Fire Blight-Resistant Apple Rootstocks        Terence Robinson, Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle         Dept. of Horticultu...
Fire Blight Infection ofRootstocks is a Major Problem inthe USA• Infection of susceptible rootstocks resultsin the death o...
Fire Blight Limits Planting of New VarietiesThe high susceptibility of new varietiessuch as Pink Lady and Jazz make itdiff...
The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and Development ProgramCornell University Program 1968-2008   Dr. James Cummins and He...
Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding Team:                                                 Gennaro FazioJames Cummins Terence ...
Breeding                                     New Apple                                     Rootstocks                     ...
Rootstock Evaluations at Geneva:• In the greenhouse    – Fire blight    – Phytophthora    – Wooly apple aphid• In the nurs...
DNA Fingerprinting: The Geneva® rootstocks are a distinct          genetic group from most commercial rootstocks          ...
Map for Marker Assisted Breeding                                                                                          ...
Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size                                                           Seedling...
The Geneva® rootstocksare much more resistant to fire blight than most     other rootstocks.
Rootstock Blight Development after Inoculation of Gala Trees on                      Various Rootstocks
Tolerance of Geneva Rootstocks to Fire Blight Inoculation                 and Natural Infection                     (Norel...
Sensitivity of Various CG Rootstocks to Different Strains of                        Fire Blight                           ...
Summary of Fire Blight Inoculation Trials• G.16, G.41, G.214 and G.202 are highly resistant to field  inoculations of the ...
Performance of McIntosh with Geneva and Supporter Rootstocks after 10 years                               (B&D Plot)
Performance of Golden Delicious with Geneva Rootstocks after 8 years                            (Cahoon Plot)
Performance of Gala with Geneva, Supporter, JM and PiAu Rootstocks after 7 years                                 (Han 15 P...
Trunk X-Sect. Area (cm2)                   10                           20                                      30        ...
Propagation of Geneva® Rootstocks• Several Geneva Rootstocks root poorly in the stoolbed.• We are conducting research to i...
Micropropagation of Geneva® Rootstocks                                              Rooted G.41 plants at NA-PlantsShelves...
Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock from tissue culture plants
Rows of Commercial G.41 rootstocks
Propagation by Cuttings is Expanding                                       Typical Rooting of G.41
Additional Rootstock Studies•   Uptake of mineral nutrients•   Drought tolerance•   Root architecture•   QTL mapping of ro...
Geneva® Rootstock Commercialization in North America• Propagation licenses held by:    Treco    Willow Drive Nursery    Wi...
G.11• Tree size similar to M.9 T337.• Very high yield efficiency• Large fruit size• Tolerant to Replant Disease           ...
G.41• M.9 vigor• Very high yield efficient• Highly productive• Very precocious• Resistant to replant disease• Very cold ha...
G.214   Vigor similar to M.9 Pajam2   Highly yield efficient   Highly productive   Good precocity   Tolerant to repla...
G.935• Vigor intermediate between M.9  Pajam 2 and M.26• Very high yield efficiency• Very cold hardy• Resistant to Replant...
G.202• Size similar to M.26• Precocious, productive• Resistant to woolly apple aphid,  fire blight, and crown rot• Toleran...
G.210• Vigor between M.7 and MM.106• Precocious, productive• Yield efficiency similar or better  than M.9• Resistant to ap...
Geneva Rootstock Liner Production in the USA                             1,200,000                                        ...
Geneva® Rootstock Commercialization in Europe• Propagation licenses held by:    Janssen (Netherlands)    DL (France)    Ca...
Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size                                                           Seedling...
Questions?Fuji/G/41   Fuji/G.214
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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 17-11-2012 6 - terence robinson

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Convegno la mela nel mondo interpoma bz - 17-11-2012 6 - terence robinson

  1. 1. Fire Blight-Resistant Apple Rootstocks Terence Robinson, Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle Dept. of Horticulture, Cornell University Geneva, New York, 14456 USDA-ARS, Plant Genetics Resources Unit, Geneva, NY 14456
  2. 2. Fire Blight Infection ofRootstocks is a Major Problem inthe USA• Infection of susceptible rootstocks resultsin the death of the treeInfection
  3. 3. Fire Blight Limits Planting of New VarietiesThe high susceptibility of new varietiessuch as Pink Lady and Jazz make itdifficult to plant new orchards on M.9rootstock.With a fire blight-resistant rootstock,when the tree is infected the tree survivesand the infected branches can be quicklyre-grown.
