group for some specific period of time.
    •   Approaches to Team Teaching:
    • 1. Teacher unit’s specialist
    • Allows teacher to handle certain phases or units of a course based on their expertise.
    • 2. Teacher differentiated role specialist
    • It focuses on the technique of the teacher which is her specialization and not in unit content.
  • 84.
    • C) ROLE PLAYING  
    • Is an impromptu or Acting out problems or situation in a more candid and spontaneous manner by the students who perform their respective roles or assignments quite similar to those real stage / film actors and actresses.
    • D) SOCIODRAMA
    • unrehearsed presentation depicting a scene that involves the solution of a real life problem or situation. Set roles are performed by selecting member of the class.
    • E) CASE STUDIES
    • Are detailed examinations of a single participants, group or phenomenon to understand how complex processes dynamically interact in people’s everyday lives.
  • 85. EXEMPLIFYING STRATEGIES
    • Teaching concepts that re related to health education components and other areas of learning could be understood learned and appreciated when the teacher underscores the significance of exemplifying strategies in their non-verbal and verbal modes.
  • 86.
    • A) NON-VERBAL MODE
      • Modeling patterning approaches apply to those procedures similar to inquiry.
      • A model is needed for instructional purposes. It’s a representation of an object maybe larger or smaller than the real thing. (e.g. Spot Map).
      • A mock up is a working replica, an imitation of the actual thing made from real or synthetic material.
    • B) VERBAL MODE
        • a. Microteaching
          • A would be or beginning health educator or teaches needs to understand the cycle of microteaching to improve his technique.
  • 87.
    • Techniques for Microteaching:  
    • The micro-lesson is usually video-taped. A short lesson may be taught from 5-15 minutes. The teacher is able to obtain supervisory and student feedbacks so that her technique can be improved.
    • Observe the microteaching cycle properly.
    • Remember that given instruction on the teaching skills to be learned or emphasized-basic skills learning should come before the more complex ones.
  • 88.
    • Try the skills with 3-5 students or peers while under observation by instructor / professor of methods.
    • Have a replay of the video taped lesson after the microteaching from the practicing teachers and observers to enable the observer/critic to give their criticisms or suggestions so that the teacher can replant and reach the lesson to another group.
    • Re-teaching will have to be observed, recorded or video taped for review and re-evaluation.
  • 89.
        • b . Simulation
          • Role playing sociodrama and problem solving are the teaching strategies where simulation technique is used.
          • Simulation is imitative nature where students mimic or copy speech or gestures of known personalities with the aim of amusing others.   
  • 90.
    • Principle which serve as guides for the selection and the use of teaching and learning methods:
    • Methods should be suited to the objectives and the amount of the course.
    • Methods should be adapted to the capacity of the student.
    • Lecture can expose large group of students to authorities in order to share first hand experiences.
    • An individual who is testing a nursing theory can share ideas before publication and thus give students the advantages of hearing original ideas.
    • The teacher’s experience, enthusiasm and special way of organizing materials, presented with masterful delivery, can serve as a motivation and inspiring experience for students.
  • 91.  
  • 92.
    • LECTURE
    • Is a teaching procedure consisting of the clarification or the explanation of facts, principles or relationships, which the teacher wishes the class to understand
  • 93. GUIDES WHICH MAYBE HELPFUL TO THE TEACHER IN USINGTHE LECTURE METHOD:
    • Rapport
    • Voice
    • Gestures
    • Eye Contact
    • Lecture outline and Student’s notes
  • 94. ANALYSIS OF FREQUENT CRTICISM OF THE LECTURE METHOD:
    • The lecture is time consuming.
    • The lecture provides little student activity.
    • The lecture requires special skill.
    • Lecture is not readily analyzed and summarized by the students.
    • The lecture is sometimes poorly adapted to the perceptive ability of the students.
    • The lecture is likely to become a sustained dictation exercise.
