DSLR Photography - Exposure Controls Part 12 - Week 13

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  • 1. Essential Camera Exposure Controls PART 2 Sandro CucciaSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 2. Creative Control Over Depth-of-FieldSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 3. Aperture The f-Stop f4 = 1:4 = 1/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 4. Aperture The f-Stop f4 = 1:4 = 1/4 f16 = 1:16 = 1/16Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 5. Aperture “Whole” StopsSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 6. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 7. Aperture 1/16 1/4 …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 8. Aperture 1/4 1/16 …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 9. Aperture 1. The SMALLER the f-Stop (number) … the LARGER the ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 10. Aperture 2. Each Time You Move from One Whole f-Stop to the next Whole f-Stop, You Either Halve or Double the Amount of Light Reaching the SensorSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 11. Aperture We “Stop Down” a Stop We “Open Up” a StopSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 12. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 13. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 14. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 15. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 16. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 17. ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 18. Aperture f2.0 f2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f22 “Whole F-Stops”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 19. Aperture f2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 “Whole F-Stops”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 20. Aperture f2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f3.3 f4.8 f6.7 f9.5 f13 “Halves”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 21. Aperture f2.8 f4 f5.6 f8 f11 f16 f3.3 f4.8 f6.7 f9.5 f13 f3.2 f3.5 f4.5 f5.0 f6.3 f7.1 f9.0 f10.0 f12.0 f14.0 “Thirds”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 22. Aperture END WEEK 9 HERE 20100419 A P R EC 1. The Aperture Lets Light Into the Camera 2. Lens Openings Are Referred to as f-STOPS 3. Smaller f-Stop = Larger Aperture Opening 4. Larger f-Stop = Smaller Aperture Opening 5. Think of Pie! 6. OPEN UP 1 Stop = DOUBLE the Light 7. STOP DOWN 1 Stop = HALVE the Light Week 11Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 23. Lens Metrics Fixed Aperture Lenses …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 24. …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 25. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 26. …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 27. 17 - 55mm 1: 2.8 Zoom Fixed Maximum ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 28. …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 29. 50mm 1: 1.4 A “Prime” Lens FAST!!Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 30. A “Prime” Lens 400mm f/2.8 $8899.00 …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 31. Lens Metrics Variable Aperture LensesSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 32. 6.4 - 32mm 1: 3.6 - 4.5Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 33. …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 34. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 35. 70-300mm 1:4.5-5.6 Zoom Variable Maximum ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 36. 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 $199.00Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 37. 17-55mm f/2.8 $1500.00 …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 38. Essential Camera Exposure Controls The Exposure Triangle APERTURE SHUTTER SPEED ISOSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 39. APERTURE ISO …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 40. SHUTTER SPEEDSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 41. A P EC APERTURE Regulates R QUANTITY of Light that Reaches the SensorSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 42. SHUTTER SPEED Regulates the AMOUNT OF TIME that Light is Given to Strike the SensorSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 43. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 44. A “Good Exposure” is a combination of Aperture and Shutter Speed at any given ISO sensitivity.Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 45. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 46. Aperture A P R EC Creative Control Over Depth-of-FieldSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 47. Shutter Speed Creative Control Over MotionSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 48. Leaf or Focal Plane Diaphragm Shutter ShutterSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 49. The Focal Plane ShutterSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 50. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 51. Shutter Speed 1” 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 … FRACTIONS OF A SECOND Slower FasterSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 52. Shutter Speed 4 2 1 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/15 1/30 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500 1/1000 ... “Whole Shutter Speeds” …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 53. Shutter Speed 4 2 1 2 4 8 15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 ... B = BulbSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 54. Shutter Speed 15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 20 45 90 180 350 750 “Halves”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 55. Shutter Speed 15 30 60 125 250 500 1000 20 45 90 180 350 750 17 25 40 50 80 100 160 200 320 400 640 800 “Thirds”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 56. ISO 50 100 200 400 800 1600 64 80 125 160 250 320 500 640 1000 1250 “Thirds”Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 57. Shutter Speed Each Time You Double or Halve Exposure Time, You Either Double or Halve the Amount of Light Entering the CameraSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 58. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 59. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 60. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 61. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 62. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 63. Shutter Speed Is It Moving … or Just Parked?Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 64. Shutter Speed Is It Moving … or Just Parked?Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 65. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 66. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 67. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 68. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 69. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 70. PanningSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 71. PanningSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 72. Panning Panned @ 1/30 secondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 73. Panning 1/30 secondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 74. Panning 1/500 secondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 75. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 76. 1/60 SecondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 77. 1/8 SecondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 78. 1/2 SecondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 79. 