  4. 4. The Geneva Apple Rootstock Breeding and Development ProgramCornell University Program 1968-2008 Dr. James Cummins and Herb AldwinckleJoint Program with USDA and Cornell University (1998-present) Dr. Gennaro Fazio, Herb Aldwinckle and Terence RobinsonGoal: Produce a series of rootstocks which are resistant toimportant rootstock diseases and insects that are dwarfing,productive and efficient. • Resistance to fire blight • Resistance to Phytopthora root rot • Resistance to woolly apple aphid • Cold tolerant • Resistant to apple replant disease.
  5. 5. Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding Team: Gennaro FazioJames Cummins Terence Robinson Herb Aldwinckle
  6. 6. Breeding New Apple Rootstocks Seed is harvested (5,000 per year)Crosses are made with beesSeedlings are inoculated with Phytophthoraand Fire blight (95% are killed) Rootstocks are budded and tested in the field
  7. 7. Rootstock Evaluations at Geneva:• In the greenhouse – Fire blight – Phytophthora – Wooly apple aphid• In the nursery – Spines – Rooting• In the orchard – Survival – Tree size – Yield efficiency – Fruit size – Suckering – Tolerance to fire blight – Tolerance to replant disease – Graft union strength
  8. 8. DNA Fingerprinting: The Geneva® rootstocks are a distinct genetic group from most commercial rootstocks G 3007 G .935 M.9 or MM.111 G O 5179 .3 G .202 Malling MM.106 M.2 PiAu5683 G G .30 .11 Alnarp B .9 Cluster M .4 M M .8 .20 M.1 M P.18 PiAu M.13 P.14.7 5111 JM J.9 .10 0.81 0.81 J-TE -C V .1 M .27 J-TE-G G.65 M.11 Pi80 M M.3.10 M? M .9 M .9T337 J.9 V .2 Pi80 M.9T337 514 B .9 PiAu .118 M.26 M ? G.41 M P.1 M.25 M J-TE .8 -G P.14 V.7 M .20 G.16 0.14 V.2 V .1 G.202 B.9 P.1.491 G.41 .11 .30 O.3 G G B JM.10 M .27 G3007 PiAu5111M G.65 W R.5 GG .935 5179 M .10 M .13 M .26III A lnarp -0.52 PiA u514 1.00 1.00 M .1 M .2 M .4 M .11 07 0.47 .4 M .3 G.16 PiA u5683 M .7 -1 9 .1 -1.19 II -0.06 II Novole PiA u5111 P.18 R .5 NAGb Maru a A V .7 -0.59 J-TE-C M .25 M .106 M M .111 M -1.11 -1.86 -1 6 .8 B .491 -1.03 -1.03 B .118 M arub a -0.59 -0.59 N G A A -0.15 -0.15 N ovole 0.29 0.29 0.00 0.21 0.42 0.63 0.83 I I Coefficient Commercial Apple Rootstocks Represent a Very Restricted Gene Pool 0.72