  • 95. DEMONSTRATION METHOD:
    • ADVANTAGES:
    • It trains the student in the art of careful observation, a quality which is so essential to a good nurse.
    • It activates several senses.
    • It clarifies the underlying principle by demonstrating the “why” of a procedure.
    • It commands interest by use of concrete illustrations.
    • It correlates theory with practice.
  • 96.
    • Laboratory Method - was applied originally to the workroom of the chemist, a place devoted tot eh experimental study of natural science, testing, analyzing and preparing various chemical materials.
    • Utilizes a problem-solving approach to learning that offers students opportunity for supervised, individualized, direct experiences in the testing and application of previously learned theory and principles and the refinement of specific skills or complex abilities.
  • 97. Group Discussion:
    • Purposes:
    • Developing self-directive learning habits through active participation in group activity.
    • Developing attitudes of esprit de corps in arriving at group solutions to problem-solving situations.
    • Exploring and determining a plan of action in solving a professional problem common to the group.
    • Acquiring new knowledge about a given subject.
    • Developing the ability to make personal and social adjustments by learning to accept the ideas and actions of others as contributing members of the group.
    • Developing the art of self-expression by fact-to-face interaction with the group members.
  • 98. The Nursing Care Conference :
    • Has come to be recognized as a pivotal component of the total teaching plan in clinical nursing.
    • Conflict of the group discussion using problem-solving technique to determine ways of providing care for patients to whom students are assigned as part of their clinical nursing experience.
    • There is a need for spontaneity in terms of the presenting problems, which are reality to the patient and to the students and must on the dealt wit as such before learning can occur.
    • This the spot clinical nursing conference nursing conference must be in an environment of infirmity and permissiveness fostering student involvement in problem solving discussion.
  • 99. Nursing team conference :
    • Is used to plan for the daily continuity of nursing care that best meet the patient’s needs.
    • The team leader reviews the patients in terms of current objectives of nursing care and ways of altering the nursing care plan to meet the changing needs of the patient.
  • 100. Nursing care study:
    • Closely aligned with the nursing care conference and nursing clinic.
    • Generally viewed as an individual learning activity rather than a group project.
  • 101.   Care analysis method:
    • Refer to group analysis of a case history for the purpose of developing skills in reflective thinking by defining problems to be solved, discussing relevant data and various sides of the issues, and verifying facts to make judgment.
    • Learning is focused on decision-making regarding concrete problems related to real life situations.
    • Use of this method requires a complexity of thinking and action on the part of the students and the teacher.
    • Students are required to study the case history and do extensive reading as advance preparation for the required analysis and decision making discussion.
  • 102. Case Incident method:
    • This method is emerging as a promising means of inquiry that can be used effectively in undergraduate curricula to help students develop skills in reflective thing leading to decision making.
  • 103.
    • 5 steps procedure:
    • Studying an incident.
    • Gathering and organizing information on the case as whole-aimed with ideas regarding background information about the king of facts needed and to plan constructive action underlying issues.
    • Formulating an issue for decision and action.
    • – Group members use the summary of facts to identify key factors of the incident.
    • Decision and reasoning.
    • reflecting on the case as a whole
  • 104.
    • As used in the teaching of nursing procedures, has several added advantages:
    • It gives the teacher an opportunity to evaluate the student’s knowledge of a procedure, and to determine whether re-teaching is necessary.
    • It points out that the student must have knowledge and must be able to apply it immediately.
    • Return demo by the students under supervision of the teacher provides an opportunity for a well-directed practice before the student must use the procedure on the ward.
  • 105.
    • USES:
    • To demonstrate experiments and the use of experimental equipment I the science laboratory.
    • To demonstrate procedures in the classroom and the ward.
    • to teach the patient a procedure at the bedside in the ward conference.
    • To demonstrate different approaches in establishing rapport with patients, so that the most effective nurse patient relationship may be established.
