This process gives a basis for formulating outcome or behavioral objectives first for the total curriculum, next for the specific areas, then for the clinical program for each subject area and finally for the specific subject area, then for the clinical program for each subject area and finally for the daily planning of clinical experiences
The hierarchy of objectives must be in harmony as each phase of the total curriculum is designed to bring about the desired behavioral outcome of the students.
Emphasis on the importance of recognizing the individual needs of each students as a person. Meeting these personal needs of students require the inclusion of certain activities in developing educational objectives
The responsibility for the development and maintenance of minimum standards for competent nursing practice and ethical behavior lies solely with the nursing profession
The stated laws defining nursing provided a foundation for determining the kinds of experiences students need to meet the prescribed minimum standards of competence in nursing practice and provide the standards for measuring the quality of the total education program provided by a given school of nursing
With the minimal criteria in mind, the faculty as a school carries the individual and collective professional responsibility for determining the scope of nursing practice, the potential contribution of their graduates to that practice and the level of expectations to be used as standards.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL OF NURSING PHILOSOPHY AND OBJECTIVES:
At this point the school nursing faculty must take a long hard look at the collection of objective in terms of compatibility with the school’s philosophy
Compatibility with one another
Ability to accomplish all of the objectives within the prescribed time limits
Ability to measure objectives in terms of desired behavioral outcomes
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONDITIONS FOR LEARINGIN AND OBJECTIVES ESTABLISHED BY SCHOOL OF NURSING
A second screening of device for classifying and organizing the statement of objectives for the total curriculum is that of determining the beliefs of a given school of nursing, regarding the conditions that are not conducive to learning
Since the educational objective represents the results scheduled by learning, it is obvious that the stated objective must be in accord with the stated conditions for learning as prescribed by the faculty
In general, such statement would attempt to explain how learning occurs, under what conditions, and what sorts of mechanisms
Objective functions as guides to definition of desired behavioral outcomes, selection of content, selection and organization of desirable learning activities, selection of the teaching techniques best suited to meet the desired outcomes, and measurement of the effectiveness of the selected learning activities
To be used efficiently, objectives should be expressed in two-dimensional terms:
The behavioral aspect-to be developed in the students what the student would be able to do
The content aspect- which specifies a particular kind of situation with which the behavioral aspects may be identified:
About which the subject matter area of life experiences in which the behavior is to operate
Ex. Life experiences, nursing care, nursing procedure
Refers to objectives concerned with the acquisition and application of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills involving remembering, reasoning, problem solving, conceptual formation and application, ability to see relationships, understanding of principles, creative thinking, and making value judgment
Refers to objectives developing specific motor abilities and general adaptive abilities that may be mental or motor with consideration given to the degree of skills desired as related to the level of experience
A. Should contain references to any performance constraint which may bear upon achievement of the objective. Performance constraints may come in the form of time limitation for performing a task, criteria for quality acceptance, availability of resources, etc.
2. Methods should be adopted to the capacity of the students
Methods of teaching should be chosen in relation to the intellectual maturity and the receptiveness of the students
The teacher should be flexible in planning and teaching her course. Her plans may prove to be inclusive in which case she should adjust her course outline, rather than to insist in “covering so much” subject matter, at the expense of good learning
Presenting for the forum lecture generally includes the following steps:
Planning and deciding the purpose of the activity.
Choosing and framing interest-getting topic.
Selecting a chairman.
Briefing /conferencing with the chairman and speakers on the objectives and procedures.
Forum Lecture is essentially a public speaking program where the speaker usually processes the necessary competence to be able to deliver uninterrupted speeches on the various aspects of a problem/issue followed by a forum where questions could be raised.
A successful panel discussion results from a unified group effort. It is important for every member of the panel to possess a thorough knowledge of all the components of the subjects or topic aside from their prepared “talk or speeches”.
Media supported lecture, self learning programs, minicourses, video taped instruction, audio taped instruction, and computer assisted instruction can be availed of usually from an institution’s media or audiovisual centers.
Self-learning programs come in handy in the forms of media, self-learning kits and programmed instruction in printed forms.
Discussion is be means of exposition, panel, debate, buzz session, dialogues, interview and brainstorming together with the student lecture, independent study and situational analysis fall under content oriented presenting strategies.
Approach – recall of past activities/experiences in relation to the present lesson. This is where the teacher establishes the proper mindset of the students as he presents the salient points of a lesson before further explanation.