  9. 9. Map for Marker Assisted Breeding More Dwarfing? Precocity?? DWARFING Root Replant Resistance?? Morphology Ottawa 3 X Robusta 5 Pseudotestcross Map LG01 LG02 LG03 LG04 LG05 LG06 LG07 LG08 LG09 LG10 LG11 LG12 LG13 LG14 LG15 LG16 LG17 0.0 E36M50_143 0.0 CN493139 0.0 E38M47_110 0.0 E40M62_163 0.0 E36M47_120 0.0 E33M47_88 0.0 MalRoot175_1_320 0.0 E33M47_86 0.0 CH04c06y_3 0.0 E36M62_400 0.0 E41M48_169 0.0 E40M48_52 0.0 CH05h05 0.0 E37M49_73 0.0 Hi02g06 0.0 E38M47_76 0.0 CH04c06y_2 2.7 E35M50_204 4.1 E35M50_220 5.6 E38M48_131 5.2 CH02d10a 6.8 E38M49_58 6.5 E36M50_223 8.1 CH02c02a_3 8.4 CH03e03 8.2 Malus_4829 CH05g08 8.7 E38M59_311 9.6 Malus_2421 9.3 CH05d04 9.4 10.1 Hi02a07 9.5 E36M62_163 9.6 MS06g03 9.8 CH04h02_1 10.0 E41M48_75 9.7 C11_1400 11.1 CH02c02a_2 10.0 NF2_H11-310 10.7 E33M47_215 11.0 E38M47_96 MalRoot4870_1_360 12.3 AE01_730 13.2 E36M50_147 12.0 CH05b06z_1 12.7 CH02c02a_4 12.7 13.3 CH04h02_3 13.3 Hi07b02_214.1 E36M62_129 14.5 E35M50_213 14.3 CH04e02 13.7 E37M48_134 16.8 CH02b03b16.3 Hi07d08 16.2 E35M48_124 17.0 E40M47_80 17.6 Hi04b12 17.0 CH01f07a 17.5 E41M48_386 AU223486 17.9 E35M47_255 17.8 E36M62_161 E36M50_169 17.7 18.0 E38M59_79 18.7 E38M50_213 19.2 AA11_480 19.1 18.7 E38M49_404 17.2 MS02a01 19.1 MalRoot439_180 20.1 E35M50_163 CH05b06z_3 19.4 CH05c06_1 CH05c06_2 19.9 20.8 NZ28f04 20.1 21.2 Malus_4760 22.2 E33M47_260 22.0 CH03g07 22.4 E35M48_148 23.3 E35M50_162 22.3 E40M60_64 22.9 CH01c06_1 E36M62_71 23.4 E35M50_395 23.3 CH01f03 23.0 25.5 CH05d11 24.5 E38M49_271 23.5 NZ03c01x_1 25.1 GD142 24.8 E38M48_270 26.1 E41M50_103 24.8 E35M47_306 28.1 E38M59_193 26.6 AC17_600 26.4 E36M50_414 27.5 Hi04c10x_2 27.3 NZ03c01x_2 27.0 E38M49_249 27.6 E37M48_467 30.5 E37M48_295 27.6 E35M50_93 28.4 E38M59_359 27.5 GD154_4 27.8 CH04e05 27.8 GD158_1 GD126 29.1 E37M47_271 30.2 E35M48_66 30.7 E38M50_204 29.2 Hi07b02_4 28.5 28.8 E35M47_488 30.0 E40M62_162 29.7 C02-1200 E37M62_192 29.5 NH007b 32.0 E33M47_165 30.4 CH02g09 31.0 E35M48_185 30.2 30.7 Malus_2952 30.9 E38M49_253 30.9 E35M48_149 32.2 E33M48_339 32.7 E40M60_132 33.3 E38M49_131 32.6 E38M48_340 32.9 CH01g12 34.0 E40M47_108 32.8 E40M60_172 37.0 GD147 33.8 CH05g03 34.7 E38M48_71 34.6 CH03a09 34.3 CH03d07 34.1 CH02d08 34.9 GD6_1 34.5 E40M48_56 35.7 E33M47_252 35.3 E41M48_214 34.9 E36M47_218 38.5 GD161 E40M60_131 36.8 E40M48_155 35.7 E40M62_239 36.1 MalRoot452_450 37.7 36.1 E38M50_202 