1 SecondSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 80. 6 SecondsSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 81. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 82. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 83. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 84. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 85. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 86. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 87. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 88. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 89. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 90. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 91. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 92. APERTURE SHUTTER The SPEED Exposure Triangle ISOSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 93. EXPOSURE P C A The amount of light R E received by the sensor, and is determined by the Aperture and Shutter Speed at any given ISO Sensitivity.Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 94. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE … An Inverse Relationship between Aperture and Shutter Speed Reciprocity …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 95. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE For Any Given Exposure Reported by the Light Meter …Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 96. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE What are some Equivalent Exposures ?Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 97. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE Aperture f/5.6 f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 98. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE 1/8 sec 1/4 secSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 99. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE IF ... f/5.6 NOW, WE WANT TO USE ... f/4 Garden Hose Fire Hose 1/4 sec THEN ... 1/8 secSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 100. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE A Practical Example!Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 101. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE pl e… x am rE Your camera is set to F o ISO 200 This remains constantSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 102. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE Your Exposure Mode is set to Program Mode (P) ISO 200 a.k.a. Programmed Auto, Flexible ProgramSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 103. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE You compose the shot and press the shutter release button half-way ISO 200 to activate the exposure meter (and focus)Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 104. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE The camera’s exposure meter reports an average exposure setting of ISO 200 1/500 sec f/8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 105. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE But … What if … ISO 200 …you wanted a larger aperture ? 1/500 sec f/8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 106. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE What if you wanted f/4 instead of the recommended f/8 ? ISO 200 ? sec f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 107. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE What is the Equivalent Exposure of 1/500 sec @ f/8 if we want to use f/4 instead? ISO 200 ? sec In other words… f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 108. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE What Shutter Speed will produce a properly exposed image taken with ISO 200 an aperture setting of f/4 ? ? sec f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 109. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE f-stop Shutter Speed f/2.8 1/4000 f/4 1/2000 f/5.6 1/1000 @ 200 ISO, Meter wants: f/8 1/500 f/11 1/250 f/16 1/125 f/22 1/60Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 110. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE But wait … … what if you want f/2.8? ISO 200 ? sec f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 111. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE f-stop Shutter Speed f/2.8 1/4000 f/4 1/2000 f/5.6 1/1000 @ 200 ISO, Meter wants: f/8 1/500 f/11 1/250 f/16 1/125 f/22 1/60Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 112. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE But … … Your camera’s fastest shutter speed ISO 200 is 1/2000 sec.!1/4000 sec You get “HI” warnings! f/2.8 Now what?Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 113. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURESunday, December 5, 2010
  • 114. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE The Solution … … Adjust ISO Setting! ISO 100 Use a Lower Sensitivity ISO1/2000 sec f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 115. Shutter Speed 1/60 @ f/22Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 116. EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE f-stop Shutter Speed f/2.8 1/4000 f/4 1/2000 f/5.6 1/1000 f/8 1/500 f/11 1/250 f/16 1/125 @ 200 ISO, Meter wants: f/22 1/60Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 117. 1/2000 @ f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 118. Shutter Speed 1/2000 @ f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 119. Shutter Speed An Exposure Table Camera Meter Indicates Exposure Value (EV) Equivalent Exposures ISO 100Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 120. Shutter SpeedSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 121. Exposure Modes (Nikon) Shooting Modes (Canon)Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 122. Exposure Modes (Nikon) Shooting Modes (Canon) AUTO PROGRAM AE (P) APERTURE PRIORITY AE (Canon: Av, Nikon: A) SHUTTER PRIORITY AE (Canon: Tv, Nikon: S) MANUAL (M)Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 123. AUTOSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 124. PROGRAM MODE (P) The Camera chooses the best combination of Aperture and Shutter Speed based on a number of parameters ISO: You Set APERTURE: Camera Sets SHUTTER SPEED: Camera SetsSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 125. PROGRAM SHIFT MODE (P) Nikon: “Flexible Program Mode” The Camera chooses the best combination of Aperture and Shutter Speed but you can SHIFT the combination if you need to be creative!Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 126. PROGRAM SHIFT MODE (P) Nikon: “Flexible Program Mode” If Camera chooses f/8 at 1/250, you can shift to EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE combinations: f/5.6 at 1/500 f/8 at 1/250 f/11 at 1/125 1 click 1 click f/4 at 1/1000 f/8 at 1/250 f/16 at 1/60 2 clicks 2 clicks P*Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 127. APERTURE PRIORITY (A or Av) YOU set the desired ISO and Aperture, The Camera sets the Shutter Speed accordingly ISO: You Set APERTURE: You Set SHUTTER SPEED: Camera SetsSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 128. SHUTTER PRIORITY (S or Sv) YOU set the desired ISO and Shutter Speed, The Camera sets the Aperture accordingly ISO: You Set APERTURE: Camera Sets SHUTTER SPEED: You SetSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 129. MANUAL (M) YOU set the desired ISO, Aperture, and Shutter Speed The Camera simply provides a meter reading. ISO: You Set APERTURE: You Set SHUTTER SPEED: You SetSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 130. Scenario 1 - Sports Goal: High-Speed for Freezing Motion Use Shutter Priority For this photo: ISO is at 200 Shutter Speed: 1/1000 Sec The Camera Sets Aperture to f/11Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 131. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 132. Scenario 1 - Sports Goal: High-Speed for Freezing Motion Use Shutter Priority For this photo: ISO is at 200 Shutter Speed: 1/1000 Sec The Camera Sets Aperture to f/11 Exposure Compensation: +1 EV Camera keeps 1/1000, changes aperture to f/5.6 [Alternatively: You increase ISO to 400]Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 133. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 134. Scenario 2 - Portraits Goal: An Artistic Narrow D.O.F. Use Aperture Priority For this photo: ISO 200 Aperture: f/4 The Camera Sets Shutter Speed to 1/250 secSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 135. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 136. Scenario 2 - Portraits Goal: An Artistic Narrow D.O.F. Use Aperture Priority For this photo: ISO 200 Aperture: f/4 The Camera Sets Shutter Speed to 1/250 sec If Underexposed: +1 EV Camera keeps f/4, changes shutter speed to 1/125 [Alternatively: Increase ISO to 400]Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 137. Scenario 3 - Panoramas Goal: Stitch together 2 or more photos Use Manual Mode You set ISO, Aperture and Shutter Speed based on camera meter reading END WEEK 10 HERE 20100426Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 138. Want to really geek-out on this stuff? The Ultimate Exposure Computer www.fredparker.com/ultexp1.htmSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 139. CREATIVITY IN EXPOSURESunday, December 5, 2010
  • 140. DEPTH-OF-FIELD APERTURE CAPTURING TIME SHUTTER SPEEDSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 141. DEPTH-OF-FIELD The amount of space in front of and behind the subject of your photograph that appears in focusSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 142. DEPTH-OF-FIELD The amount of space in front of and behind the subject of your photograph that appears in focus The area that appears acceptably sharp in your photographSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 143. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 144. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 145. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 146. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 147. F-Stops for Depth of FieldSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 148. F-Stops for Depth of Field Typical Point-n-Shoot Typical Prosumer CameraSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 149. Depth-of-Field f/2Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 150. Depth-of-Field f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 151. Depth-of-Field f/4Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 152. Depth-of-Field f/5.6Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 153. Depth-of-Field f/8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 154. Depth-of-Field f/11Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 155. Depth-of-Field f/16Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 156. Depth-of-Field f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 157. Depth-of-Field f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 158. Depth-of-Field f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 159. Depth-of-Field f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 160. EXAMPLES for Depth of Field effect a.k.a. Selective FocusSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 161. Seeing As Your Depth of Field Camera Sees f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 162. Seeing As Your Depth of Field Camera Sees f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 163. Seeing As Your Depth of Field Camera Sees f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 164. Seeing As Your Depth of Field Camera Sees f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 165. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 166. Sunday, December 5, 2010
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  • 172. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 173. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 174. Depth-of-Field f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 175. Depth-of-Field f/8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 176. Depth-of-Field f/16Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 177. Depth-of-Field f/16Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 178. Depth-of-Field f/16Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 179. Influencing Depth-of-FieldSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 180. Influencing Depth-of-Field 1. APERTURESunday, December 5, 2010
  • 181. Influencing Depth-of-Field 1. APERTURE Wide-Angle Lens 2. LENS FOCAL LENGTH Telephoto LensSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 182. Depth-of-Field Influencing Depth-of-Field 1. APERTURE 2. LENS FOCAL LENGTH 3. DISTANCE TO SUBJECTSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 183. Depth-of-Field ↓ Aperture Size = ↑ DOF f/2.8Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 184. Depth-of-Field ↓ Aperture Size = ↑ DOF f/5.6Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 185. Depth-of-Field ↓ Aperture Size = ↑ DOF f/11Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 186. Depth-of-Field ↓ Focal Length = ↑ DOF 28mm Wide Angle LensSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 187. Depth-of-Field ↑ Focal Length = ↓ DOF 200mm Telephoto LensSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 188. Depth-of-Field ↑ Distance = ↑ DOF 28mm Lens @ 30 cmSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 189. Depth-of-Field ↑ Distance = ↑ DOF 28mm Lens @ 3 metersSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 190. Achieving Desired Depth-of-Field For Shallow DOF 1. Use a LARGE aperture (eg; f/2.8) 2. Move CLOSER to your subject 3. ZOOM IN and use a LONGER focal lengthSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 191. Achieving Desired Depth-of-Field For Large/Deep DOF 1. Use a SMALL aperture (eg; f/16) 2. Move FURTHER AWAY from your subject 3. ZOOM OUT and use a SHORTER focal lengthSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 192. Previewing & Predicting Depth of FieldSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 193. Automatic Lens Diaphragm > View through maximum aperture > Shoot at “taking” apertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 194. DOF Preview ButtonSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 195. We view image at Maximum ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 196. D.O.F. Preview shows image at the required ApertureSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 197. CREATIVITY IN EXPOSURESunday, December 5, 2010
  • 198. DEPTH-OF-FIELD APERTURE CAPTURING TIME SHUTTER SPEEDSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 199. CAPTURING TIME SHUTTER SPEEDSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 200. Capturing TimeSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 201. Speed or Blur?Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 202. Sunday, December 5, 2010
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  • 215. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 216. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 217. PanningSunday, December 5, 2010
  • 218. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 219. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 220. Sunday, December 5, 2010
  • 221. See You in the Spring!! © Sandro V Cuccia - www.Imagemedic.comSunday, December 5, 2010