  • 106. ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD DEMONSTRATION :
    • The demonstrator should understand the entire procedure before attempting to perform for others
    • All equipment should be assembled a pre-tested before demonstration takes place.
    • Advance knowledge. The group as well as the demonstrator should have advance knowledge of the general procedure to be followed in the demo. Its relation to the unit and it s purpose.
    • Positive approach should be used.
    • Everybody should have a good view of the demonstration. 
  • 107.  
  • 108.
    • EVALUATION : it is a process of ascertaining or judging the value of something by careful appraisal.
    • Is a means of helping an individual or a group to become self-directing. It assists in the establishment of definite goals, which in turn serve as criteria for desirable changes.
    • Involves measurement. 
    • Measurement is appraisal in terms of a fixed standard, whereas evaluation implies the use of relative and flexible standards. 
    • Involves a continuous process of collecting, recording,
    • Assembling and interpreting information.
  • 109.
    • Evaluation includes both measurement and appraisal:
    • Measurement is quantitative. It determines how much, how much more, how little, or how much less.
    • Appraisal is concerned with the values derived from the exercise of judgment, insight, and understanding.
    • qualitative
    • gain insight
  • 110. Components of Learning Process
    • Objectives-Both teacher and learner set goals, learning contract, must pass the subject.
    • Diagnostic evaluation- Requisite before learning/ entering the learning situation
    • Instructional process- It includes, diagnostic, formative, summative evaluation
  • 111. Types of Evaluation
    • Formative -on going evaluation
    • Summative - It is used at the completion of a module/ course for assigning a grade
    • End of the instruction evaluation
    • Diagnostic
  • 112. The Purposes of Evaluation
      • To determine the level of knowledge and understanding of the student in her classes at various times during the semester. 
      • To determine the level of the student’s clinical performance at various stages.
      • To become aware of the specific difficulties of individual students, or of the entire class, as a basis for further teaching.
      • To diagnose each student’s strengths and weaknesses and to suggest remedial measures which may be need.
  • 113.
      • To encourage student’s learning by measuring their achievement and informing them of their success.
      • To help students to require the attitude of and skills in, self-evaluation.
      • To help students to become increasingly self-directing in their study.
      • To promote the additional-motivation of examinations that provides opportunity to practice critical thinking, the application of principles, the making of judgments, etc.
  • 114.
      • To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning techniques, of subject content and of instructional media in reducing the goals of the course.
      • To gather information needed for administrative purposes, such as selecting students for honors courses, placement of students for advanced standing, writing recommendations, meeting graduation requirements, etc.
  • 115. General Functions of educational evaluation
    • Evaluation and improvement of the educational program;
    • Achievement of educational goals,
    • Motivation and guidance of the learning of the individual students.
    • Motivation of the teacher to evaluate critically her teaching practices, the student’s learning effectiveness and her own personal goal and
    • Motivation of the faculty to work together for improvement of the curriculum and the educational program as well as of individual courses.
  • 116. Criteria for Selection of Evaluative Devices:
    • 1. Sampling of objectives :
    • All of the objectives in each course should be tested.
    • 2. Sampling of the content
    • Since it is not possible for the teacher to the student on all of the content knowledge that hopefully she has acquire in a course, the teacher must resort to sampling. That is, she has no choice but to select from among all possible items a relative few to include in her test.
  • 117.
    • 3. Validity- one of the most important criteria of a good device.
    • The validity of the test is the degree to which it measures what it is intended to measure. 
    • The degree to which a test measures anything, and measures it accurately is the reliability of the test.
    • What is intended to measure is the criterion for the relevance of the test. 
    • Relevance- must always refer to a specific purpose or objectives and a specific group of students
  • 118.
    • 4. Reliability - The reliability if a test cannot be determined by examining the test. It must be determined by application and by statistical computation.
    • Ex. An examination administered two or more times to the same group of students without any intervening learning should yield approximately identical results. It the test is reliable, each student should make approximately the same score each time.