36.0 E38M50_360 37.2 E40M60_223 36.9 NH029a 37.0 E38M59_54 41.7 E35M50_356 37.0 E38M50_417 E40M62_128 37.0 F09_690 E36M47_235 37.9 E37M48_297 38.9 36.7 E40M50_102 38.3 E38M48_296 38.3 E40M62_67 38.1 45.0 NH009b 38.2 E35M47_150 38.7 E38M48_103 38.3 E33M48_196 E36M62_111 40.6 GD162 39.4 GD154_3 37.9 E35M48_165 39.4 D03_900 39.4 CH01f02 39.7 Hi04e04 42.2 39.3 E36M62_150 41.3 E35M50_249 45.3 Hi20b03 E37M47_362 39.8 CH01h0140.8 Hi12c02 41.6 Malus_2604 41.0 E38M47_99 41.0 E40M47_105 40.4 E38M50_133 40.6 43.6 Hi05c06_5 41.7 E37M49_435 42.0 E33M47_102 41.9 E38M48_236 52.4 Hi03e04 43.2 E36M47_105 42.1 CH05d02 41.3 Hi01d05 43.5 E37M47_370 43.7 E40M50_62 43.9 E35M47_125 43.8 E38M50_86 54.1 E35M48_472 43.3 E38M47_421 44.6 E38M48_163 MalRoot452_620 44.3 E38M49_219 43.8 E33M48_281 46.1 E38M47_136 44.8 E38M49_223 45.4 E33M48_153 44.7 57.3 E35M48_405 47.1 CH02c06 47.0 D08_930 47.3 E38M47_225 47.0 E37M62_113 58.0 E37M49_152 47.1 CH02c02a_147.8 KA4B 45.9 GD6_2 47.5 CH05e06 49.3 CH03d10 CH02a04z 48.5 E38M49_265 48.4 E38M50_291 48.9 E38M50_224 59.1 CH03h03z_1 CH01g05 49.4 E35M48_97 47.9 E40M48_84 49.4 Malus_2852 E38M59_282 49.9 50.7 E35M47_252 50.6 E40M48_133 49.9 50.4 E40M48_140 51.1 Hi04c10x_4 51.3 CH03d12 51.3 E41M48_295 59.9 CH05f04 E35M50_215 50.1 CH03d08 51.4 GD96 52.1 E38M50_192 AE01_980 52.0 Hi04c10x_1 52.5 CH04g09y 60.6 CH03a08 E38M48_272 52.9 E35M47_168 53.1 E38M47_223 53.7 E37M62_381 52.7 52.7 CH05e03 53.9 Hi21c08 53.7 E37M62_123 53.5 E38M59_117 53.8 E38M47_162 E40M47_235 53.5 GD153 54.2 E38M50_130 54.4 CH05c07 55.0 E35M48_178 61.2 54.6 E37M49_86 53.7 MalRoot1512_240 55.5 E37M49_416 55.1 E38M49_62 E35M47_200 56.2 CH03h03z_2 55.2 E36M62_197 61.9 56.9 E41M50_316 56.1 E38M59_66 55.2 E35M47_483 57.2 E38M49_178 57.1 Malus_2950_1_2 56.8 Hi05e07 57.4 E38M49_339 62.4 C02-680 57.2 E37M47_369 57.7 E38M50_173 57.4 CH03d01 58.8 E38M50_450 58.9 P15_430 58.1 Hi23g12 E38M48_290 59.0 E33M47_225 58.6 Hi07b02_3 59.2 E36M50_190 59.5 E33M48_175 60.5 E40M62_89 59.5 63.6 E38M50_111 60.4 CH05g07z_2 E35M47_344 60.1 CH05a04 60.9 E40M60_205 61.4 Hi07b02_5 62.2 A09-960 61.6 E38M47_238 60.4 63.9 E35M50_260 61.1 E37M62_198 61.7 Hi07b02_1 62.4 E41M50_268 62.3 E40M62_266 62.6 E36M62_202 62.4 E40M50_61 62.2 K1_G01_190 63.1 E35M48_162 63.5 E38M59_94 64.2 E38M48_372 61.7 E40M47_268 62.2 Hi03c05_2 