Presentation – an explanation to be clear and more effective may be aided like analogies, illustrations, diagrams, demonstrations, models, stories, summaries and outlines that may help in setting facts in a more logical and sequential manner.
Application - the level of students understanding of the explanation may be evaluated through individualized recitation, testing or creative project and other appropriate activities.
Is an impromptu or Acting out problems or situation in a more candid and spontaneous manner by the students who perform their respective roles or assignments quite similar to those real stage / film actors and actresses.
unrehearsed presentation depicting a scene that involves the solution of a real life problem or situation. Set roles are performed by selecting member of the class.
E) CASE STUDIES
Are detailed examinations of a single participants, group or phenomenon to understand how complex processes dynamically interact in people’s everyday lives.
Teaching concepts that re related to health education components and other areas of learning could be understood learned and appreciated when the teacher underscores the significance of exemplifying strategies in their non-verbal and verbal modes.
Try the skills with 3-5 students or peers while under observation by instructor / professor of methods.
Have a replay of the video taped lesson after the microteaching from the practicing teachers and observers to enable the observer/critic to give their criticisms or suggestions so that the teacher can replant and reach the lesson to another group.
Re-teaching will have to be observed, recorded or video taped for review and re-evaluation.
Laboratory Method - was applied originally to the workroom of the chemist, a place devoted tot eh experimental study of natural science, testing, analyzing and preparing various chemical materials.
Utilizes a problem-solving approach to learning that offers students opportunity for supervised, individualized, direct experiences in the testing and application of previously learned theory and principles and the refinement of specific skills or complex abilities.
Refer to group analysis of a case history for the purpose of developing skills in reflective thinking by defining problems to be solved, discussing relevant data and various sides of the issues, and verifying facts to make judgment.
Learning is focused on decision-making regarding concrete problems related to real life situations.
Use of this method requires a complexity of thinking and action on the part of the students and the teacher.
Students are required to study the case history and do extensive reading as advance preparation for the required analysis and decision making discussion.
To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning techniques, of subject content and of instructional media in reducing the goals of the course.
To gather information needed for administrative purposes, such as selecting students for honors courses, placement of students for advanced standing, writing recommendations, meeting graduation requirements, etc.
Evaluation and improvement of the educational program;
Achievement of educational goals,
Motivation and guidance of the learning of the individual students.
Motivation of the teacher to evaluate critically her teaching practices, the student’s learning effectiveness and her own personal goal and
Motivation of the faculty to work together for improvement of the curriculum and the educational program as well as of individual courses.
Criteria for Selection of Evaluative Devices:
1. Sampling of objectives :
All of the objectives in each course should be tested.
2. Sampling of the content
Since it is not possible for the teacher to the student on all of the content knowledge that hopefully she has acquire in a course, the teacher must resort to sampling. That is, she has no choice but to select from among all possible items a relative few to include in her test.
4. Reliability - The reliability if a test cannot be determined by examining the test. It must be determined by application and by statistical computation.
Ex. An examination administered two or more times to the same group of students without any intervening learning should yield approximately identical results. It the test is reliable, each student should make approximately the same score each time.
5. Test Practically
The criteria refer to the development of evaluation devices capable of being administered and scored with reasonable case within the limits of the time and of resources imposed by circumstance.
Test may be used for a number of different purposes, besides providing a basis for grades and for measuring teaching and learning effectiveness. They maybe used for pre-teaching and learning effectiveness. They maybe used for pre-teaching, for diagnosis of students. Abilities for measuring speed, power and comprehensiveness and for many other purposes.
Each test must be constructed in accordance to its purposes.
Relationships between school of nursing Philosophy and Objectives:
Nursing faculty must look at the collection of objectives in terms of comparability with the school’s philosophy, compatibility with one another, ability to accomplish all the objectives within the prescribed the limits and ability to measure the objectives in terms of desired behavioral outcomes.
Example: A school that fosters a learning environment conductive to creative thinking and action will want to address themselves to the conditions for learning that foster creativity.
Statement of objectives describes the expected changes in student behavior as determined by the faculty. The objectives serve as criteria for guiding those activities that contribute to curriculum planning, implementation, and evaluation.
Objectives must be expressed in:
Behavioral aspects to be developed in the students
the content aspect within which specifies the particular