    • 5. Test Practically
    • The criteria refer to the development of evaluation devices capable of being administered and scored with reasonable case within the limits of the time and of resources imposed by circumstance.
  • 119.
    • 6. Test Usefulness
    • Test may be used for a number of different purposes, besides providing a basis for grades and for measuring teaching and learning effectiveness. They maybe used for pre-teaching and learning effectiveness. They maybe used for pre-teaching, for diagnosis of students. Abilities for measuring speed, power and comprehensiveness and for many other purposes.
    • Each test must be constructed in accordance to its purposes.
  • 120. Commonly Used Evaluative devices
    • 1. Essay Examinations
    • Used to evaluate students achievement
    • Believed to be capable of measuring “higher mental processes involved in selecting and organizing ideas, formulating and supporting hypothesis, logically developing an argument and writing creatively.
    • 2. Objective Examinations
    • Most Commonly used objective tests are:
    • True- False
    • Multiple Choice (including best answer)
    • Completion (sentence)
  • 121.
    • Single answer or simple recall (Enumeration)
    • Matching type and
    • Identification
  • 122.
    • Advantages of the objective examination
    • More reliable than essay or other type, because they are free from personal
    • Opinion in scoring.
    • Writing by the students is reduced to a minimum; consequently, she has the maximum time to think about the answer to the questions.
  • 123.
    • Disadvantages:
      • It provides little or no opportunity for the measurement of the student’s ability to organize and to express her thoughts or to handle situations.
      • More time is required to prepare good objectives then essay questions.
      • There is a tendency to make them more or less factual.
      • In the alternative (T or F) response tests, there is an element of guessing that may disturb the accuracy of results to some extent.
  • 124.
    • Students’ Needs:
    • The identified characteristics and needs of students can be used in developing educational objectives.
    • Needs of students can be identified through:
      • Examination of students’ records
      • Personal interviews with students and parents
      • Teacher observations of students behavior both social and educational
      • Testing devices that will yield data
  • 125.
    • Societal Needs:
    • Needs:
      • Effects of scientific and technological advantages
      • Changing patterns of socioeconomic condition of society
      • Changing patterns of health and resultant health care programs
  • 126.
    • Subject Specialists:
    • Interpretation of information presented by subject specialist for purpose of deriving educational objectives served by a given area is facilitated by seeking the answers to those questions:
        • What major function can’t his subject serve?
        • What specific contribution can make to the total curriculum pattern?
  • 127.
    • Professional Standards :
    • The responsibility for the development and maintenance of minimum standards for competent nursing practice and professional standards.
    • The responsibility for the development and maintenance of minimum standards for competent nursing practice and ethical behavior lies solely with the nursing profession.
    • State laws defining nursing practice provide a foundation for determining the kinds of experiences students need to meet the prescribed MINIMUM standards of competent in nursing practice.
  • 128.
    • Relationships between school of nursing Philosophy and Objectives:
    • Nursing faculty must look at the collection of objectives in terms of comparability with the school’s philosophy, compatibility with one another, ability to accomplish all the objectives within the prescribed the limits and ability to measure the objectives in terms of desired behavioral outcomes.
    • Example: A school that fosters a learning environment conductive to creative thinking and action will want to address themselves to the conditions for learning that foster creativity.
  • 129.
    • Relationships between conditions for Learning and Objectives established by the School of Nursing:
    • Determine the basic of belief of a given school of nursing regarding the condition that are most conductive to learning.
    • The statement of beliefs would attempt to explain how learning occurs, under what conditions, and by what sorts of mechanisms.
  • 130.
    • Hierarchy of Objectives:
    • Statement of objectives describes the expected changes in student behavior as determined by the faculty. The objectives serve as criteria for guiding those activities that contribute to curriculum planning, implementation, and evaluation.
    • Objectives must be expressed in:
          • Behavioral aspects to be developed in the students
          • the content aspect within which specifies the particular
    •