64.3 E37M48_116 63.6 E35M50_156 62.6 E40M62_100 63.8 CH01b12y E36M50_106 64.6 CH01h02_2 64.6 E35M48_219 E40M62_111 63.1 E38M48_266 64.4 Hi06f0965.1 65.4 E35M48_375 65.3 E37M48_319 66.4 E38M49_98 66.1 E37M48_263 65.9 CH01h02_1 65.2 E35M50_121 65.4 E40M47_221 66.6 E40M60_174 67.6 E35M48_156 67.8 E40M60_220 67.8 E38M50_149 67.3 E38M59_141 Hi01d01 67.2 GD154_2 67.4 E37M48_356 65.6 E38M49_375 68.3 CH03a02 68.9 E36M47_85 68.8 AU223657 70.0 E37M47_80 69.6 E37M47_276 68.5 E38M50_115 69.5 Hi04e05 68.5 69.5 Malus_2950_2_1 70.1 E41M48_117 69.8 NR1_F02_300 65.9 E36M50_293 70.1 E33M48_336 70.1 E38M47_240 71.1 E38M50_271 70.1 E40M47_75 70.7 E33M48_157 MalRoot831_280 71.1 CH04g07 71.0 E40M47_16271.7 E35M47_351 71.5 Hi04c10x_3 70.9 66.7 E38M48_259 73.6 Hi04d02 71.8 E40M48_160 72.2 E41M50_139 E41M50_177 E36M50_74 73.9 Malus_2950_1_6 74.2 E38M47_361 72.9 E40M60_283 73.3 CH02c11 67.4 G17_395 73.0 E36M62_177 73.9 73.6 E38M50_148 73.6 76.5 E37M62_214 73.8 E38M59_82 75.4 E38M47_103 75.0 Malus_2950_1_1 75.2 E33M47_466 73.4 GD158_2 75.0 CH01f12 74.7 Hi06b06 68.5 E41M48_461 74.4 E36M62_185 74.6 E38M47_407 MalRoot439_410 77.4 GD136 77.5 E35M50_164 76.1 75.1 AJ000761 76.3 E36M62_214 75.7 E37M49_203 74.4 CH05d08y_2 70.1 E41M50_274 77.0 E35M50_63 77.5 CH04f1077.7 E35M50_132 79.1 E37M62_206 80.4 E40M48_138 79.0 E37M62_104 77.2 Malus_1521 75.2 E38M59_99 71.8 E35M48_182 78.0 CH05g07z_1 77.9 Hi01c11x 80.7 Hi11a03 79.5 E37M49_181 79.1 E33M48_330 81.2 CH02d11 79.2 E36M50_196 76.0 E38M48_74 71.9 E36M62_154 80.0 Hi01d06y 79.6 Hi05c06_181.1 Hi05c06_3 81.9 E40M60_179 Malus_2950_1_4 80.5 E40M48_101 80.5 E37M49_234 82.0 CH03b10 81.1 78.9 E33M48_56 74.4 MalRoot5915_2_380 81.7 E36M62_16881.4 Hi02c07 83.9 CH03a04 82.4 E37M48_296 82.2 E38M47_232 82.6 E36M62_190 83.1 Hi07e08x 79.1 E38M48_379 83.3 CH02a10 74.8 E35M47_193 82.4 E37M48_309 83.9 D11_850 85.0 E38M48_253 E38M49_138 83.2 NZ02b01 83.9 S_allele84.8 E38M48_435 81.4 E38M47_174 84.8 85.0 E37M48_209 81.3 E35M47_330 84.4 E41M50_98 86.1 CH04e03 83.4 E38M59_15086.4 Hi02b10 84.9 E36M50_323 86.2 E38M48_229 83.3 Hi05c06_4 85.0 E35M47_153 87.7 CH02a08z 84.5 Hi04c05 87.6 E33M48_13288.1 Hi05c06_2 88.6 Malus_5871 86.4 E35M50_279 87.3 E38M49_218 87.1 E35M50_120 89.4 E37M48_97 89.5 E37M47_280 88.6 E36M47_229 85.3 E35M47_356 89.7 CH05d08y_1 89.1 E35M47_459 89.5 E35M48_179 89.7 E38M50_124 91.8 Malus_2950_1_3 86.9 E40M60_130 91.1 E38M49_101 92.0 Malus_3760 91.8 E35M47_368 92.0 Hi04f08 91.0 E38M59_216 Malus_2950_2_2 Malus_2940 89.6 E33M48_184 93.5 CH04c06y_1 93.6 GD154_1 92.3 94.5 E37M47_174 92.9 E38M48_433 Malus_2950_1_5 92.4 G1_F08_415 95.4 CH03c01 94.6 E33M48_360 94.8 E35M50_451 CH02b07 97.5 C02-950 96.8 97.1 NZ03c01x_4 96.9 E36M62_77 97.0 E38M50_279 97.6 E33M48_466 98.2 HGA8bY 97.5 LD_T _500 98.3 Hi05b09 C19_1200 99.0 E36M62_207 97.8 99.4 E38M47_53 100.0 E38M48_172 100.4 Hi02d04 E40M47_82 100.3 E38M50_270 101.1 102.6 NR1_E03_250 102.8 E37M62_361 103.3 E38M49_88 103.3 CH02c06b 102.2 CH01c06_2 103.1 E37M48_71 103.0 E35M48_62 103.6 E40M62_78 105.1 MalRoot452_260 106.4 E37M47_261 106.9 E33M47_126 106.6 E35M50_92 106.8 E37M49_137 108.1 CH04h02_2 108.6 E37M48_180 108.3 CH02c09 E33M47_90 111.4 G09_1400 112.8 E38M59_366 112.1 113.0 E41M50_56 117.1 E36M50_69 118.4 CH04h02_4 117.9 E40M47_73 124.1 E40M48_282 Apple Scab Powdery Mildew Wooly Apple Aphid
  10. 10. Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size Seedling Size M.7-MM106 Size M.26 Size M.9 PAJ 2 M.9 T337M.27 Size G.65 G.11 G.41 G.935 G.202 G.30 G.16 G.214 New G.969 G.210 G.890 Releases G.222 G.213
  11. 11. The Geneva® rootstocksare much more resistant to fire blight than most other rootstocks.
  12. 12. Rootstock Blight Development after Inoculation of Gala Trees on Various Rootstocks
  13. 13. Tolerance of Geneva Rootstocks to Fire Blight Inoculation and Natural Infection (Norelli, et al. 2002) % Tree Death due to Fire BlightRootstock Inoculation Natural InfectionM.26EMLA 100 93M.9 91 95M.7 -- 31MM.111EMLA 8 15G.11 25 25G.16 0 0G.30 0 4G.41 0 0
  14. 14. Sensitivity of Various CG Rootstocks to Different Strains of Fire Blight % of Shoot InfectedRootstock Ea273 EA2002 E4001a E2017pG.11 2 13 11 0G.16 0 33 26 7G.30 1 45 39 5G.41 0 17 5 --G.935 6 56 30 6G.202 31 44 21 19M.7EMLA 12 42 45 11M.9EMLA 91 96 87 --M.26EMLA 83 74 -- --
  15. 15. Summary of Fire Blight Inoculation Trials• G.16, G.41, G.214 and G.202 are highly resistant to field inoculations of the scion with a high dose of fire blight but may not be resistant to all strains of fire blight.• G.11, G.65 and G.935 are moderately resistant to field inoculations of the scion with fire blight.
  16. 16. Performance of McIntosh with Geneva and Supporter Rootstocks after 10 years (B&D Plot)
  17. 17. Performance of Golden Delicious with Geneva Rootstocks after 8 years (Cahoon Plot)
  18. 18. Performance of Gala with Geneva, Supporter, JM and PiAu Rootstocks after 7 years (Han 15 Plot)
  19. 19. Trunk X-Sect. Area (cm2) 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 M27 CG2034 CG4202 JM4 CG4088 CG5757 CG2406 CG2022 CG5030 CG11 M9 CG3007PiAu5111 CG4003 CG6874 CG4214 M26 JM10 CG4004 CG7480 CG4019 CG4049 CG6969 CG5087 CG5202 CG8534 CG4814 JM1 CG4011 CG5935 CG6006 CG5257 MM106 (Crist Bros. Plot) CG5012 M7 CG6210 CG6879 CG8189 PiAu514 PiAu568 CG6976 B118 CG5890 CG6001 CG6253 CG4013 JTEB JM2 CG4213 JTEC CG5463 CG6589 Performance of Fuji with 53 Rootstocks after 4 years CG6024 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Yield Efficiency (kg/cm2TCA)
  20. 20. Propagation of Geneva® Rootstocks• Several Geneva Rootstocks root poorly in the stoolbed.• We are conducting research to improve stoolbed performance - Regalis treatment of stoolbed - Tissue Culture to induce greater juvenility in stoolbed - Tissue Culture plants as rootstocks
  21. 21. Micropropagation of Geneva® Rootstocks Rooted G.41 plants at NA-PlantsShelves full of G.41 plantlets atNorth American Plants ProTree Nursery Micropropagation Lab - Rooted acclimated plants G.935
  22. 22. Rooting of G.41 Apple Rootstock from tissue culture plants
  23. 23. Rows of Commercial G.41 rootstocks
  24. 24. Propagation by Cuttings is Expanding Typical Rooting of G.41
  25. 25. Additional Rootstock Studies• Uptake of mineral nutrients• Drought tolerance• Root architecture• QTL mapping of root characteristics
  26. 26. Geneva® Rootstock Commercialization in North America• Propagation licenses held by: Treco Willow Drive Nursery Willamette Nursery Copenhaven Mori Nursery (Canada) Consortio Sacramento (Mexico) Others in the future• Rootstocks being commercialized G.11 G.41 G.214 G.935 G.202 G.30 G.969
  27. 27. G.11• Tree size similar to M.9 T337.• Very high yield efficiency• Large fruit size• Tolerant to Replant Disease Geneva® 11 M9-T337• Resistant to Fire Blight but not immune.• Resistant to Crown Rot• Susceptible to Wooly Apple Aphid• Good rooting in stoolbed Courtesy of Stefano Musacchi
  28. 28. G.41• M.9 vigor• Very high yield efficient• Highly productive• Very precocious• Resistant to replant disease• Very cold hardy• Does well in warmer climates (Mexico)• Highly Resistant to Fire Blight and Crown Rot and Wooly Apple Aphid• Requires tissue culture mother plants for stoolbed G.41 Fuji CIV 2008
  29. 29. G.214 Vigor similar to M.9 Pajam2 Highly yield efficient Highly productive Good precocity Tolerant to replant disease Resistant to Fire Blight, Crown Rot and Wooly Apple Aphid Very good stool bed propagation No commercial production of liners. G.214 Washington
  30. 30. G.935• Vigor intermediate between M.9 Pajam 2 and M.26• Very high yield efficiency• Very cold hardy• Resistant to Replant Disease• Resistant to Fire Blight and Crown Rot• Susceptible to Wooly Apple Aphid
  31. 31. G.202• Size similar to M.26• Precocious, productive• Resistant to woolly apple aphid, fire blight, and crown rot• Tolerant to apple replant disease• Good choice for weak growing cultivars like Honeycrisp• Moderate rooting in stoolbed G.202 New Zealand
  32. 32. G.210• Vigor between M.7 and MM.106• Precocious, productive• Yield efficiency similar or better than M.9• Resistant to apple replant disease.• Resistance to woolly apple aphid, fire blight, and crown rot.• Good rooting in stoolbed few spines.• Mostly for Organic Production G.210
  33. 33. Geneva Rootstock Liner Production in the USA 1,200,000 G.11 G.41 1,000,000Liners Production (number) G.935 G.16 800,000 G.30 G.202 Total CG 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 2009 2010 2011 2012
  34. 34. Geneva® Rootstock Commercialization in Europe• Propagation licenses held by: Janssen (Netherlands) DL (France) Castang (France) CIV (Italy) Others in the future• Rootstocks being commercialized G.11 G.41 G.214 G.935 (Weak varieties) G.202 (Weak varieties or Organic) G.210 (Organic)• About 20,000 liners of G.11 and G.41 in 2012
  35. 35. Released Geneva® Apple Rootstocks Arranged by Tree Size Seedling Size M.7-MM106 Size M.26 Size M.9 PAJ 2 M.9 T337M.27 Size G.65 G.11 G.41 G.935 G.202 G.30 G.16 G.214 New G.969 G.210 G.890 Releases G.222 G.213
  36. 36. Questions?Fuji/G/41 Fuji/G.214

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